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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0087, 1945-12-14.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0311

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 311 Date: 14 Dec 45


ITEM: 1 The Improvement in Treatment of Teachers - Niigata Nippo - 6 Dec 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
It is reported that a nation-wide teachers! union is now under consideration. Its purpose is to devise means for the reconstruction of the educational system to enable it to help with the building of a new and democratic JAPAN.
The reconstruction of the educational system, however, cannot be accomplished without the cooperation of the people. First of all we must consider whether or not teachers are receiving proper treatment. Black market prices are now becoming so high that the average person is unable to make enough to buy food. This situation is especially disastrous to those living on a fixed income, and teachers, of course, come within the fixed income category.
It is surprising to learn that in NIIGATA Ken the average monthly income of middle school teachers is 120 yen; that of higher girls! school teachers, 113 yen; and that of national (primary) school teachers, as low as 64 yen. National school teachers are paid an average salary of 80 yen per month with special family allowances. How can they face the inflation with so poor an income? The only way to alleviate this situation is to increase their salaries.
However, there is an ordinance which prohibits any increase in the, salaries of teachers. Therefore we must first revise this ordinance to shift the responsibility of aid to teachers back to the cities, towns and villages. Also, supplies of such items as rice, should be considered. There is also the problem of living quarters for teachers. In this prefecture those who are transferred from one place to another, usually face problems of finding living accomodations near their schools. How can we expect educational development under these circumstances? People of the prefecture must do their best to provide teachers with proper accomodations in order that their children may receive proper training, and in order that teachers might accomplish their mission of finding the causes which have led the people of JAPAN into their present state of misery and of finding the means by which the reconstruction of JAPAN is to be accomplished.
This is a great mission are we must conclude that there is no other way but for teachers to be relieved of their hardships in order that they may devote their full energies to its fulfillment.
ITEM 2 Diet Impressions - Yomiuri Hochi - 9 Dec 45. Translator: K. Ketel.
Ten days have passed since the opening of the Diet. I want to make

