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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0127, 1945-12-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0415

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 415 Date: 21 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 127

ITEM 1 (l) War Responsibilities (2) Impudent Appearance - Mainichi Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: Y. A. Suzuki.
Summary:
What makes me so indignant these days is to see many people who instigated the war, now deceiving the people by saying we are completely liberal and democratic. I am astounded when I think of their past deeds. For example, there is noted liberal well known to all readers. We know how he praised the Tri-Partite Part and how he flattered the Military Officials. At present, he is acting like a liberal god. He praised MATSUOKA, Yoyu, as Great MATSUOKA and acclaimed the southward advance. It is a tragi-comedy, for although he acquitted himself, the militarists took no heed of him. These people should be denounced more than the war suspects, as they are evil social deceivers.
(From a democratic man).
Impudent Appearance.
There are[illegible]some who may not be arrested [illegible]r recognized for war responsibilities, but upon reflecting, they night find that they have some matters over which to be concerned. There are others who do not realize it themselves, but who have things for which they should be arrested. These men, who h[illegible]ld public official and social position, should resign as soon as possible. All of them should be confined as an apology to the people. It is an absolute disgrace for them to think war responsibility is other men's concern. Not only do they remain in their official positions but they appear impudently in Democratic agitations. If we were to leave them alone, it would be to our disgrace; so precautions must be taken against the chronic moral apathy which degrades us in our public institutions.
(From Mr. SHIRAYAMA).
ITEM 2 The system of printing candidates' names on ballots - Asahi-Shimbun - 17 Dec. 45 Translator: S. Inoue.
Summary:
The new election law has missed another important revision; that is, the continuance of the self-signature system for voting. As [illegible]idaid from olden times, one who can read as many as 1,000 words can write exactly only 100 words out of 1,000. Thus reading is easier and more efficient than writing. Voters may easily read the names of candidates printed on a ballot paper and check the name of a candidate or the names of candidates according to the plural or single balloting system. This was adopted in B[illegible]ITAIN some twenty years ago at the general election held in 1921. In the previous revision of the election law, printing on ballots was prop[illegible]ed, only to be rejected by Mr. USHIO, then home minister on the pretext of a shortage in printing facilities. What is wrong

