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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0099, 1945-12-16.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0347

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 347 Date: 16 Dec 1945

EDITORIAL SERIES: 99

ITEM 1 The Dispute of the Yomiuri Shimbun Settled - Yomiuri Shimbun - 12 Dec 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full Translation:
The strike of the YOMIURI SHIMBUN has come to a conclusion, 50 days after the outbreak. The struggle to democratize our office, which had been supported by the public throughout the country, ended in victory for the employees. The result of the victory may not be complete, but we are confident that our difficult struggle, being an epitome of the Japanese democratic revolution, is very significant socially.
Our first demand was to ask for the determination of war responsibility. As we expected, President SHORIKI was named a war criminal. We emphasized a few days ago that our struggle could not only maintain confidence in the office, but also would tide over a crisis in business and, therefore, our efforts would be justified. A war criminal is a man who hesitates to establish democracy. Democracy cannot be established without sweeping away war criminals. It is not only true in an individual body, but also in the country, and we have attained our aim.
Our second demand was to democratize newspapers. On this point, it is especially noteworthy that we could succeed in separating management from capital to let employees participate in management. We all well know how much the function of a newspaper has been violated by newspaper capitalists. Up to now, newspapers have been dominated by capitalists, suffocating the voice of the people by news designed to suppress or deceive them. Now the YOMIURI SHIMBUN has thrown off the yoke of capitalism. We have won such an epoch-making success in newspaper history that the real opinions of the people can now be voiced freely in our pages. We hereby declare that from now on the YOMIURI SHIMBUN will become a real friend of the people and will be a newspaper eternally for them.
It is also a great achievement that we have won the right to participate in management as well as the right of collective bargaining and a guarantee for better treatment. The old democracy had been confined only to political sphere of asking for a political right, and democracy after World War I had demonstrated clearly how empty and useless a political right is without economic support. Democracy should be enlarged to the sphere of economy and given an economic significance. This is an important characteristic of the new democracy that has been spreading throughout the world, and our own result has demonstrated its character. A good example will be the democratization of JAPAN. As long as economy is not democratized, and until the Nation's economic life is put at rest, there will be no political democracy.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 99 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Furthermore, it is of great significance that our success has not been granted but gained by strength. Therein is a guarantee that can make democracy work and advance. At the beginning of the struggle, there still survived, in our office, a powerful wartime idea and a slavish disposition that had been fostered by President SHORIKI. Because of such an idea, it having been solidified within the office by plots instigated by the President and his party, disagreements arose once or twice among the strikers, and this old wartime idea had a great influence when editing was newly taken up by the employees. The struggle disciplined them, however. Their union had not only been assured to the last, but also their ideas had clearly changed with the advance of the dispute. The editors, having understood what a democratic revolution is like, were emancipated from their old ideas, and they have been able to make the news liberal and progressive, as seen in recent editions.
It is because of the liberty bestowed by the Allied Powers that our struggle was brought to an end, but it is entirely due to the fight that the employees have won and begun anew as democrats. The Japanese Nation has been given freedom by the Supreme Command, but they themselves must fight for democracy in order to secure liberty and to discipline the Nation along democratic lines.
At the start of the struggle, some thought that it would be impossible to manage the YOMIURI SHIMBUN without President SHORIKI, but the employees have accomplished, even in management, what the President's party could not do. For instance, it had been difficult for the office to print even two pages on week days because of limited printing facilities, and many of the readers had also been worried about the delay in distribution. This has improved steadily, however, and we have recently succeeded, through the support of the employees of the ASAHI SHIMBUN, in printing four pages — a job given up by the President's party as an impossibility. We have steadily been repairing our rotary presses which had been abandoned by the President's party since the outbreak of the dispute. Soon, the paper will be printed more clearly and proper measures will be taken to make a more rapid distribution. Thus we have demonstrated that it is possible for us to manage all matters without the President. Our struggle has not only stimulated the national movements, but has also truly expressed the power of the masses. By the victory, we have been given responsibility for publishing a truly democratic newspaper. From now on we shall do our best to edit and publish the news democratically in order to gain the confidence of the public and to enhance its power. We have gained such self-confidence that we shall be able to attain boldly the aim of democracy: let the people be sovereign!
ITEM 2 Dec 8, the Anniversary of the Outbreak of the Greater East Asia War - Hokkoku Mainichi Shimbun (Kanazawa) - 8 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Ebiike.
Summary:
Once again it is Dec 8, and on this anniversary of the outbreak of the Greater EAST ASIA ear we must remember anew how dangerous it is to decide a matter of vital importance to the Nation against the will of the people. For these three years and nine months, the military clique, propagandizing its false victory, has compelled us to obey blindly, and has never allowed us a single thought concerning the war. Therefore we did not realize our defeat until the termination of War on 15 August.
How can the people bear the responsibility for such a war? There is no reason why they should do so. Yet it is they who are suffering from hunger because of defeat in war. But the people do not know how to