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 87 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
a short critical report on the Ministers, judging them by their relies on the floor.
Premier SHIDSHARA, since withdrawing his statement to the press association, endeavors to conceal his somewhat bureaucratic ideas. He shows us that his brain did not waste away during his fifteen years of leisure time.
Minister of Foreign Affairs YOSHIDA told us, "If you want more details please call on the Ministry on the fourth floor." He plays the leading role on the stage of the confused Diet, and seems unaccustomed to its atmosphere. [illegible]OSHIDA frankly shows his bureaucratic ideals. He has by no means any hope of becoming a Diet politician.
MATSUMURA, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, has the bad habit of finding pleasure in replying. However, his answers are long and dull. He feels no antipathy toward people who question him whatever their party might be.
Finance Minister SHIBUZAWA is gentlemanly and earnest. He examines matters carefully and acts swiftly. However, one cannot trust him very much. Although, he skillfully developed the plans for a five year project in a very short time. He is well aware of his position, and even refused by the Progressive Party to become its president.
Home Minister HORIKIRI gives the impression of being a virgin. He is savagely sincere, and makes very intelligent replies, but the slightest tone of the politician in him can not be found.
MAEDA, Minister of Education, was a member of the Home Ministry. His appearance is somewhat like that of a waiter. He has seen the world, possesses a very attractive character, and speaks vehemently and eloquently.
Minister of State MATSUMOTO is a Government leader. He answers systematically all questions concerning the Constitution or the Emperor System and furthermore, wants to teach such matters. He does nto say directly whether or not the constitutional investigation of KONOYE and KIDO is within the power of the investigation, but he speaks in such a clever way that we are able to understand what he means. Everyone is satisfied with his gentle manner of answering questions.
Justice Minister d IWATA do not quite so skilful in forming replies because of his rural background. In his reply to MATSUMURA, Imperial nominee to the House of Peers, which claimed that there is less majesty in carrying a discussions about the Emperor System, there was some bungling.
Welfare Minister ISHIDA seems to have no faults, but, on the other hand, he has no talents. As a party member he should be more skillful, but, perhaps his docterate in law is a hindrance to him.
TANAKA of the Tea Transportation Ministry seems to have a grasp of the problems concerning transportation. He apparently tries to make his replies agreeable to everyone by using extra polite forms in his speech.
OGASAWARA, Minister of Commerce and Industry, is a well informed
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 87 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
man. He seems to enjoy answering questions a great deal.
KOBAYASHI of the Rehabilitation Board gives the impression of being a hand-Shaking merchant.
In conclusion we may say that although the cabinet possesses few faults, it is in no outstanding.
ITEM 3 Japan Should Grow Young Again - Mainichi Shimbun - 9 Dec 45. Translator: I. Hotta.
Full translation:
Supreme Headquarters is making steady progress in arresting suspected Japanese war criminals while the Diet is disputing war crimes. This fact proves that any pleas the influential persons of various classes make is ineffectual. We Japanese must weigh our words and deeds lest we add the shame of meanness to defeat. We should also make certain of the right way by strict self-examination.
It is not easy to limit what is called the war responsibility to persons and age. The war criminals who are nominated by the Americans are not necessarily the same as those whom we Japanese think are war criminals. There are some who are certainly war criminals in our sense though they are not nominated by Supreme Headquarters. There is no other way for JAPAN than to depend upon the judgment of the people themselves if she wants to decide the war criminals. The decision, however, is difficult as has been mentioned. It is because we are possessed with the word "war responsibility". Is this word applied' to the responsibility for causing the war or being defeated? Should we trace it back to the prewar days? How far back should we trace it?
Those discussions arise because we are bound to the words "war responsibility". As for the responsibility for loading JAPAN to the present collapse, apart from the word "war responsibility", all those who have made a mistake or who have played a spectator's part should naturally take responsibilities, as should those who could not save the country from the collapse. It is natural for the Diet members, not to speak of the military and official leaders, to be counted as war responsible persons, for they have not been able to do their duty. We may say that ever one who gained an important post recently in JAPAN is responsible for leading JAPAN to the present state, and in this meaning, we people are also responsible for having elected for a long while these who were worthy of taking part in the Government.
However, we do not aim to discuss the responsibility for the present collapse of JAPAN. We want to make clear how the responsible persons, especially those who were in the leading roles, should take their responsibilities. Some of them may be punished for viclating the law, and some may be morally responsible. However, it is of the greatest importance that all of them should resign from their influential posts never to regain such situations again. This aims at the permanent retirement of these who have been set up as the leaders of our country. There may be some among them who have never made a mistake to be blaned for, but it is the indispensable premise for the reconstruction of JAPAN that they also resign with good grace to entrust matters to younger persons. Some may say that even those who
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 87 (Continued)
ITEE 3 (Continued)
were in leading posts will be useful to the country if they renew their thought and work with responsibility. There is justice in it, but objectively, their thought is bound to the past, and it is almost impossible to adapt their thoughts to the present.
Aged persons have held leading posts in our country since the MEIJI Restoration and facts both in the governmental and official worlds prove that this rendered if impossible for JAPAN to go on with the rapid tide of the times. Let us redo up the members of the House of Representatives for example. The average age of the members after the first election, in 1890 was 42, which increased with the times till it was over in 1980 was 42, which increased with the times till it was over 50 in the thirteenth election. It became 54 in the 21st election. The average are is still increasing in spite of the fact that new people are recently coming out. This is because the more times a member is elected, the more possible his success in succeeding elections becomes. Thus, the foundation of aged, men leading JAPAN grew firmer for the mere reason that they were old. The average age of the members of the House of Representatives will grow to 56 or 58, passing over the present 54. It is the very conservatism, penetrating the general public, that has permitted this situation.
Now, we people are awakened. We are conscious of the fact that the rejuvenation of JAPAN, which means the, rejuvenation of the leaders of the various classes, is the indispensable necessity for reconstruction. This necessity must be recognized also as a way to solve the problem respecting war responsibility which has been previously mentioned. The anxiety for entrusting matters to the young should be dispensed at this time, because such an anxiety has prevented the development of JAPAN, and has always obstructed the reform of our country and society. We must not forget that the present miserable defeat is unexpectedly shedding a ray hope on JAPAN.
ITEM 4 Students and Coal - Mainichi Shimbun - 10 Dec 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
I am quite amazed to read an article saying that the Government is considering the dispatching of students to dig coal. We worked hard till the end of the war with no spare time for study. Now, we are going to make up the studies which have been neglected. We find many persons just demobilized or unemployed encouraging inflation by black market dealings and thus preventing us from the reconstruction of a new JAPAN. Such harmful persons should be sent to the mines. Is the Government foolish enough to think that students will be willing to work for low pay? (Letter from a student)
It is said that the Government is new preparing to mobilize students for coal production. We have worked very hard during the war and what was the result? It is ample time for study that we want most at present. There can not be too much time to recover the studies left so far behind during the war. The Government must know that the idea of sending students to mines is denying education and trampling upon the students.
Some students may cry, "Let us go to mines for the sake of the country." But we must remember that they are rightists imbued with ultranationalism and such students lack the love of learning. (Letter from a Higher School student)
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0087, 1945-12-14.
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