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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0114, 1945-12-19.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0381

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No.381 Date: 19 Dec 1945


ITEM 1 Democratization of Economy Must Be Practiced Scientifically - Yomiuri Huchi - 14 Dec. 45 Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
General MacARTHUR'S directive issued on Tuesday, putting the transfer of stocks of 336 companies controlled by 18 ZAIBATSU firms and other holding companies under the restriction of General Headquarters, can be regarded as a practical example of the adaptability of the Allied directives to conditions, and we must respect it.
The attitude of the Government and parties to the Farmland Reform Bill is another case in point. It cannot be denied that both the Government and parties lacked the resolution to consider the significance of land reform as decisive in the achivement of a democratic revolution. They did not enhance their reputation by a hurried deliberation on the reform bill, which was spurred by MacARTHUR'S Headquarters.
Democracy in AMERICA is bused on thorough land reform. History shows clearly that American land reform was carried out through abolition of serfdom in agricultural labor by allowing each farmer to possess at least 160 acres of land. It is a recognized fact throughout the world that the success of President ROOSEVELT'S Government owed much to his agrarian policy, which formed an element of the New Deal. In contrast to this our Government and each party should be censured for their lack of confidence in land reform.
In regard to the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU, our Government and people failed to achieve the inevitable dissolution of the ZAIBATSU. Some expected that capitalist AMERICA would surely support the ZAIBATSU, which is a form of Japanese Capitalism. Some went further and asked for American credit for the ZAIBATSU. Indeed, these observations and movements were only examples of our self-complacency, ignoring the fact that democracy must be instituted on the basis of economic equality
Democracy also does not allow privileged interests, based on the old feudal system, to participate in the establishment of democratic institutions. This self-complacency was at once dissipated by the directive on the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU. Furthermore, the Allied intent to reform the Japanese economy has been more clearly shown by the newly issued directive restricting the activities of 336 companies. To our regret, we do not know in what quarter of JAPAN there are positive and concrete views which can enlarge upon the significance of the Allied directive for the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU.
The pursuit of war responsibility and the examination of war criminals must be positively carried out. However the Japanese people have the deeply rooted habit of observing matters unscientifically and lack

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 114 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
the ability to systematically investigate the substance of matters.
In the discussion on the Emperor System, for example, the discussion as to the responsibility for JAPAN'S aggessive war must be made not only about the reigning Emperor as an individual, but also about the Eperor system itself. Similarly, the war responsibility of the leading figures of the military clique headed by General TOJO connot be considered separately from the military clique as an organization. The same can be said about the responsibility of the leading bureaucrats such as HIRANUMA and KIDO, who are inseparable from the organization of bureaucracy.
Therfore, by the same token, the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU must not be limited to that of holding companies, which are merely the front offices of the ZAIBATSU, but must be applied to all the enterprises which are subsidiaries of the ZAIBATSU. It is proper that the Allied directive aimed not only at the munitions industry as moninally defined, but also at financial organs, such as banks, insurance companies, and the spinning, rayon, commercial paper and other companies, which normally consider themselves as "peaceful" industries. There is no such thing as a "peaceful" industry which enjoyed war profits. There enormous enterprises, covering all fields of industry, and closely connected with each other, not only held sway over the economic world but organized themselves into powerful political organizations and spurred the prosecution of the war.
The companies which came within the scope of this directive should observesincerely the spirit of the directive and make it possible to correctly and quickly carry out its provisiaions. They should also contribute willingly to the achievement of the democratic revolution. Likewise, the companies not affected should not be indifferent or selfish, and must not act solely to maintan the economic order, but must deeply consider the spirit of the directive.
It is desirable that a more independent and far-reaching movement for the democratization of our economy will arise in JAPAN. All enterprises must give up their unsound management during the inflation and try to reconstruct the national economic system completely dissociated from the ZAIBATSU. We hope all men in these economic groups will rise to achieve this purpose.
ITEM 2 Japan's Democracy - Mainichi - 15 Dec. 45 Translator: K. Nobunaga.
Full Translation:
JAPAN'S democracy should sweep away feudalism. What is feudalism? All things peculiar to JAPAN are not feudal. If JAPAN'S democracy is considered the eliminationof all the tradition in JAPAN, the same mistake as was made during the MEIJI Restaration will be repeated. The MEIJI Restaration was not a revolution but the second reformation since the TAIKA Reformation. The MEIJI Restoration was not a through reformation and an imitation of foreign countries overriding our national character. Therefore, feudal ideas gradually revived and showed militaristic inclinations. Today's democracy should deliberately consider this factor.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 114 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Notional characteristics may be destroyed if they are regarded as feudal remains. If all things in the old system are destroyed. We shall lose our pride, confidence and progressiveness until our creative face in culture will be gone. These shows real symptms of national ruin. Supreme Headquarters' administrative policy for JAPAN based on the POTSDAM Declaration consists of the elimination of obstacles to JAPAN'S demacracy. However, we find two ideas which misinterpret this spirit. One finds this directive too severe and the other finds it too soft. The former is a conservative idea and the latter is a frivolous flattering idea. Are the Japanese have the right of speaking on how JAPAN'S democracy should be founded. Nevertheless, this has not been expressed even at the Diet session. If the Diet is afraid of the Supreme Headquarters' directives and follows them, how will Supreme Headquarter recognize JAPAN'S democracy? We feel disappointed at such an attitude by the Diet.
ITEM 3 (1) Now Yen Designs (2) Agrarian Women and Polity - Mainichi Shinbun - 15 Dec. 45 Translator: Y. Suzuki.
The yen note has abandoned its previous design of war-god portraits and the now 100-yen note, which is expected to be issued next spring, is believed to have printed on it the Goddess of Mercy (KWANNON); the ten-yen note is expected to have the Deva King (NIO). Although JAPAN has only a very few figures worthy of having their portraits as designs, I am quite positive that there is no need for the Government to use NIO or KWANNON. nor is there any reason for the notes to have portraits of famous people. Even though the officials lack cultural sensitivity they surely must know that permitting such notes to pass is a mistake. It is most astonishing to see that everything which emanates from the Government lacks a cultural tone. If the problem was one of color we could blame the printing machines, but, instead, it is the designs. One can draw more artestic notes even in black. Even though such a problem is a small matter we must not neglect it, for a now JAPAN can never associate with the world if she does not progress in culture.
(From a Resident in MURE)
Rural Women and Polity.
How can the countless agrarian women, so busy all the year round and separated from culture and education, properly exercise their suffrage? Their mental training has been neglected and they have no ideas about politics. Consequently, it would be difficult for them to understand the political problems and theories of women's social statur.
I am aware of the difficulty they will have in the use of their suffrage however, with some politual training they will overcome it. A good idea is to utilize, as much as possible, the neighborhood women's meetings and have lectures on politics. If we could obtain capable people for this movement I am certain they could give these women the necessary political training.
(From a political young man in TOHOKU)
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0114, 1945-12-19.
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