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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0102, 1945-12-17.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0354

call-number: DS801 .S82

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NO. 354 Date: 17 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Against Indemnities for Large Enterprises-Tokyo Shimbun - 12 Dec 45. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Full translation:
All the tangible assets of individuals and corporations are destined to be confiscated by the Allied Forces for reparations. Consequently, we are now faced with the problem of indemnities for the owners.
People overseas are coming home with practically nothing, although the process of repatriation itself is smooth and speedy thanks to the landing boats offered by the kind Allied Forces. If we reason that they have lost their fortunes, not by any fault of their own, but because of the defeat, we can easily understand that they are not at all responsible for their losses, and accordingly, the Government should be expected to redeem them.
This process of reasoning would be worth considering, but it does not itself differ from the other indemnity problems now in question at home. We have only to apply the sane policy to them as has been decided for industry in JAPAN. It is natural for the Government to have proposed to indemnify them as finances permit. But, as is well known, there are in the present situation many factors which threaten us with inflation, so the issue of money without backing should be abandoned, else we will be subject to a wave of inflation.
Our assets overseas, including those of individuals and corporations, are said to be estimated at more than 35,000,000,000 yen. Although we do not know how the finance authorities would manage indemnities with these figures, most careful consideration should be given the payments.
If it has been concluded that there will be partial indemnities paid, efforts should be made not to give preferential treatment merely to the large enterprises.
Assets to be transferred intact will be clear objects for indemnity, but the value of assets which have been plundered or damaged in any way by mobs will be difficult to determine. Paucity of assets prevents indemnity, and it will fall as a burden on the poor. The larger an enterprise is, the larger will be its indemnities.
We hope for prudence on the part of financial authorities: in this matter.
ITEM 2 Qualifications of a Politician - Asahi Shimbun - 12 Dec 45. Translator: K. Ketel.
Full translation:
Finance Minister SHIBUZAWA gibed at becoming the leader of the Progressive Party, saying, "That's not in my line. I'm not interested in covering up my past of falsehoods." This frank statement exhibits

