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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0105, 1945-12-17.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0360

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 360 DATE 17 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Life Of People Bound By Hardships Of Defeat - Tokushima Shimbun (Tokushima) - 7 Dec 45. Translator: S. Fukuda.
JAPAN lost the war of the Pacific and surrendered. For such an unprecedented event in her history, is it surprising that the people failed to realize the defeat until some time after the termination of the war? There have not been as many direct and drastic changes in every day life as were expected. The hardships of defeat have descended bit by bit upon the immediate lives of the people. They are conscious only of the distresses of the present, and are not aware of why they have reached their present disrupted state.
If that be the case, what are the hardships of defeat? Noisy voices of the people cry for a three go ration rice; they cry they are lacking in nutrition and if impossible, two go and three shaku will do. But the present food situation does not allow no more than two go and 1 shaku. The problems of importing rice and the result of rice rationing by the Government are not going smoothly for the present. In addition to that, we have been beset by a nationwide coal famine. The sharp shortage of such necessities of daily life as bean mash, soy beans, salt, matches and soap have made the people gloomy.
One reason for even greater misery is the present incomplete and inadequate medical treatment for ailing people. Coupled with this is the shortage in goods, and the prevalence of black market dealings every where. Prices of goods are rising higher and higher. The warnings to prevent inflation is not followed. Weak and poor people bound by the ropes of hardships are falling into a pit of misery. They are struggling desperately as if they were being drowned. There is a callaps of moral character.
As typical fact, which can be eloquently told, is that blsck market dealings are prevailing openly on the streets even in daylight. A pot lid selling for ten to twenty sen in prewar days, now sells for 3.50 to 4.00 yen. Another fact shows that vegetable-robbers at night, steel vegetables planted in the narrow plots in burned out areas or take sweet potatoes from the fields belonging to students of a school for the blind and the dumb. On the other hand, matters which must be pointed out are schoolboys' strikes which are prevailing in middle schools. These all were brought about by the relaxtion of moral restraint.
An American critic said that the Japanese people will have to walk on a road of hardships. We are now in the very first step. In order to rise out of this, first of all, it is necessary for the people to bear hardships. Second, to reflect gravely upon the cause of defeat and to give up selfish ideas in helping and supporting each other.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 105 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
It necessitates rising up from the deep bottom of hardships and defeat with a strong and great will.
In old Japanese history, we read in a story that MOURI, Motonari, a feudal lord in the CHUGOXU District, called his sons near his bed at the end of his life and ordered them to break some arrows of a bow so as to teach them co-operation. That is one of the most important things now before us. The people of JAPAN must think ani reflect with a deep appreciation of this defeat.
ITEM 2 Reject Formalism - Tokushima Shimbun (Tokushima) - 8 Dec 45. Translator: I. Hotta.
To adjust prices by a human agency is exceedingly difficult, though such agencies can bring about the rise or fall of prices. The fundamental economic principle governing prices in supply and demand; yet in practice, application of the principle is very difficult since behind the fluctuation of prices there are many complex causes. Currently, we are most affected by the high price of consumer goods.
The price of fish which once rose to astonishing heights is now dropping because people held off purchases and the control association sold at cost. We can reduce highprices by restricting purchases. Articles which do not appear in large quantities on the market are naturally inflated in price. Increase in the quantity of fish is, accordingly, of first importance in stabilizing the price of fish. To accomplish this, prefectural governors should examine the problem of supply nets and fuel for fishing boats, thus eliminating the greatest obstacle to large scale operations in this industry.
The high price of vegetables is unreasonable since vegetables are now in season. But prices are rapidly dropping as a result of the consumers awakening. Prefectural authorities have imposed regulations on the disposition of fruit and vegetables as a measure to alleviate the shortage, thus safeguarding public health. Arrangements have already been made to enforce the regulations. But the effectiveness of these measures depend on the sincerity and enthusiasm of the prefectural authorities. In the past, various regulations have proven meaningless because of the lack of sincerity amoung the administrators. Desk theories are not entirely reliable. Sincerity further has a direct effect on people's feelings.
