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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0163, 1945-12-26.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0520

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 520 Date: 26 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Public Servants and Formation of Unions - Provincial Newspaper Kochi Shimbun (Kochi) - 15 Dec 45. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
The statement of Mr. NARAHASHI, president of the Cabinet Bureau for Legislation, in regard to the relationship of labor unions to the public service regulations of bureaucrats, is worthy of attention. It was in reply to an interpellation at the session of the Labor Union Bill Committee 13 December in the House of Representatives. He explained that recognition of the right of combination aims at helping to raise the position of labor unions and gives them an equal opportunity to contribute to the development of our economy and culture.
However, public service regulations of bureaucrats implies the duty of subjection to the command of the ruler. Naturally, formation of public servants' unions is greatly contradictory to accepted ideas. Nevertheless, the president of the Committee stated that the Government will attempt to compose these two opposed factions. It is certain that his statement implies a sweeping change in bureaucracy, influenced to a great extent by the democratic tendency of the times.
He stressed that the existing public service regulations of bureaucrats should be drastically reformed, because, as he openly said, "The idea of the Emperor's supreme rule brought a common evil to our bureaucrats and was met with antipathy by our people." Such boldness in a statement is unprecendented among our authorities.
At any rate it must be recognized that such an idea has led the bureaucrats to their autocratic and obdurate tendency. Every set of instructions for the bureaucrats has stressed that they should be officers for the Emperor. It was nothing more than demanding of them a vague mental attitude in dealing with their business. Of course, it was admirable for the President to assert this to be the common evil of our bureaucrats, However, in a closer analysis, it becomes evident that the reason the president made such a statement is because our social situation is being drastically changed. Our nation now desires voluntary changes along democratic lines, not compulsory changes by order of Allied Headquarters.
Aside from the question as to what will become of the Emperor System, bureaucrats should never be merely subjects of the Emperor. They must return to their original position, which that of servants of the people. To "return to the position of public servants" in the President's words was quite significant because it is the true function of bureaucrats to be public servants. They are servants not of the Government nor of the Emperor. They should bear in mind

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 163 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
their true mission and realize it in practical administration.
The formation of a union of bureaucrats can be said to be a natural movement. Properly speaking, there should never be discrimination between mental and physical labor. In the present situation, in making a distinction based on merits of labor, working with a hammer is far more important than working with a pen. It is safe to conclude that the Government bureaucrats and other official employees will be secondary to manual laborers, if only from the viewpoint of the need for industrial development of our Nation.
Bureaucrats must not hesitate in forming their unions. However, our bureaucrats should also reform their ways. If any item of the public service regulations happens to hinder the formation of their unions, its amendment or abolition should be made at once. This is the trend of the times. They can become servants of the Nation and the people only in this way.
ITEM 2 Re-opening of the Horse Races - Provincial Newspaper Kobe Shimbun (Kobe) - 16 Dec 45. Translator: K. Ketel.
The Bank of JAPAN held 30,200,000,000 yen of bonds at the end of the war. Some people fancy that this will increase to 58,000,000,000 yen by the end of this year. Reasons for such an increase are said to be first, the sneaking spirit of the wealthier classes to conceal their assets in order to escape from the property tax, and their irregular buying to change money into goods. There has also been a brisk withdrawal of deposits from the bank because of the sudden rise in prices and the higher cost of living. Of course, the Government is attempting to avoid a reduction in purchasing power and the subsequent result malignant inflation, but at present no successful results can be foreseen.
From our viewpoint the re-opening of horse racing would be a good measure to avoid the reduction of purchasing power and to put to use some of this idle wealth. We want to show how the race administration could be improved and how horse racing could be developed soundly.
If we look at the total of money pools before the war we can observe that the total amount has risen from season to season until it reached more than 100 million yen. The Government and the jockey club were allotted 18 million yen. This was used to reduce the floating funds, rather than the amount of treasury bonds.
