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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0097, 1945-12-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0340

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 340 Date: 13 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 97

ITEM 1 The Distressful Condition of Those Without Ration Cards - Tokyo Shimbun-11 Dec 45. Translator: K. Ketel.
Summary:
Following are some existing prices: breakfast 0.30 yen, lunch and dinner 1.30 yen, each. That makes a total of 82.00 yen in one month, If I subtract the charges, traffic fares and all the other outlays from my present salary, only 44,00 yen will remain for food that means that I am on the verge of "starvation" and I get gloomy if I think of this.
However, if I think of the troubles my parents are facing now in HAMAMATSU, living in a shack made of burnt tin plates, sorrow overwhelms me and I cannot ask them for money. The jacket which I brought along while being repatriated, was changed into food-stuffs. Last month on the 22nd I sold it at a price more than twice the original price. While listening to the shop-keeper's report that food would become even more expensive, I sat in a restaurant, before a dish of rice, some slices of radish and yellow leaves. Who on earth will guarantee that this poor amount of food contains the necessary calories?
I beg the department to listen to the distress call of a person without a ration card and to make some provision for my plight. (by WATANABE)
The Answer of the Metropolitan Restaurant's Society.
In spite of the free-marketing of common foods, the original price has suddenly risen. In agreement with the Metropolitan Board we have fixed the price as of 22 October. The basic dish consisting of rice and a cup of soup costs 0.30 yen. The dishes are sold separately. The prices will depend on the food from, which the dish is made, but it would be about 0.20 yen to 1.00 yen. If a restaurateur intends to sell at a higher price he must consult the officer in charge of living problems at the Police Board, Because upkeep expenses at home have increased nowadays, there is no other way of managing a restaurant profitably.
ITEM 2 "Reparation Plan and Democratic Revolution of Economy"- Yumiuri Hochi - 11 Dec 45. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
The provision for the interim report on Japanese reparations made by Ambassador PAULEY is expressed in Paragraph 4, Chapter 4 of the American Control policy towards JAPAN, announced on 22 September. It declared concretely that "JAPAN's reparations for her aggression shall be made by the transfer of Japanese assets in territories outside of JAPAN's jurisdiction, and by the transfer of materials existing capital and equipment which is unnecessary to maintain the Japanese peace economy and the supply of the Occupation Forces." By the above announcement the limit and object of the reparations was substantially outlined. The substance of reparations is, of course, pretty painful. For the last fifteen years the industrialization of JAPAN in the heavy machinery

