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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0147, 1945-12-23.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0477

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 477 DATE 23 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Clarify Plans for Reconstruction Provincial Newspaper CHUGOKU SHIMBUM (HIROSHIMA) 16 Dec 45 Translator: SUZUKI Y. A.
Ideas for reconstructing our [illegible]city are all different according to each citizens individual desires. On the whole, there is increasing activity, especially noticeable in the growing prosperity of restaurants and beverage house. But these profits are all bootleg and only temporary; hence they are much too unsteady a criterion with which to gauge any reconstruction progress. To show enthusiasm in city planning, public institution, banks, and corporations should return to the city's center or to the place where they were formerly located, regardless of the reconstruction plan of the Government, prefecture, or city. But even this is difficult because all proposed schemes are up in the air as at present. It is regrettable that discussions in the Diet, did not mention reconstructs on planning. We have no idea of how many years it will take to rebild the city.
The HIROSHIMA Prefectual Assembly, now in session, has not yet brought up the city reconstruction problem, although three days have passed already. Also, the budget concerning reconstruction, which has to be submitted in next spring's supplement, has not yet appeared.
The first KUPE City committee meeting was aduourned because only three people attended. In HIROSEIMA a reconstruction committee, centered around the town president, was organized, and a war sufferers committee was formed by volunteers who have lost their patience because of the authorities! slowness. They have begun to act eagerly and are shouldering many responsibilities. The housing problem is the most important matter that we are now facing. A plan must be provided immediately. The Housing Committee closed its second period for house building requests on 15 December, with the number of house applicants amounting to 6,500. Yet houses cannot be built because of the transportation shortage and because the materials have not yet been received.
Temporary buildings, built by individual citizens, have been limited to 15 tsubo of land and must be 5 meters from the streets. So, though the people have the enthusiasm they are restricted. Therefore, the Government must formulate a strong reconstruction plan, so that the citizens will take action as individuals in Co-operation with the housing committees which would handle the basic planning in accord with the Government's directives.
In HIROSHIMA all the important offices, such as the prefectual office and other public corporations, are still located outside the city, so it is most difficult to secure co-operation in construction. All this must be provided for under the pending plan of the Government.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 147 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
The attitude of General MacARTHUR'S Headquarters was very good. Officials there showed enthusiasm towards the HIROSHIMA Reconstruction Petition Committee by asking for concrete plans for the necessary es[illegible]enses, and an explanation of the source of funds for payment of labor. This was greatly different from the treatment of the Finance and Home Ministries and the Reconstruction Bureau. We regret to say it, but the Finance Ministry is more helpful than the Home Ministry. So we must depend upon the farmer in the reconstruction of HIROSHIMA.
The Ken seers to have some plans, and the city is ready to carry out and co-operate with the scheme. In this case the way to spur the Government to action is not by the plan itself, but by the enthusiasm of the Ken and city authorities. Mayors and committee chairmen can be most helpful in organizing the reconstruction of the city. After all, HIROSHIMA suffered the worst damage during the war. If only the Government would clarify its reconstruction measures the citizens would arise and would have hope in a new life.
ITEM 2 Taxation on farmers Provincial Newspaper SHINANO MAINICHI SHIMBUN (NAGANO) 17 Dec 45 Translator: ISHIBASHI B.
Full Translation:
Supreme Headquarters proclaimed that the war profit tax and property tax had been established for the purpose of teaching the Japanese people the principle that war does not pay. It goes without saying that this principle not only applies to the great financial combines and capitalists but also to the people in general. No matter whether it is new tax or not, taxation and tax-collection should be completely worked out among the lower as well as the upper classes. There are many persons who, far from payment of taxes, are living hopelessly from day to day crying with hunger and shivering from cold. On the other [illegible]hand, it is a glaring fact that not a few persons are inwardly feeling that war is profitable, farmers not excepted. There may be, in our cities, many rich men and merchants who are attempting to conceal their money for fear of the coming issuance of new yen. They are constantly alarmed by the illusion of devaluation of the yen. At any rate, farmers must be considered on a different basis from the fixed salary earning class in the cities, because of the fact that they are profiting as well as suffering from the present inflation. It is estimated that the internal revenue for the next year, in the ordinary annual budget, will be reduced 5700 million yen, because of war damages etc. To make up this deficit, the classified income taxes and indirect tax are scheduled to be additionally levied. This means that the government intends to relatively increase the burden of the country and farm villages. Thus, farmers are asked to shoulder a mere heavy tax burden than ever before, as well as contribute to the food supply. The taxation on farmers must be executed, properly and appropriately. This is needed all the more, because of the fact that the farmers real income, particularly in the present days, is difficult to clarify. Of course, black market prices may be unreasonably high from the consumers viewpoint, there may be many farmers who manage to produce a food surplus for sale by means of reducing homo consumption, spending this profit for the pruchase of necessary commodities on the black market.