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 102 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
his character. In political circles, a politician's greatest asset is said to be an ability for dodging straight statements. For the people who have been victimized by lies, a statement as forthright as SHIBUZAWA's would seem to indicate his inexperience. The Nation does not expect deceit or irresponsibility from its statesmen. The Nation wants men of unimpeachable character, with a capacity for self-analysis.
The journalist who is known to be a war criminal and who persists in denying his guilt cannot be considered a man of strong faith. He is merely too obstinate to be introspective.
If a thief were to use alibis to conceal 30 per cent of his guilt, in order to reach an objective judgement, the remaining 70 per cent should be examined in the light of the 30 per cent.
The assertions of men like Mr. HATOYAMA, who attempts to ingratiate himself by claiming descent from a liberal family, are suspicious. HATOYAMA is the very man who, as Minister of Education, incited the KYOTO University Incident by abolishing freedom of study. HATOYAMA and the previously mentioned journalist are outstanding examples of men reluctant to analyze themselves.
That such men should be permitted to monopolize democracy and be central figures in defending JAPAN's freedom is absurd. The people who suffered as a result of their deception will not be so led again. A politician's worth will be based entirely on merit. It is what the politician achieves rather than what he says that counts.
ITEM 3 Student Attitude to Strike - Asahi Shimbun - 12 Dec 45. Translator: S. Ota.
Twelve letters concerning student strikes have been received thus far. Of these, ten have opined that the strikes are not justifiable, and of these ten, one further insisted that the College Union Plan of the NIPPON University Students is utterly incompatible with conditions. The remaining two letters supported strikes. The following is a summary of some of their opinions:
"The student movement which began with the strikes at the UENO Girls' Middle School and the MITO High School spread until it succeeded in bringing democracy to several colleges and high schools. There have been strikes demanding dismissal of militaristic and incompetent professors, rehiring of dismissed, professors, change of curricula, and establishment of autonomous student associations. But I fear, as in the past, they are merely jumping on the bandwagon. They mustn't forget that these are means employed in the search for truth, and are therefore applicable in any generation. True learning cannot be achieved merely by listening to the lectures of professors whose popularity is fashionable at the time. We must concentrate on the real nature of circumstances since the defeat." - NODA, Minoru, TOKYO Student.
"Recently, demands have been made in some schools for a "democracy in the school" by such means as student representation on the Faculty
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 102 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Committee. We students must consider these matters in relation to the actual purpose of students, which is pursuit of truth. Students are merely aping other institutions in a democracy whereas the student's position is one peculiar to the educational field. For example, student participation in faculty committees is nothing more than an installation of laborer's position in management. Clearly, the situation in schools differs from that in industry. Surely no one believes that the relationship between the teacher end the pupil resembles that of capital and labor. Teachers impart the valuable fruits of their efforts in the field of learning. It is inconceivable that such proposals can be introduced logically in schools."- OTA, Tatsuro, KEIO University Student.
"That strikes occur with such frequency in schools is regrettable. Don't these students realize that such activities harm both the honor of the school and their own characters? The disputes may be attributed partly to the degeneration of their characters as a result of wartime service in factories, and to general wartime living conditions. Moreover, their judgment has suffered as a result of the reduced wartime educational standards. As a result of having been defeated, no clear enunciation of educational objectives has been advanced. But the universities should continue in the search for truth regardless of generation. All students in the nation must realize this at once and rapidly busy themselves regaining a serious attitude." - NAKAJIMA, Tetsuro, TOKYO Student.
ITEM 4 A School Teacher Cannot Live - Yomiuri Hochi - 12 Dec 45. Translator: H. Arai.
Full translation:
The KATO, Etsuro cartoon in the 26 November Yomiuri Hochi labelled "A stone floats; a leaf sinks" was significantly appropriate to present conditions, especially that in which the unemployed and intelligent [illegible]find themselves. National primary school teachers are, in my opinion, in as wretched circumstances as any. Prices rise unchecked, and society makes no effort to care for the poor. If conditions continue uncorrected, all teachers will starve because of their poverty.
Since great importance is attached to the function of education in new JAPAN, the prospects are enough to make us shudder. The base salary of a teacher in one of the lower grades is 30 yen a month. With an additional three yen good attendance and ten yen bonuses, his total 43 yen monthly salary is less than a laborer's daily wage.
The current price of rice is 15 yen per sho; one sardine, one yen; and 1.10 yen per egg. The teacher's monthly salary is insufficient for three sho of rice. He is poor, then, every day but pay day. nevertheless we continue teaching without rancor or complaint. Who can live on this salary?
Formerly we bore our grievances silently because we were not permitted to complain, since doing so would invite charges of Bolshevism or degeneracy heaped upon us by the headmasters and educational, authorities. We would, moreover, have been carefully watched. Needless to say, we were forbidden to contribute articles to newspapers or magazines. Society even criticized our purchase of farm produce which we had raised in co-operation with our students.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 102 (continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
"You the weak! Your weakness is in being a national school teacher."
Why are we week? Why must we be modest? The significant causes, I believe, are related to clothing, food, and shelter. Society becomes excited over small matters; similarly, we are not likely to remain content. School teachers, the driving force toward democracy, should become stronger and form a more powerful organization.
A primary school and young people's school, with different educational aims, are located in the same place. The latter makes use of the former's school buildings and play grounds. After the war's end, the latter was kindly treated, but no attention baa been paid to the former.
The monthly salary of a Middle-school graduate teacher of a primary school is 37 yen, while a teacher with the same qualifications at the young people's school receives 45 yen a month. Women teachers of primary schools receive 30 yen monthly, but women teachers at the young people's school are paid 40 yen monthly.
If a national primary school teacher becomes promoted to headmaster of a young people's school, he is soon treated like a SONIN (TN Official appointed by approved, of the Emperor) and over a period of time receives a salary increase of 20 yen. Headmasters of national primary schools with even thirty years' service are never treated as SONIN.
While young people's school teachers have nothing to do, we are kept extremely busy. We cannot help complaining of our unhappy lot, in our position of half-forgotten men of the lower grades. - YAMAGATA. Schooltea[illegible]
ITEM 5 Democratization of Education - Yomiuri Hochi - 13 Dec 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
I must state here that the Education Ministry has not as yet showed a single turn toward democracy. Dr. TANAKA, now Chief of the School Education Bureau, was one of the former Italo-Japanese exchange professors who contributed much to the amity between the two countries. Most important for the future is education for citizenship. However, why were Messrs. WATSUJI and TODA appointed leaders in the Citizenship Education Reform Committee?
Mr. WATSUJI was much appreciated by General TOJO, the eminent militarist leader, for his co-operation in composing the so-called SENJINKUN (Instructions for Behavior on the Battlefield), while Mr. TODA encourage the militaristic education as author of "The Fundamentals of Training of Imperial Subjects."
We are very interested in what sort of democratic reforms will be brought about by these persons. Mr. WATSUJI once fell victim to rightists, but for this reason alone he can not evade his educational crimes no more than Prince KONOE and Mr. HIRANOMA, President of the Privy Council can evade their war crimes. If well examined, the enthusiasm of the Ministry is found to be very low, necessitating our most strict surveillance. (Sent by Mr. H.)
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0102, 1945-12-17.
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