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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0139, 1945-12-22.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0455

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 455 Date: 22 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 139

ITEM 1 Remedial Measures for Reparations - Hyuga Nichinichi (Miyazaki) - 14 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Full Translation:
It has been made clear by various declarations since the POTSDAM Declaration that the primary purpose of the U1TITED STATES reparations policy toward JAPAN is to eradicate every vestige of militarism from its life so that JAPAN can never provoke any war of militaristic aggression. However the concern of the Japanese people is concentrated in concrete data.
The statement of Ambassador Edwin W. PAULEY released by Public Relations officer 7 December has given us a reply to this point. According to this statement, the production of JAPAN's heavy industry will be reduced to the same level as before she invaded MANCHURIA in 1931, and the standard of living of the Japanese people after the fulfillment of the reparations shall be no higher than that of countries against whom the Japanese aggressed. The statement also notes that a way must be opened for the development, in the future, of a self respecting JAPAN, economically stable, and committed politically, without reservations, to a democratic way of life. This is the aim of the UNITED STATES’ policy expressed many times since the POTSDAM Declaration, and it is reiterated in the Ambassador's statement.
We would unhesitatingly accept this data as retribution that is just and proper for defeated JAPAN. However, the actual effect of the reparations to Japanese industry and finance will be heavy. The capacity to manufacture machine tools is to be reduced to half. The main portion of the equipment of shipyards and light metal factories is to be removed. All steel working capacity is to be reduced to 2,500,000 tons per year, and the limitations on one chemical industry is also to be tightened. Moreover, the fibre industry is being considered in another way.
It is clear that JAPAN, having lost all outside territory, has no means to revive economically except by increasing her productive capacity by industrial efficiency. Accordingly it is not easy to work out economic reconstruction during and after the period when the reparations program is carried out. We would, of course, never hesitate to bear the reparations as one of our obligations to the world. However, we cannot but emphasize that in order not to let the payment of reparations and its effect stray from the fundamental intention of the reparations policy, there are many things which the Japanese Government should do.
First, the Japanese Government should show a concrete plan with minute and adequate materials for controlling Japanese industry, especially heavy industry. The reconstruction of the industry and economy of

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 139 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
JAPAN is her own business and duty. If she does not make efforts for reconstruction along the lines directed by Supreme Headquarters, it will result in delay in proper reconstruction and show a lack of cooperation with the Allies. It would indicate great idleness by the administrators. Second, it is important to open a way to let the people positively exercise their knowledge and ability to increase industrial effeciency. Third, the Government should map out plans to prevent the inflation which is feared as a result of the compensation to be paid for the industrial equipment removed as reparations. For example, there may be a plan to pay the compensation with the interest on bonds issued for this purpose.
We have not yet been informed that the Government has made enough preparation and effort to meet this objective. We are therefore pointing it out here, to keep strict watch over the Government's slow action. In addition, we advise every one of the nine hundred thousand people in this prefecture to be aware of his responsibility and make efforts to raise again the standard of living of the Japanese which has fallen below that of the Chinese and all races to the south.
ITEM 2 Save the Salaried men - Kohoku Shinpo (Sendai) - l6 Dec Translator: Y. A. Suzuki.
Summary:
Freedom of selling prevented the people from going into the country for supplementary food and also stopped black market prices from rising It Improved the livelihood of most of the people and helped them to be better fed. The recent decrease in bank deposits, withdrawal of savings, and expenditure of salaries by demobilized and unemployed people brought on hardship to many families. This is especially true of those who live only on a salary. They have no fixed fortune, and are unable to negotiate loans so that they are continually pressed for money to buy enough food from the black market. Elementary school teachers and lower public officials are representative of the Japanese low-salaried people. They have other troubles, too with mental anguish due to the social credits and positions which must be maintained. Therefore the Government must promptly think of their security.
During the war everything, even the public peace was executed in the name of the people. All food was controlled and, above all, the Government firmly maintained the price of rice, the staple food at double its former price. A radical critism was made on this score a short time ago and with a view toward stabilizing the people's living, a re-examination was requested.
At the present, salaried men are the ones who really need help therefore, the Government should add reasonable profits to production costs, and at the same time should increase family allowances. The main object of livelihood protection must be clarified. In this regard there are assertions advocating the amendment of price measures, reversing the price of rice to its former cost, and establishing a true price system with the price of rice as the balances.
During the war, production measures and livelihood security measures were applied by a single controlled economy, but now this has been demonstrated to be a failure, and since shipping, rationing and official price systems are beginning to decline, measures to protect the lower classes should first be considered and put into practice as an absolute social necessity. Measures to supply consumers with low price staple