When the taxation is roughly worked out without recognition of the real state of affairs, the black market prices are bound to soar as a reaction, and the purchasing power of the people will be unable to keep abreast.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 147 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
And still, taxation calls for drastic measures as well as appropriate ones. For instance, the government should be prepared to prevent evasion of taxes. This is not only true of farm villages but also one of the most important problems throughout our country, faced with a large scale increase of taxation. An opinion is supported by a certain group that, in collecting the war profit and property taxes, responsibility of revenue officers should become greater, thus resulting in empowering superintendents of revenue offices to directly exercise fines or corporal punishment. Of course, stern penal regulations are necessary, however, what is particularly needed in farm villages, is to ask for cooperation on the par of the tax-payers. It is needless to say that the farmers know better than the revenue officers the economic condition of others in their villages. And this is a feature of our farm villages.
There has been in the past a committee for research in incomes. It seems necessary to clean up the elements representative of the rich and to raise its character. On the other hand, an increase of the staff of revenue officers should be adopted. We are anxious about tax evasion fearing not only the amount of evaded taxes but that the impression that "an honest man makes a fool of himself," resulting from lack of confidence of farmers in politics, will drive them to an easy life of corruption and stimulate vicious inflation all the more. This is why we demand of the government appropriate and drastic execution of taxation.
ITEM 3 The Separation of SHINTO from the State - Provincial Newspaper Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (NAGANO) - 19 Dec 45 - Translator: SATO K.
Full Translation:
On December 15 the Supreme Headquarters ordered the Japanese government to separate SHINTO from the state, to eliminate the militaristic, and the excessively nationalistic system of thought and from the doctrines of SHINTO, and remove SHINTO from the schools. The greater East Asia War, opened under the command of the Emperor "holding the grace of heaven" and protected by "the divine spirit of His Imperial Ancestors" and ended in crushing defeat. As a result our "firm conviction of ultimate victory" collapsed, and JAPAN'S unfounded sense of "superiority" faded into the air. This proved, that it is necessary for us to consider, to investigate and analyze, of our own accord, the past [illegible]mysterious nationality of our country. The recent order indicates ex[illegible]licityly the concrete method of the solution.
By the separation of SHINTO from the state, all the following should be prohibited: Financial support by the central or local administrations; participation in rites and festivals of the shrine by a person in his capacity as a government or public official; compulsory belief in the doctorine of SHINTO by the nation through education or in any other form. However that this does not mean the denial of SHINTO itself as a religion, is plain the Headquarters declared. In consequence, the freedom of religious belief is maintained to the last. This is the very point that the masses, influenced most strongly by SHINTO, are apt to misunderstand. It is necessary to make them realize thoroughly that the state does not exercise any compulsion or support, and that the people will not be interfered with in their faiths, be these faiths OISES[illegible]or KOMP[illegible]RASAMA.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 147 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
There is a fear of confusion on those points because SHINTO and the state had been fused to a great extent into one body in the sentiment of the nation.
Therefore it should return to its inherent nature as a religion. The direct combination of god and men is a time-honored principle, as seen in our tutalary god of the palace. It has been part of our social life. The criticism of re[illegible]gion must begin, by transfering it to the hands of the people themselves from its position as militaristic and aggressive instrument.
In comparison with the reigious significance mentioned above, more important is the religion's relation to the state, and scientific investigation of Japanese History is in order.
Not only were myth and history confused, but and attempt to dissolve the confusion was a national taboo. The last order issued by the Allied Forces is nothing but an administrative measures to meet the situation. Whereas, by taking this step, the banishment of myth means not only the freedom of research, or theory, but is actually the fundamental transformation of the idea of nationality taught in history in the primary schools, and the higher schools. In this respect lies its significance.
Lastly, though it is a matter of course, the result cannot but affect the Emperor System. The Emperor, being human as well as a god, is the sovereign of the state and at the same time the Father of SHINTO. We are no longer allowed to keep this relation in a mystic veil. We must realize that "the protection and maintenance of nationality" would be extremely futile if we continued it with such a negative attitude.
ITEM 4 Regulation of Travel - Tokyo Shimbun - 22 Dec 45 Translator[illegible]NOBUNAGA K.
Full Translation:
I got off the train at the SHIMBASHI Station to take the car. Then several railway workers inspected my ticket downstairs. When I was going to pass they stopped me and said in loud voices, that I must pay a fee on the grounds that my ticket was ineffective at stations past SHINAGAWA. I bought a ticket for TOKYO, but I was given a ticket for SHINAGAWA. Therefore I was not wrong. I went to the office and the official and the official there said that it was unnecessary to pay. Then I returned downstairs and explained. They cried loudly, "If that's the case it is all right". It is very unpleasant to be treated as a criminal I thought that it was a mevenent for otter transportation that caused the special inspection. It is all t[illegible]disorganized; some officials recognize inspection illegal, while others call it legal. It is far from pleasant for passengers to be treated as thieves. They should apologize for the confusion when they are given explanations by passengers. The officials never apologize to passengers and act very haughty in the name of the railway authority.
Passengers also have many things to consider. It is unfortunate that they cannot observe the regulation of getting on at the right side satisfactorily. However the railway officals forget to consider their own defects and made regulations only for passengers. Consequently realization of pleasant travel cannot be expected.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0147, 1945-12-23.
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