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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0159, 1945-12-26.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0510

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 510 Date: 26 Dec. 1945


ITEM 1 Significance of General Election-Provincial Newspaper, Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (Nagano)-21 December 1945. Translator: Ebiike, Yuri.
Perhaps nothing today is attracting as much of the attention of the world as the forthcoming general election, because by this election the world is going to jedge whether this defeated and still feudalistic JAPAN may be revived as a democratic and peaceful nation, and whether a new JAPAN thus renovated may find a place in the family of nations as an independent state. Thus, it may not be an exageration to say that JAPAN's destiny will be decided by the forthcoming general election, the outcome of which will prove to the world that she is shaking off her old feudalistic views, eliminating her reactionary elements, and indicating that her people have the ability and culture to reconstruct a truly democratic country.
Suppose that in the future the Diet becomes the political center of JAPAN, and that parliamentary government means nothing but party polities, which is considered the best policy of democracy at present. It is best for us to elect trustworthy persons and have them represent our will and reflect it in state [illegible]rs. The people were disgusted with party governments in the past and are not much interested in the present political parties, either. But we believe that it is our duty, in this now epoch, to develop political parties high standards by improving, or rejecting them, with our newly-gained political power. Whether we should attach more importance to the candidate or the party is an old but still pertinent question. Indeed the selection of a person is important, but more important is the selection of a party, that is, the selection of the policies of the party. Therefore, each party should clarify its own social[illegible]political policies, Which the people should examine throughly before going to the polls.
JAPAN's political reconstruction may be said to begin with this forthcoming general election. In it the will of all Japanese people will be [illegible]pressed. And it is on each vote that the fortunes of the new JAPAN rest.
ITEM 2 Obstacles to [illegible]armer Delivering of Rice-Asahi Shimbun-23 December 1945. Translator: E. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
The farmers reluctance to deliver their rice was shown in the fact that the delivery of rice on 10 December and amounted to only 2,930,000 koku, or 11 percent of the total allotment of 27 million koku. This figure is almost half of that of a year ago when 23.5 percent of the total allotment, had been delivered. Beside the bad weather and delayed decision on rice allotment, the re[illegible]of farmers to deliver their rice seem to be a fundamental cause of this poor planning. Just now the Nation faces starvation since the shortage of rice is anticipated to amount to 2,500,000 koku by next February. The Government is now struggling to

