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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0119, 1945-12-20.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0397

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 397 DATE 20 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Farmers Delighted by the Directive - Provincial Newspaper NIIGATA NIPPO (NIIGATA) - 12 Dec 45. Translator; K. Gunji.
The difficulties of the present food situation lie in the shortage of staple foodstuffs. Therefore, increased production is the key to the stabilization of the food problem. This depends upon the will of the farmers.
In order to spur them on, the Government heretofore has resorted to compulsory measures, without regard to their economic situation. However, a true desire for production can be expected only from sound economic conditions.
The authorities themselves seem to be aware that the compulsory measures now adopted cannot last long. The Agricultural Minister's plan for the reformation of the agrarian land system indicates the acute concern of the authorities about this matter. It is quite regrettable, however, that his plan was thoroughly amended by the Cabinet, although it never aimed at a radical revolution. To our regret, Diet members appear to have been inclined to adopt a negative attitude, even towards the amended bill. But at this point Allied Headquarters suddenly issued the directive ordering the Japanese Government to relieve farmers by reforming the present agrarian land system. The Government must offer its plan by 15 March of next year.
This time, the Diet members cannot ignore the matter, and it is believed the present Government bill will get through without much amendment. Farmers are grateful to General MacARTHUR for his directive.
The measures taken by past governments to establish independent farmers have proven to be more pretenses. This is indicated by the fact that many of the farmers could not maintain their newly obtained estates, because of the heavy burden of debt imposed upon them. The Government attitude towards farmers has been very indifferent in the past, compared with that towards business men and industrialists.
Even if we admit the good intentions of the Government, it is a matter of doubt as to whether the local authorities acted in good faith to execute Government policies. There were many villages which never held committee meetings, and which failed to divide up the area alloted by the local governments. Since our prefecture is a center of rice production, it also should be the modal for the emancipation of the farmers. The actual situation, however, is the reverse.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 119 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
The time has come at last. The miniature of feudal JAPAN is going to break up. We find in General MacARTHUR's directive the dawn of a new era. At the same time, we cannot overlook, the last struggle of the landlords. Our prefectural authorities must be wise enough to be prepared for the things to come.
ITEM 2 Indicate the Prices of Goods Sold on the Street - Provincial newspaper TOKUSHIMA SHIMBUN (TOKUSHIMA) - 13 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Since the abolition of price controls, prices of all goods have been soaring. Today, less than a half year since the war's end, the average price of food is 20 times higher, and that of other commodities is 10 times higher than normal. Merchants do not seem to display goods with the purpose of selling them, but rather as a means of extracting money from consumers. Economic circles are in a state of utter bewilderment and confusion.
While walking along, one sees various foods and other goods displayed in booths or temporary shelters, but never are the prices indicated. Upon buying something, one never fails to be astonished at the exordinate price asked. Yet the administration seems to lack the power to control prices, and. the courts look on with folded arms while inflation grows malignant. There seems to be no way of control except for the consumer to excercise restraint. The display of prices of the goods is a helpful aid to deciding whether or not to make a purchase. Here, again, lack of policy, incompetence, and irresponsibility of the Government is exhibited. The Government has devised a savings encouragement plan to curb inflation, but it is a negative policy, cunningly directed at shifting the onus of responsibility to the people. The Government's war profits and property taxes, to be enforced soon, may also be construed to be counter-inflationary in intent, but it has succeeded in stimulating sly prefectural merchants to raise prices through bartering so that they can evade the tax by falsifying their income declarations. As a consequence, the consumer is in greater difficulty.
The governor and other high officials may not be aware of the existing living conditions of the masses who cannot fill their stomachs without eating one-yen potatoes cokes. But the masses are urgently pressed to extricate themselves from such conditions. We must take prompt stops to control the streetside profiteers, else we cannot check starvation, cold, and death.
