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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0126, 1945-12-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0413

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 413 Date: 21 Dec 1945

EDITORIAL SERIES: 126

ITEM 1 Promotion of the will to live-Provincial Newspaper- Hyuga Nishinichi Shimbun (Miyasaki) - 12 Decemeber 1945. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Summary:
Today, politics have been returned to the hands of the people, and woman suffrage is making headway. Meanwhile, the Japanese people at large are showing a lamentable indifference to politics. This is admittedly due to lack of political knowledge on the part of the people. Education in the future however is expected to lift the intellectual level of the people and to educate them politically.
"All mortals are living but very few know what life is", said Goethe, Actually, it is very difficult for us to know what life is. This is why the majority are unable to manage their lives. Each individual attempts to improve himself only when he becomes conscious of his own life. At that time, they take the initiative in improving their positions, and consequently, ideologies become established in every stratum of society. But as long as the intellectual level of the people is low, they are not conscious of their positions.
Environment regulates our lives, but it is also necessary for us to try to improve our environment. Sense is understood as the ability to extract ourselves from environment. In short to sense the relation between us and our environment. In short, sense is our ability to become conscious of ourselves. Only when our lives are based upon this realization can we find our way in the right direction. The first requisite for the people is to take initiative, that is, to be conscious of themselves. In other words, this must be the starting point for constructing a democratic JAPAN.
At present liberalism and democracy are stressed throughout the country, but there will be no sound growth of democracy among the masses, unless each individual becomes conscious of his own life and objectives and has an active will and ambitious hope for democracy.
ITEM 2 Reform of Farm-Land System and the Nation's Welfare-Provincial Newspaper Bocho-Shimbun (Yamaguchi)-13 December 1945. Translator; Ketei, Karl.
Full Translation:
Since it has been promised to bring to democracy, to JAPAN, the public has paid much attention to the problem of tenant, farming, and the Farm Land Reform Bill, which has been considered by the Diet has aroused great interest throughout the entire nation. When discussion about this Bill got nowhere in the Diet session, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers issued, on 9 December on important directive concerning the farm land system. Being fully aware of their responsibility the government and the Diet instantly altered their attitude towards this problem to