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 99 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
rouse themselves to action. They act as though they had been emasculated during the long years of submission.
We must clearly realize how tragic it is that the affairs of the State should be carried out regardless of the people's will. Democracy can be established only when all the powers and wills, except those of the people, are denied completely. Since there are some who intend to smother democracy under the guise of so-called Japanese democracy, the people should have a correct knowledge of true affairs and developments. If not, the people will never be emancipated from the state of slavery. We must firmly resolve to commence the fight to became democratized from this day, Dec 8, the anniversary of the outbreak of the Greater EAST ASIA War.
ITEM 3 Sitting in on the Diet - Yomiuri Hochi - 12 Dec 45. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Summary:
The Election Law reform bill was passed, after an amendment by the Progressives, in the House of Representatives. The major electoral district system was approved, by the Government in its original form. The amendment adopted was for the purpose of increasing the plural ballots to two in the electorates where candidates number ten or less and three in the districts where they exceed ten.
As a result of the amendment, some parties may be in a favorable position and others, in a losing position. As we can easily presume, such parties as the Progressive party, which lists many well known people among its members, may be in an advantageous position, and the Social-Democrats and Communists, the majority of whose members are unknown and whose candidates will be relatively few, are bound to be in a very unfavorable position. It will be necessary for them to gain a majority, to allow the number of their candidates to reach the fixed number. Naturally, new figures will have a smaller field opened to them, and minorities seem to be doomed to work hopefully but with little reward.
It is commendable that the two parties, Liberal and Social-Democrat, supported the single transferable vote system and proportional representation, since they have as their bases all votes and political parties. But, as the Government has indicated, it is difficult to put such a system into effect in the present situation where there is no sharp division between political parties. It will result in nothing but confusion. It would be appropriate, to amend the Election Law again after the coming elections have been held.
Only the Independent Club has not proclaimed any definite attitude on this matter. Actually, the Independent Club is not a political party, and can be said to be only a group since its members do not hold the same opinions. Unless the Club becomes affiliated with some party, it will not be able to support candidates after the next election.
If the Progressive Party should split into several factions, political trends will be quite different from those expected. Minorities would probably be able to gain more advantages than anticipated, if any of their members are elected.
At any rate, as has been shown, the fundamental basis for elections is now political parties, and not individuals as in the past. This
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 99 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
fact proves that our Nation is taking the first step toward the accomplishment of parliamentary politics. Such being the case, we hope that candidates will compete earnestly in the coming campaign. It will be interesting as to whether or not the results will be those expected.
ITEM 4 Opinions of Students - Asahi Shimbun - 12 Dec 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full Translation:
No. 1. There are two aspects to the relationship between students and teachers which are important to the student. One is the common study of' truth, and the other is the study of personality. But under the present systematized organization of schools, a teacher is in charge of large numbers of students with no chance to give individual attention and assistance to them. As the educational system progresses, professionalism prevails, and carries with it an impersonal relationship between teacher and students. Students must form a genuine idea of this relationship. Justly speaking, teachers of today lack enthusiasm toward study, their personalities are coarse, their lectures are mechanical, usually ending in vulgar opinions, and they are slaves to materialistic ideas. A strike is surely improper, but there are things which are more improper. Herein lies the need for the renovation of schools. This is intended to be a constructive criticism and it is hoped that it will be accepted as such. (Sent by TAGAWA, Ryozo)
No. 2. We discussed the three following problems at our students' conference in the MUSHASHI Higher School and wish to present our decisions:
We proposed to establish a new alumni association with a central committee at its head. The faculty adopted it without any amendment.
Our representatives requested the principal to acquire good teachers. We held a discussion on the question of students criticizing teachers, but did not go to the length of demanding the retirement of certain teachers.
We had hoped for the future publication of the details of the school budget and desired student membership on the board of directors. We decided however, on non-participation in school management. As is described above, the atmosphere of the conference was very quiet and no action was taken on any of the resolutions made. Thus the conference was held with no unfriendliness between teachers and pupils.

(Sent by ISHIHARA, Shigero)
No. 3. I will say a word about the problem regarding the JAPAN University. I demand a complete eradication of militarism from this school. Not a single renovation has boon made since the end of the war, and the worshippers of militarism are currying favor with military cliques, deceiving students, and satisfying themselves with the formalities of education alone, thus infringing upon the right of students to do research. Speeches and assemblies are unjustly suppressed, and faculty meetings, only a farce. These roots of evil must be abolished by the retirement of leading members of the faculty. Schools must be established on a uniform system which is based on democracy. Educators must be considered public servants and should not be allowed to hinder education.
(Sent by ASAKURA, Mutsuro)
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0099, 1945-12-16.
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