ITEM 3 Teachers' Living Means and Farm-Lands - Provincial Paper HOKKOKU MAINICHI SHIMBUN (KANAZAWA) - 14 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
What is the most important matter in the reconstruction of JAPAN? It is national education. At this time, the educators, especially the primary school teachers who have the most important roles in this matter are now institute. Their monthly average income is in the neighborhood of 100 yen including allowances and additional salary for long service. Can they make a living on such a small income?
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 119 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
If we let the teachers fall into a condition of malnutrition, what can we say about the reconstruction of JAPAN?
In the prefectural assembly of ISHIKAWA-Ken, MAEKAWA, Yoshiei, member of the Assembly said: "If there are some who will die of starvation, the first may be teachers. What teachers are thinking of since the end of the war, I hear, is not along what lines they should educate their pupils, but by what means they could maintain their lives. The situation is very serious. We must, first of all, map out a plan by which teachers can secure a sure means of living. For this purpose, I propose giving farmland to teachers."
If the Farm Land Reform Bill passes through the Diet, absentee landowners and great landowners will disappear. Taking this opportunity, they ought to secure farmlands for primary school teachers. The teachers' official residences must be built and to every residence a tan of farm land should be allotted respectively. In such devastated cities as TOYAMA and FUKUI, the time to take this measure is now. Meanwhile, all the teachers should work for the establishment of a democratic JAPAN.
ITEM 4 Chief Objective of Unemployment Relief - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 15 Dec 45. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Full Translation:
A broad relief program to provide food, clothing, housing, medical care, financial aid and welfare services to those who will require direct assistance this winder was demanded of the Japanese Government in a directive issued by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers.
With a severe winter coming, the streets are filled with unemployed, a clear indication of the social-economics and political conditions of defeated JAPAN. From a humanitarian standpoint, such conditions should, not be allowed, yet relief measures should not be taken purely out of sentiment, nor should professional social welfare campaigners be permitted to ply their trade. Such welfare will be of no value to the recipient.
We must divide the needy into two categories: those capable of working who have no opportunity to work; and those mentally or physically incapable. The Allied Headquarter's directive does not apply to all unemployed, estimated by the Government to number several millions. The current task of the Government should be to secure manpower for essential positions, rather than to give jobs to the unemployed as a whole. A man must have the liberty of choosing a job rather than be subject to compulsory labor. However, conditions being as they are, the liberty must not be an arbitrary one. Some men would rather work a hundred feet underground in a coal mine than work in an office in the city. But that man must work at disagreeable jobs is inevitable. They must, in exchange, be paid at a rate consistent with living coats and other factors.
The reluctance to work, currently demonstrated by the masses, indicates that the need for work is not yet urgent. If, in providing relief for the unemployed, full cognizance is not taken of this situation, JAPAN, whilst engaged in reconstruction, will be faced with a permanent evils.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 119 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
In other countries there are agencies for unemployment insurance which often suffer from incidental evils. However, in JAPAN, it is quite impossible to consider the institution of unemployment to consider the institution of unemployment insurance as a practical solution to the problem. Accordingly, relief should, in the main, be administered only to those who actually need assistance, such as the aged, the sick, and children. Even in such cases it is desirable to provide work compatible with their capacity so that they may not lose their spirit of independence.
The main object of unemployment measures is, of course, to give jobs to the unemployed. We acknowledge the necessity of large-scale enterprises in the future for the relief of the unemployed, but first we insist that the Government stimulate private enterprise to the fullest extent so that each industrial field may absorb the unemployed. For this purpose, many existing obstacles must be eliminated, some with the assistance of the Allied Forces, some by the Government itself, and some by the entrepeneurs.
The Government must endeavor to put this plan into effect. Publishing unemployment figures or merely shouting for relief is no solution. Plainly, it is of greatest urgency that the Japanese, especially those in the most dire straits, work willingly. To put it bluntly, no applications for relief should be accepted unless the applicant is mentally or physically incapacitated. In carrying out the Allied Headquarters' directive, the Government must first of all recognize the objectives of unemployment relief.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0119, 1945-12-20.
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