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EDITORIAL SEREIS: 139 (Continued)

food fall wintin the catagory of social necessity. Hitherto the controlled economy proponents erred in confusing controlled economy and social necessity. For a democratic industry it is necessary to establish a social economy. Although there are clear evidences which show the faults in controlled economy, the Government is still adhering to it. This has only caused great difficulty to salaried people.
The Government must start to rescue the unemployed and stabilize the salaried men simply from the standpoint of necessity. At the same time it must abolish the old Japanese remedy. The problem of individual security must be solved under the tutelage of democratic industry and moreover it must be begun immediately, and courageously.
ITEM 3 Study on Agriculture in Proper Scale - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Nichi (Miyazaki) - 16 Dec 45. Translator: K. Nobunaga.
Summary:
As a result of a directive of Supreme Headquarters, the Diet is obliged to pass the Farm Land Reform Bill. However, the bill is not so remarkably progressive that agriculture in JAPAPN will rapidly develope by itself. Once we pointed out that farm land reformation was of significance and should be distinguished from the creation of the so-called "Small-holders' plan" which failed. In order for this to succeed, the scale of agricultural management should be considered. We fear that many small holders who have even a small influence on prosperity would appear, and hamper the development of agriculture in JAPAN. Nevertheless, the Government has not settled the problem in this respect.
On the 9th, MATSUMURE Agriculture Minister, made a statement that the cultivated area per farmer was insufficient but it could be supplemented by diversified management, electrification of agriculture and the development of industry. However, there is too much management on a small scale which causes the lack of systematic farming. This is a reason why agriculture on a larger scale is requested. This problem should not be studied only from the standpoint of the private economy of the farmer, or of the economy of consumers, but should be solved from the point of view of the development of Japanese agriculture.
The economy of JAPAN after defeat is based on agriculture. Therefore, by abondoning agriculture on a small scale, and by resorting to scientific development of productive power, our agriculture can progress. Of course this means the enlargement of management. But this should not be made by the farmer, but should be carried out from the standpoint of social economy. Consequently it does not matter if the area under cultivation is uniformly limited to one or two cho of land. It should be decided, instead, with relation to the productive power of the land.
ITEM 4 Mr. Ishida and Representatives - Tokyo Shimbun - 20 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Wada.
Full Translation:
JIJIKO UTA (TU: Songs on current topics) performed by Mr. ISHIDA give us more sympathy and delight than the addresses of representatives in the Diet which apparently are very credible but actually are nothing more than mud slinging contests. The representatives should always act in common with the Nation. Nevertheless, they are now standing on inaccessible heights. On the contrary, Mr. ISHIDA is so close to
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 139 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
us as not to be called "Mister" in many cases. We can not understand why representatives dread his MONKIBUSHI (TN: Happy-go-lucky tunes) so much. We are rather surprised at the narrow-mindness of Mr. TSURUMI that he should net angry at such a trifling matter. But that as it may, the Nation is supporting Mr. ISHIDA. Female voters who are interested in politics will not vote for the Progressive Party no matter how many platforms it may uphold. The representatives should impress on their minds that the nation is lingering on the verge of death from hunger and cold. The letter of Mr. ISHIDA to this column said for us what we wished to say.
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