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 15[illegible](Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
promote greater delivery [illegible]taking such measures as convoking the heads of the food stuff Management Offices or encouraging farmers by investigations of ministers themselves. Will such measures however, be effective enough to cope with the critical situation? In view of the importance of the subject, policy must be revised at once by investigation into the cause of the farmers ri[illegible]. We feel that the fundamental cause of the poor results of rice delivery lies in the farmers anxiety and distrust of Government policies.
For example, no increase in munition production was shown in write, when farmers were [illegible]liged to bear heavy burdens under the slogan "For Victory". In spite of their efforts, no reward was given to them. Now they cannot acquire necessities without being required to bring their own rice in exchange. They are dissatisfied at this. The farms' reluctance to deliver their rice [illegible]more deliberate when they saw that there were scandals a[illegible]e t rice ow[illegible]ed by the Army at the end of war. Refugees from cities, who could of food shortage, were know to have considerable supplies of polished rice.
The local body or corporation which takes charge of the delivery of rice, estimates the [illegible]this year at 50 percent, While last year it was as high as 70 or 80 percent of the allotment. Thus, special measures to make farmers fulfill their allotment are necessary. Now we shall see the results of the measures taken this year to improve the offering. The special distribution of wine, fertilizer and other items to farmers seems to be less effective for this purpose, since farmers do not want these necessities so long as they can offer their rice in exchange. And the individual system of allotment which was adopted in place of community allotment, produced bad results. [illegible]individual farmer was freed from his neighbors' compulsion to make delivery. The Government almost ignored the rise in the purchas[illegible]or rice one, consuquently, voices were heard that the prices of stable food should be free, from control, in accordance with the rice in other agricultural products which were freed from price control.
The abolition of price control on [illegible]les caused a sudden rise in prices, and a vast amount of money flowed into agriculture villages. It is evicent that all farmers, including wretched peasants who have acquired much money, will be encouraged in idle habits and become reluctant to supply their rice. The Government's measure, which "makes an honest man a fool", has become the farmers object of [illegible]ntment.
Last year, a community which fulfilled its own allotment [illegible]ordered to supplement the deficiency of another community. Because of this bitter experience it is natural that this year simple farmers will become reluctant to deliver their rice as ordered. Such foolish measures should never be adopted.
Last, some people sold the[illegible]r cro[illegible]s in the black market, taking advantage of the delay in deciding the amount of the allotment. Honest farmers, who had been awaiting the allotment anouncement were provoked to [illegible]er. The Government should decide the amount of allotment in the early period of the year and make farmers responsible for their supply of Staple foods.
We feel keenly that on agricultural village the Government policy should be more simple and fair, and that flexibility and courage and courage necessary to carry out the policy. [illegible]cannot be understood by farmers. The present system on [illegible]or allotments is too complicated. Officers or [illegible]and unfair and take advantage of the farmers' ignorance of the complicated system.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 159 (Continued)
Item 2 (Continued)
It will be impossible to repeat past methods, which forced farmers to deliver their rice, and the matter cannot be solved even if they were reported. Removal of obstacles to delivery of rice is the pending problem, though the import of food as the final task.
We conclude that the evasive [illegible]of the Government, and the inactivity of its branch offices, are the biggest obstacles. The Government should behave itself in such a way as to restore the farmers confidence. The attitude of relying on the patriotism of farmers shows the Government's intention to blame its o[illegible]n inefficiency on farmers, and the ministers visits to villages in nothing but feudal paternalism r[illegible]ted in the mind of these ministers. The Government should recognize that farmers today are not so feudalistically minded as to give their rice willingly to a minister. There is other way to solve this question except by the exercise of power administration so as not to an honest man a fool. The inactivity or local offices should be stimulate to [illegible]store flexibility and courage. It is desirous for the local offices to take the lead in solving the difficult problems confronting our Nation's very existence.
ITEM 3 The Issue of Bank Notes By the Japan Bank Exceeds 50 Billion Yen-The [illegible]2. December 1945. Translator: K. Gonji
Full Translation
The total issue or proper currency by the Bank of JAPAN has at last exceeded 50 billion yen. This means an increase so of 20 bilion yen. Compare[illegible]d with that at the war's end, and about 40 times the amount of the period proceeding the [illegible]churian Incident. The present economic condition of JAPAN resembles that of GERMANY in the early part of 1922, when she was r[illegible]sning into the catastrophe of inflation, which came on her at last in 1923, during the occupation of the [illegible]. In JAPAN, also, we will have to meet the heavy burdon of r[illegible]tions next year. No one is cert in that this burden does not mean the s[illegible]e for us it did during the occupation of the [illegible]for [illegible].
The recent remarkable increase of bank notes is said to be due to the [illegible]wal of deposits to exchange for commodities. This is what is called conversion into material value.
The currency now in circulation is over 100 billion yen. During the war years, it could not be exchanged for commodities on account of the shortage of goods. After the war commodities increased in the markets, and the value of currency is falling rapidly. In addition, a heavy property tax will be imposed upon it. Under such conditions, it is quite natural that the circulation currency should begin to be exchanged for [illegible]dities.
The Government alone is blame. It failed to foresee this eventuality and it still looks on inactively. Once this exchange movement takes place, inflation is accelerated. The more the value of money falls the more commodity prices rise. It co[illegible]pels the people to exchange their money for commodities for the purpose of security. This is what is called destructive circulation, in which cause produces effect, effect produces cause, and inflation. The inflation, which has reached a certain stage, is in[illegible]vitably [illegible]ied by this destructive circulation the forced into [illegible]strophe.
[illegible]let us consider the problems from the side of circulation speed of currency. When the value of [illegible]is falling, to keep money, for [illegible]time means a loss for its [illegible]. Thus, 10 yen [illegible]dily circulated is equivalent to 50 or 100 [illegible]. [illegible], when current circulates [illegible]inflation takes [illegible], even if the total [illegible]of currency does not increase.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 159 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The evil effect inflation presents itself in the fielf of public finance also. The greater part of revenue is obtained from taxes. Taxes are gathered ever. [illegible]lf year or quarter year for use in the next period. If the value of money falls in that period the revenue cannot cover the expenditure. The Government must supplement the deficit by issuing paper currency. This leads to the acceleration of inflation. As we have mentioned above, [illegible]resent economic condition resembles that of GERMANY in 1922. Yet, the Government has not taken any drastic measures against it. Our economics are now on the brink of catostro[illegible].
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0159, 1945-12-26.
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