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 127 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
with the idea of having printed ballots in election?
(Sent by Mr. YOSHIDA, Jun).
ITEM 3 Abolition of farming control - Mainich-Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Full Translation:
Now that farming control has been lifted, farmers are allowed to cultivate whatever crops they wish in the next year. However it would be rather premature to expect that simply because[illegible], the bonds are lifted, a remarkable supply of various products, except staple foods, will appear in the next year, just as it proned a mistake to believe that these restrictions would be faithfully obeyed by farmers. During the war, farmers were ordered to produce staple foods instead of fruits. It was learned then that all the lands suitable for fruit-growing are not the lands suitable for staple foods production. This lesson needs to be learned again today. All the fields which have long been used for staple food production, are not the most productine orchards. At the black market, pears or apples are sold at ten Yen for three. A lot of mandarin oranges are sold at the same price. Of course these prices are exorbitant, but vegetables are hardly any cheaper. Aside from the fixed prices at which farmers are asked to sell to the government, market prices of staple foods such as rice, barley, sweet potatoes, etc., are surely paying profits to farmers. Prices are so fluctuating today that we are not sure as to how long the present exorbita[illegible]prices will continue. Accordingly, it would be an adventure if farmers should plan for the future only at the basis of the present prices. According to the principle of laissez fair economy, goods with the strongest demands sell at the highest price. In this sense, production of staple foods is most lucrative. However, the government's control of staple foods will not be abolished in the near future. Subsequently, it is possible that staple foods producers may gain less profit than producers of vegetables or fruits.
Under this situation, what kinds of crops will farmers produce? There are many farmers who will never quit rice production, no matter how profitable vegetable production may be. We like to believe that there must exist some farmers who are firmly determined to continue rice production in order to surmount the pressing food crisis.
ITEM 4 Is Democracy Frail? - Yomiuri-Hochi Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full Translation:
In this session of the Diet, discussions on democracy are very sluggish. At present, a great democratic revolution is developing in the[illegible]ation. So, we have properly expected that democracy would be discussed sincerely. But the present Diet that had co-operated with the war effort has not only failed to point the direction for a great revolution, but discussions have become more sluggish as days go by. Further, from the viewpoint of "The frailty of democracy" as debated by Mr. HATOYAMA, President of the Japanese Liberal Party, there can be seen a mood that is
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 127 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
fearfully waiting for a reaction which may occur shortly. There is a large part of the nation that is thinking of this[illegible].
Is democracy really frail? Shall it "be destroyed in combatting autocracy? Generally speaking, democracy which points the direction of progress for mankind, expressing the will of the people or uniting the strength of the majority, cannot be weaker than Nazism, Fascism or militarism which represents only the will of a part or a sect of the nation that rows against the stream. In spite of this, it is a fact that democracy was destroyed by despotism in the Axis and a few other countries. Why so? In every country, there had existed peculiar causes, but the greatest causes common to those countries are the following three:
Our former democracy was not a truly developed one. Its strength was still immature and frail among the people. Moreover, the structure of a country, under the rule of feudalism, had not been democratized and a reactionary power, taking advantage of a national influence, seized the opportunity under the Circumstances easily. For instance, in JAPAN, there had only existed a weak democratic power, as described in the Potsdam Declaration. A true democracy had not been established as the ruling power. In the structure of the country, JAPAN was full of feudal institutions, and she could not be called a democratic country, since the sovereignty of the people was not established. So, immature democracy, was easily destroyed. Accordingly, our duty now is not to hesitate for fear of reaction, but to democratize actively the structure of the country in order to raise the democratic power of the people. In proportion to the degree of the feudal remnants being swept from the structure, democracy will grow stronger and reactionary power will assuredly not gain strength.
Our former democracy was liable to be confined only within politics or political rights. In economy, the people had mistaken a free economy or a laissez faire policy for an economic principle of democracy. But we cannot live with politics of political right alone. In a true democracy, such principles of democracy as the dignity of an individual, liberty and equality should also be realized in economy. The dignity of an individual should be assured economically and the lowest level of living should be maintained for an individual. After such blind moves of capitalism that bring panics and unemployment can be controlled by human power, there will be born a true freedom. When an individual's economic activities are not ruled by blind necessity and the power of a society is led by wisdom, one will truly be set free. Wealth and economic elements should be equalized in proportion to the ability of the individual. In order to supply this demand, the principles of revolutionary social policy or systematic control economy should be taken up. When national life is stabilized or bettered in such a way, democracy in politics will be assured and will gain power. Since the Japanese were thrown into a panic in 1927, they have not been guaranteed their living. For it, the militarists and officials, saying that they would stabilize national life, propagandized the imperialistic aggressive policy for acquiring foreign territories or resources and took hold of the people. In this way they succeeded in breaking down democratic power in order to set up despotism and wage an aggressive war. Such an error must not be

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 127 (Continued)

ITEM 4 (Continued)

repeated again.

The third, the democratic elements had been disunited when the anti-democratic reaction began to raise its head. The enemy had united a great strength, hut several democratic factures did not establish a united front in order to fight the common foe. The victory of Nazism lay here. Just so was JAPAN. The anti-democratic enemy, after being beaten, lost its vital strength and was weakened, but its power of life is still left. We must be established a united front by our several democratic elements. This is developing throughout the world and the Japanese also must do their best to develop it.
When the three above-mentioned causes of defeat are taken away, democracy will become an unequalled force. Democracy is not in the least frail. It is stronger than anything else. Trust in democracy without hesitation, this is the greatest guarantee against an autocratic reaction.
ITEM 5 Time is Money! - Asahi Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
The Diet has prolonged, the session for four more days because no bills were decided in the past eighteen days. We had been quite uneasy about this. Therefore, we pointed out that the Diet should not have wasted precious time for unreasonable discussion on the Diet members' responsibility for the war. We know that our apprehensions were realized.
The government and the people must keep in mind that defeated JAPAN can be saved only from the present difficult situation by severe management by the Allied Powers. There is no time lose.
As to the problem of the revision of the Japanese Constitution which was a matter of course since the moment of JAPAN's unconditional surrender on 2 September, both the Lord Keepers of the Privy Seal and the Government have repeatedly wasted their energies. To make matters worse, it seems that they are waiting for the scorn of the nation and the encouragement of the Allied Powers.
It is thought that the government considers it proper that the constitutional revision bill should be proposed to the extraordinary session of the Diet after the reformation of the upper house and the reelection of the members of the lower house. But, if only a "house", as State Minister MATSUMOTO called it, is built, the "furniture" can wait. Proof is better than argument. However, notwithstanding that it is an urgent problem, even the "ground" is not leveled yet.
If the present extraordinary session of the Diet had been called the Constitutional Revision Diet, it would have been small wonder to the nation.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0127, 1945-12-21.
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