We request that the authorities consider collecting surplus vegetables from farmers whose yield is great rather than collect produce only from specific areas. The effectiveness will exceed all expectations. Authorities should go beyond accepted procedure and endeavor to make these measures efficient.
ITEM 3 The Tenant-Rights and Homes - Kahoku Shimpo (Sendai) - 9 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Owing to the prediction that the amendment to the Agrarian Land Readjustment Law will not go through, complete deliberation in the present session of the Diet, discussions on the bill have not yet became heated. Notwithstanding the approval of the bill, the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 105 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
agricultural system is now actually moving along the lines outlined in the bill. This may be clearly noticed in the declarations for changing ownership of farmlands which have been reported, frequently of late. This is due to calculations in the interests of the landowners as well as the tenants. Therefore, if this unsystematic change of farmlands were ignored, there would he left the root of calamity in the future. All the parties must, therefore, make every effort to guide the actual change of farmlands in the actual direction outlined by the amended Agrarian Readjustment Law.
The reformation of the agrarian land system would, we hope, "be accomplished by the people's own hands. The present Agrarian Land Readjustment Law seems a make-shift plan. It seems to have been drafted from the point of view that peasant proprietors should be increased to increase production. The tenants who have been tilling others' lands could have no incentive to increase production. However, all the peasant propietors are not increasing production and the tenants, who have experienced the wave of prosperity and depression in their long lives in farm villages, do not want to possess farmlands which will create a heavy burden for them. This is especially true since the absentee landowners and the landowners in the villages will begin farming by themselves to some degree, and they will accordingly take away the lands from the tenants. Moreover, if the standard farming area allotted to every farmer were larger the establishment of peasant proprietors would result in increasing the number of farm laborers who have been deprived of tenant lands.
The establishment of peasant propietors will be good, but, on the other hand, if the tenants who are fearful of being deprived of their own increase in land it will never result in encouraging them to increase production. All tenants want, first, tenant rights rather than the farmlands. Second, they wish for a place of residence, for those who rent homes are treated with discrimination by their landowners. The tenants who rent homes amount to 30 per cent of all tenants. The reformation of the agrarian land system must, therefore, be scrutinized thoroughly.
ITEM 4 Womens' Awakening - Niigata Nippo (Niigata) - 10 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Ebiike.
Home Ministry statistical records reveal 18,171,497 male voters and 20,917,593 female voters. This would indicate that female voters outnumber male voters by 2,746,097 (TN: Sic.)
The coming general election should be of particular interest to Japanese women because it is the first election with women participants; moreover, with a superiority in numbers, women are potentially in control. Yet Japanese women regard suffrage a burdom. Why?
The most important reason is that, heretofore, parliament has ignored women's affairs even more than they've ignored other daily affairs. Ignorance of world affairs has always been considered a feminine virtue, hence their political education has been neglected grossly.
What is politics? Is it too difficult for women to comprehend? We believe it isn't. Women who consider the franchise a burden should realize that politics is nothing but an application of the topics discussed in "well-side gossip". It entails such common subjects as;
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 105 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
the high price of farm tools in relation to fixed rice prices and food scarcity, shortages of childrens' clothing, and the absence of want among people who deal in the black market. These are topics of everyday conversation and are the very essence of political problems today. They are based on actual life. Without such problems there need be no politics.
Housewives suffering as a result of various shortages should vote for either a party or candidate who displays the greatest enthusiasm and has the most practicable plans for the solution of problems of livelihood. Factorygirls oppresed by employers may vote for a party or candidate who advocates labor reforms. This is essentially all there is to exercising the franchises.
Politics is by no means a difficult subject for women. We hone that as a result of having been granted the franchise, Japanese women will raise themselves to a level comparable with that of other women.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0105, 1945-12-17.
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