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 126 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
anticipate its accomplishment. The public already fancied that the Farm Land Regulation Amendment Bill, the must important item to be discussed in the Diet, would net be approve after all , and that it would be. left pending However, the Government has been ordered to formulate a reform plan of the farm land system by 15 March and to present it to the Supreme Command for approval. Therefore hardly any spare time will be left to prepare for the next session of the Diet after the general election. The Allied Powers say that this reform of the farm land system is in accord, with the POTSDAM Declaration and that it will help to improve JAPAN's chances of becoming democratic.
We want to comment of the main points of the government! proposal for improving the farm land system. The main points discussed in the Bill were the enlargement of landowners estates from three chobu to five chobu, purchase prices, and the payment of farm rent. The Japanese limit on land ownership stands now at about three acres, but at present more that half of all the farmers possess less than one and a half acres. Compared with the average farms of AMERICA and GREAT BRITAIN (AMERICA with 47 acres and ENGLAND) with 10 acres per farm house) the Japanese average farm is very small. Even KOREA, with her 3.6 acres outclasses:
Relative to the new farm land allotment, YAMAGUCHI - Gun favors land possession at one to two chobu, that is to say, about four acres per farm House for the central part of the country. However, the Government proposes to raise this to five chobu. However, by decreasing the nationwide possession from 200 chobu to I50 chobu there arose the fact that one million tenants will be uprooted. If we view the real agriculture condition, landowners who possess rice fields larger than five chobu are very few and therefore there are not many fields which the Government could divide among temants. Then, the transfer of fields within a village would be very small and the hope that tenant farming would change into yeomanry would be very remote.
On the other hand, if only fields larger than threchobu were to be transfered the chance of changing tenant farming into small holdings would be greater and it is thought that a great deal of the farmers would agree with this plan. But, if possession remain at the limit of three chobu, the tenant nolders would be defined within that limit and there would be a groundclass apprepension that making a living only from farming would become too difficult and that the farmers must take another job at the same time.
Besides this item, problems discussed in the Diet were those of purchase prices and of payment of farm rent. However, as too many detailed points must be examined and discussed in this regard there is not space to cover these matters. Even if this Bill is approved by the Diet exactly as the Government has proposed it, we need not fear that the farmers would feel disaster. The most important thing is that a just share for the farmers should be given and that the nation's welfare does not drop as a result.
ITEM 3 The Emperor and the people-Yomiuri Hochi-17 December 1945. Translator B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
I got married at the age of 22, and am an ordinary housewife with no political knowledge. Therefore I cannot criticize too legically the present situation of our society. However, it is a glaring fact that but society is facing a [illegible]drastic change. Day and night I cannot but worry as a member of the rank and file of the people about some means of fiting over this situation. Those who are working honestly are at
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 126 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
the point of collapse. Yet, there are many people who are more miserable than we and whose relief is a burning necessity. I wonder at the fact that no one has acted in this direction. I, and those who are uneasy about their future, are forced to live in hunger and Cold and curse the present society. The rich are becoming richer and clever scoundrels are fishing in troubled waters. Those, who are suffering are all innocent, while almost all of those, who are living in comfort, are wicked.
I Wonder how such a society can be called "the blessed nationality", in the words of the Education. Minister, MAEDA. This is to my mind I can only oppose with strong hatred the defense of nationalism and of the Emperor System stressed by the privileged classes, politicians, including all the present State ministers and well known persons who are getting their livelihood at the sacrifice of the general public, usurping political power and deceiving the people.
It is needless for us a continue the Emperor System which is useful not for us but for them alone. I see the true character of the So-called social order, in which the relation is of lord and retainer and one of parental affection. Is there any parental affection between the Emperor who possess immense wealth and we, who barely supporting our lives oil sweet potatoes? No matter now gracious the Emperor may be, it is proverbially said that the Emperor end the people are of the family. I have never received his favor.
In the Diet, the state ministers proclaimed that the Emperor is not responsible for the war. Nevertheless, I cannot but suspect that the Emperor lacks intergrity, if he remains silent regarding this question. It would be natural were the Emperor merely the chief of the dignitaries who are trying with desperate efforts to cover up their own mistakes. Powers, I cannot but ask whether His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor, is concerned about the spirits of the unknown soldiers who were forced to sacrifice themselves in the name of Emperor.
In fact, the Imperial proclamation of war was declared in the name of the Emperor. It 's certain that those soldiers who died in battle, did not cry in chair last moments such meaningless words as "long live TOJO millatrist clique". One of my elder brothers offered his services as a soldier burning with the spirit of loyalty end patriotism, He went to the battle fields of NEW GUINEA, where the war had already turned against the Japanese, and left his wife and family behind, It is reported that he died in July, last year, If it is true, his departed spirit is bound to be restless.
When I think about those who were cragged willy-nilly to the battle field and killed, I must insist upon the war responsibility of the Emperor. The question as to whether it is appropriate or not to continue the Emperor System is to be settled after his war responsibility is made clear. While, our present leaders say that those who wish to abolish the Emperor System, are a very small art of the people, or say, "To blame the Emperor for the war is absurd", I wonder His majesty the Emperor has any intention of indemnifying the Common people for their sacrifices.
Statistics in letters addressed to the newspapers regarding this question show that 80% of them are supporting the system. The poles of public opinion by the students of TOKYO Imperial University show the same tendency. This is due to the firmly rooted notion of nationalism with which the people have been long imbued. However, I think, this tendency well slacken after a little while, when the public has had enough and had begun to think a little about their circumstances. Even a nobody like myself has been instructed in the true meaning of democratic administration.
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EDITORIAL SEREIS: 126 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
When I consider seriously the present situation as well as the past and the future, I must stress that we need not attach ourselves indefinitely to the Emperor System, which is nothing hut a remnant of the feudal ages. The Emperor System will not enable our Nation to recover confidence in the world and contribute to world civilization. (Letter from KITA, MICHINO URAWA.)
ITEM 4 Prolongation of High Schools and College Year-Asahi-Shimbun- 18 December 1945. Translator: Y. R. Suzuki.
Full Translation:
The prolongation of the school year has been the general desire of both colleges and high schools. In order to supply fundamental knowledge in high schools and to develop intellects, prepare for professional education, and cultivate cultivate character at high schools and colleges, at least five years are needed for nigh schools and three years for colleges.
In answer to a Diet interpellation MAEDA, Minister of Education, explains that the shortening of the school year was caused not merely because of the war. The truth was that MASHIDA, the Education Minister and his group who lowered the Education Ministry to a Bureau of the War Ministry were using the war as an excuse and the people were led to believe that this was the cause. This resulted in a great expansion in military schooling and the suspension of cultural schooling.
As a tentative measure, six months of continued education will be given college students graduation next spring. On this occasion a bold venture should be made for the restoration of full terms.
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