The difficulty of immediate re-establishment of horse racing lies in the problem of traffic facilities and in the question of how soon the eleven race courses which were used for military purposes during the war can be made ready. Nevertheless, my opinion is that half of them can be made ready by April of next year. However, the management which was strongly bureaucratic must be democratized. After all, a reform of racing regulations would be inevitable, but, on the other hand, it is necessary to observe the existing regulations for the time being. Because of traffic congestion, we may hold only six rather than eleven races per day. In order to avoid the rush hour the races would have to end at 1500.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 163 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
The object of this discourse is to reform the management by releasing it from control of the Agriculture Ministry, to dissolve the JAPNAN Jockey Club, and to create an independent corporative organization. Other points must be considered too, such as abolition of the regulation which limits winnings to 200 yen, gaining a greater number of fans or easing the means of making money. There are many problems left regarding the purchase price of horses, improvement of labor conditions of jockeys, grooms, and other employes but it cannot be discussed now. We feel that JAPAN must make efforts to raise her level of living standards to equal that of AMERICA and of various European countries. Finally, we want to add that the passionate desire of all fans is to make it possible to send out Japanese racers to international competitions.
ITEM 3 Abolition of the Amusement Tax - Tokyo Shimbun - 24 Dec 45. Translator: Y. [illegible]. Suzuki.
We doubt the necessity for high amusement taxes still in effect on tickets to theaters, Theaters were opened to promote the culture of new JAPAN and are not luxuries. Examining the 50,000,000 yen gross income from box office sales, we insist that this amusement tax is not necessary. Not only that but it will deal a fatal blow to the Japanese theater, so that it will be overwhelmed by foreign plays and movies. Hence, we Japanese theatrical students, who love and want to protect the Japanese drama, ask the Government to abolish immediately this unfair tax. (Letter from TAKAHASHI, Sadao.)
An Answer from the Finance Department
The tariff on amusements is rather high, but, essentially, the admission fees (without tax) were comparatively small and, above all, with the cessation of high class entertainment, the high admission fees were lowered. Among the present taxes, 90 per cent are under on one yen. The 1945 tax potential of first class establishments (e.g. movie and drama theaters) was 156,105,000 yen. Of this sum, 144,922,000 yen consisted of less than one yen admissions. Therefore, keeping in mind the people's purchasing power, we consider the tax is no obstruction against the level of JAPAN's culture. Rather, it helps to absorb the public purchasing power for movies and dramas. Nevertheless, for future increases in the admission fee, we have to think of the various changes in conditions and study thoroughly alterations in the revision of the tariff. (From the 2d section of the Revenue Bureau.)
ITEM 4 A Problem in Education - Yomiuri-Hochi - 24 Dec 45. Translator: [illegible].
Full Translation:
The tendency throughout the Country is the prolongation of winter school holidays. This is undeniably due to the suspension of the use of season tickets by the students and shortages of food and fuel. The bewilderment of the students, when they were directed to change from a militaristic type of education to a democratic only can be overcome by their devotion to study. This conversion is, therefore, greatly impeded by existing unfavorable conditions.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 163 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
Five-year courses in middle schools and three-year courses in high schools are to be restored with the liberation of students from the militarists' yoke. These difficult conditions stand in the way of its realization. Even the present course is endangered by these obstacles.
Complaints have been heard from instructors that the students' academic level, due to wartime education standards, has dropped considerably; university and college students have only middle school levels of knowledge, and middle school students are on a higher primary school course level. A remedy can be found in an extended course. Despite the possible success in overcoming these obstacles, another one is inevitable.
Salaried classes are inevitably threatened by accelerating inflation, and ex-soldiers and Government officials are to have lowered standards of living due to the suspension of their pensions. Even the absentee landowners and the big landlords will be compelled to give up education for their sons and daughters. Attesting to this fact, the students of ex-soldiers' families in TOKYO are giving up or changing their schools.
This tendency is sure to be prevalent. Higher school education has in the past been for the wealthy class. From now on it will continue to be a privilege for a limited class. Democratization of education is in reality running in reverse.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0163, 1945-12-26.
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