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 97 (Continued)
ITEE 2 (Continued)
and chemical industries had been fanatically advanced along with the increase of military power, but it resulted in extortion of blo[illegible]od-taxes and many other sacrifices on the part of the masses. It is now swept away without having made any contribution to the improvement of the people's welfare.
Measures which will conquer the backwardness and stagnation of Japanese economy and establish a symmetric structure of national economy, as an economic basis for a peaceful JAPAN, must be expected in the future. It is evident, however, that we must now forcibly execute a democratic revolution in economy along the line of rehabilitation since the reparation program of the Allied Powers is so severe.
At present, the ruling class is endeavoring to maintain its position, and its wishful thinking and loose perspective regarding the future remain unchanged. There prevails in some financial circles such optimistic views, may, illusions, that the reconstruction of industry and the prosperity of finance can be brought about by the introduction of foreign investments, dependent upon American capitalism. Of course, they are never actively sincere. They have no ability to draft measures which can maintain a minimum of national economy under present conditions.
Since the reparations plan aims to make JAPAN unable to rearm, and aims to stabilize her economy and democratize her political life, it is anticipated that almost all industrial equipment of the chemical and heavy industries and, of course, military plants (other then the Public and private assets overseas), will be eliminated. They are to be used in the reconstruction and economic strengthing of emancipated countries in ASIA.
Then, how did the Government and financial leaders present their case to the American Members of the reparations committee, in order to enable them to judge this problem fairly? Did the Government and financial leaders make efforts to come to a clear understanding with AMERICA on a plan of maintaining the minimum reproductive capacity of our national economy? How will it become possible to reconstruct our industry when this plan comes into force? For example, to what extent can 80 million people be supported by an industrial set up, almost half of which is to be reduced by reparation? Since our Nation next maintain[illegible]its existence, there should be some rational plan prepared for reconstruction.
If the present Government is not confident of success in this plan, the Government should retire immediately, and those who can prosecute this plan, must appear on the political stage. If reparations are taken from those properties under the possession and control of the ZAIBATSU, the latter will be practically destroyed and the opportunity to make the ZAIBATSU the propelling power in another war will be gone forever. However, the question is, "How should the compenstation of reparation in kind be managed?" Such measures as announced by the Finance Minister SHIBUSAWA that the Government will compensate munitions companies for losses due to reparations, at the expense of the people, and that revenue obtainers by the newly created property and war-profits taxes will be spent in the interest of bond holders can never be successful in the democratization of economy.
Now, the problem of distribution, which aims to equalize the people's income and to drive out starvation and unemployment, is much more important. If incomes could be [illegible]ributed fairly and equally among the people, the standard of living of the masses would be no lower than it is today, is spite of the reduction of the total amount of capital in the country. The comment, in which Mr. PAULEY promises us that "by the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 97 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
reparations policy the Japanese will realize than peace and democracy will bring them an abundant life which they could never enjoy under militarist rule", must be considered deeply, and the people must advance toward a democratic revolution.
ITEM 3 The Agrarian Reform Bill - Mainichi Shimbun - 11 Dec 45. Translator: M Kato.
Full Translation:
The Agrarian Reform Bill has been discussed in the Diet on the principle that idle farmers are not farmers, however, through SCAP such debate in the Diet has become no longer necessary. This reveals the fact that the present farm land system is recognized as notching more than a remnant of the feudal system.
In accordance with this directive the Japanese government must present a concrete plan by 31 March next year. The plan must be complete in provisions concerning a tenants' fund to purchase farm and from the owner, and will eventually leave no farm in the hands of absentee owners. In AMERICA farmers are tilling farms of an average of 47 acres, while, individual farms in JAPAN cover only a small area. Moreover, at present, the tenants must pay half their crop to the owners as farm rent, and the interest rate on funds to purchase fertilizer in higher in proportion to their income than that paid by merchants.
Farming personnel have hitherto had no educational opportunity or power to elevate their position through knowledge. They have been both oppressed and unprotected. Therefore the necessity for their liberation and possess their own farm land, is keenly felt. At the same time there should be a re-examination of the yearly increasing population in agrarian districts and the resulting remarkable increase in population of farming towns and villages. To elevate the status of the farmers, a farm larger than the former minimum is an absolute necessity. Future farm land now under reclamation is, in most cases, inferior in productive power, and further tends to be an easy prey to natural calamity. Thus without much investment, the farmers' exertion may result in failure.
The price of our country's agricultural products can be shown by the following relative figures: 100 in 1935, 99 in 1938, and 177 in 1940 while the price of products by manufacturing industry rose from 100 in 1935 to 284 in 1938. Since after 1940 the increase in price of agricultural products is recognized as a result of the war, farmers are looked upon as war profiteers.
In 1910, most of 450,000 voters were farmers and the finance of our country depended upon the land tax. Therefore, the political party had its foundations in the rural community, and Japanese popular rights had their original birth in rural society. However, since land ownership has been so favored, stress has been laid on protection of absentee owners, because of urban capital's influence upon the rural community. The contention of the so-called liberals who are unwilling to part with their land because the proprietorship is acknowledged in the Constitution can be explained by the fact that political parties have chiefly depended upon the land ownership in rural districts.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 97 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
When the landed proprietors talked about the leadership of rural society they undoubtedly mean the unscrupulous landowners.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0097, 1945-12-13.
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