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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0106, 1945-12-17.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0363

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 363 Date: 17 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Future of Japanese Agriculture Hopeful - Provincial Newspaper Chubu Nippon Shimbun NAGOYA - 12 Dec 45. Translator: K. Gunju.
Full translation:
General MacARTHUR's directive on agrarian reforms, issued to emancipate the Japanese peasant who has suffered for centuries under feudal oppression, has settled once and for all the issue for the Diet.
Deliberations on the land bill were exceedingly drawn out and lacked seriousness, despite the importance of the legislation. Whether the deliberations were ever completed is rather dubious, but since the directive, discussion became animated along serious lines. No one any longer doubts its eventual passage.
The Government has exhibited a slowness in all matters until allied Headquarters directives prod them into activity. It is a most disgraceful condition both for the Government and the Diet.
No one can object to the reforms as such. The differences originated in such details as limits to land ownership. The directive, however, removed forthwith such petty obstacles. It prescribes far broader and more thorough reforms than the Government objective. Most noteworthy is the order for provisions protecting the farmers from the oppressive tactics of manufacturers and tradesmen. Further, by providing a system of long and short term loans, it removes the degradation of farm tenancy.
Thus, to obey the letter of the directive, the Government and Diet are obliged to emancipate the farmer and efficiently manage agriculture.
ITEM 2 Significance of YAMASHITA Trial - Yomiuri Hochi - 13 Dec 45. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full translation:
The terrible atrocities committed by the Japanese Army in the PHILIPPINES were disclosed to the world in the YAMASHITA trial. They were crimes perpetrated against God and man, and will probably be recorded as the most heinous in the military history of either the Orient or the Occident.
Those committing these atrocities have always given lip service to BUSHIDO, and have unabashedly called themselves the "Imperial Army" since the Manchurian Incident.
From ancient times, BUSHIDO has counselled that even a surrendered enemy is to be treated kindly, as expressed in the allegory, "The hunter does not kill the sorely-pressed bird who is completely at his mercy." This is the moral foundation for BUSHIDO, and the spirit and creed of the warrior.

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EDITORIAL SERIES 106 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Yet, despite this creed, the expeditionary army under General YAMASHITA's command arbitrarily massacred innocent civilians including the aged, women, and children, in MANILA and many other places. How can anyone not be horrified at such outrages?
The true character of the so-called "Imperial Army" has been exposed. These atrocities bring dishonor, not only to the Japanese Army, but to JAPAN as well. And though we must express our sincere regrets, the matter must stop there.
Lt. General MUTO and other witnesses for the defense stated that because of disrupted communications only the troops at the actual scene of the atrocities can be held responsible. They further charged that the offenders mere naval personnel who refused to obey the orders of General YAMASHITA. What are we to make of this statement?
An old Chinese proverb states, "Thousands die so that one can be elevated to fame." This proverb is applicable to the trial which has attracted the attention of all the world, bearing witness to General YAMASHITA and his staff, endeavoring to save one general's life at the expense of thousands of soldiers and sailors.
There can be no discriminating between soldiers and sailors when engaged in joint operations. Moreover, General YAMASHITA was the Commander-in-chief of all Japanese forces in the PHILIPPINES.
Naturally, the military court at MANILA could not be bothered to listen to testimony designed for the evasion of responsibility, so General YAMASHITA was duly sentenced to death for his responsibility for the atrocities committed against numerous innocent civilians.
After YAMASHITA had been convicted, Colonel CLAYMAN (TN ?) and others of the defense counsel took legal steps, at their own expense, to file an appeal to the Supreme Court of the UNITED STATES, because they felt YAMASHITA was entitled to full respect of the law, and they wished the trial to be concluded carefully.
Let us assume an American general being tried by a Japanese court. We seriously doubt whether Japanese defense counsel would exercise the same effort as did the American counsel, particularly if private funds were involved. Assuming that the lawyers ardently wished to see justice done, what would be the reaction of the majority of Japanese? The lawyers would be charged with meddling, or exceeding their authority, and would further be vilified as publicly seekers, or as traitors.
How the YAMASHITA case will be handled in the Supreme Court, and in General MacARTHUR's Headquarters, is more than we can guess. But the extremely cruel and undisciplined character of our Army has been made unmistakably clear as a result of the trial. Similarly, the sincerity of the Americans has been made obvious by the actions of Colonel CLAYMAN (TN ?) and his legal staff who, without regard for their personal feelings or sentiment, have demonstrated a willingness do anything in the interests of justice. This is a fine example of the character of the American people.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 106 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued
What is war, and what is the essence of justice and humanity? We Japanese must never forget the invaluable lessons provided us by the YAMASHITA trial.
ITEM 3 How We Should Handle the Thought Problem - Provincial Paper Chubu Nippon Shimbun NAGOYA - 13 Dec Translator: K. Gunji.
Full translation:
In a Diet discussion on the problem of thought, Education Minister MAEDA repeatedly asserted that thought is determinable not only by force, but rather by intelligence. This is self-evident. But in considering this problem we must cautiously avoid the fallacy of dealing in abstractions and the fallacy of limiting the problem to specific classes of society. Such a situation is incompatible with existing conditions.
Times have become so critical that even state ministers talk about death by starvation of 10,000,000 people. The problem of thought is not, therefore, separable from grim reality. If dangerous ideas prevail as a result of this reality, no amount of theorizing will check them.
Moreover, applying the problem to any particular social class is a great mistake since the problem exists in all classes. Theories which are products of meditation cannot persist against the force of thought.
We, therefore, believe that the existing problem of thought is inseparably related to the problem of the people's livelihood, and not the limited sphere of the Education Ministry.
Its objective, which is peace and democracy, has already been determined. Our contribution to world peace and civilization is in the uniqueness of our culture and the individuality of our national history. The permanent policies of our nation should not be changed to suit a single transitory phase in history.
Since all national effort is directed at this objective, the problem of thought must also follow along these lines. We must not leave the matter solely to the judgment of the Government and the leaders. The people must consider the problem and conduct themselves cautiously.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0106, 1945-12-17.
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