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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0081, 1945-12-09.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0284

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 284 Date: 9 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 81

ITEM 1 Meanings of Proposals on Labor Union Bill - Mainichi Shimbun - 8 Dec 45. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
Every commodity has both its value and price in the capitalistic economic system. Sometimes the price is higher than the value, or in other cases the price is lower than the value. But as a rule there is the trend that the price of a commodity is equal to its value. Usually the capitalists gain their net profits by selling their commodities at the price of the value of these commodities. But if the price of a commodity is permanently higher than its value in certain circumstances, the capitalists who produce these commodities gain excessive profits over the mean profits. If such "certain circumstances" can be brought about by external economic forces or if they are based on a feudalistic economic system, the excessive profits are unjustifiable. Any such feudalistic conditions must be removed as soon as possible in order to realize the democratization of the economic system.
No one can deny that labor is one of the commodities in our present society. If it is so, it has its value and price. And labor is almost the only commodity which has been traded for so many years at a lower price than its value. The price of labor is nothing but the wage. This ware is determined as with other commodities, by the relation between demand and supply. As a general rule in capitalistic economics, producing capacity is developed by a more extensive utilization of mechanical powers. Hence, the supply of labor is increased and the laborers are apt to be subdued by machines, resulting in the lowering of wages under the value of labor.
In addition to this general trend, a special feudalistic force has existed in JAPAN which accelerated the lowering of wages. This was the cheap price of labor in the farming villages. It is clear that Japanese agriculture is characterized by its small scale production, but in proportion, rent for tenant farmers was exceedingly high. As the result of this, the farmers who could not live from farming alone found jobs in factories, thus offering a cheap supply of labor. Once there was a time when so-called "dumping" was practiced. This meant the flooding of Japanese commodities into markets all over the world, since Japanese merchants took advantage of low wages in the country to lower production costs. Such low wages were based upon Japanese agriculture, that is, its feudalistic character. Such tendencies to lower the wages below the value of labor have been further accelerated by inflation in these days. It is well known that the wages or salaries were not raised to even double those before the war, whereas the prices of daily necessities were generally raised as much as twenty times.
The true character of the labor unions is to raise the price of labor

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 81 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
to its value by restricting the supply of labor. To provide for this, the laborers must be given, in the first place, complete freedom to form these unions. In the second place, such restrictions which bind the movements for raising wages must be removed. In the third place, the right of collective bargaining, which enables the representatives of the unions to negotiate labor difficulties and problems with employers, must be established. These three are the conditions necessary for the movement to improve labor conditions. The Labor Union Bill, which is to be proposed to the Diet at this session, can be said to fulfill the above-mentioned conditions to a certain extent, although it has still some points which we do not approve. We deem it a most progressive, epoch-making bill.
If this plan is realized, the labor unions of JAPAN will make great advances. Frequent labor disputes may be anticipated as one of the results of its passage. But they are nothing but attempts to raise the price of labor, which has hitherto been far below its value, to its normal level. Moreover, the influx of cheap labor from farming villages may be curbed by the establishment of collective bargaining.
Thus, if the price of labor is equal to its value then Japanese capitalism will be able to exist on a more impartial basis. This means the wiping out of feudalism in Japanese economy at the same time. It may be said that the development of labor unions is one of the essentials in the democratization of the Japanese economic system.
ITEM 2 At Last the Truth Has Been Revealed - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 8 Dec 45. Translator: K. Hirata.
Full Translation:
In looking back over history from the MUKDEN Incident up to the signing of our surrender, we must, first of all, try objectively to remember the situations of those days, For instance, the situation in CHINA and in MANCHURIA should be considered and various facts, such as the tendency of expansion by our excess population to foreign countries, our national policy, adopted in the MEIJI Era, of prosperity based on military power, our national prestige which became more exalted after every war, are interesting as indices of events. Therein is to be seen the trend of history.
The last Greater East ASIA War, origin[illegible]ting with the MUKDEN Incident and further extending to the rise of Manchurian and Chinese Incidents, ended at last in our deplorable defeat. It is needless to say that the Greater East ASIA War was plotted by our militarists, who at the same time desired to further their own ambitions by utilizing the trends of history and all available opportunities.
When we examine the relationship between this trend of history and those figures who became famous with it, we can clearly determine the development of militaristic interest, expecially of the military cliques. We cannot easily say when the militaristic clique in our country began but it is commonly known that it existed about the time of the MUKDEN Incident. Since then, they resorted to every possible means to increase their influence.
Military clans formed an organized group and did not represent the interests of any single figure. When we speak of the TOJO Military Clique, we do not necessarily mean the personal interest or influence of TOJO alone. General TOJO, as its head, only represented the existing interests. Therefore, although General TOJO should undoubtedly
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 82 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
assume responsibility for the war, it must be considered that even without hire the war would have occurred by the very existence of this belligerent military clique in our country. They achieved their ambitions frequently by the suppression of popular will. Although we cannot briefly define a BATSU clique, we can easily say that it signifies control of a majority by a minority. Therefore, it is quite natural that whenever political power is in the hands of a clique, popular will is suppressed.
A characteristic of military cliques is that the means of suppressing popular will is the utilization of force; however, it is not always used. In this respect, our nation must try to prevent the rise of other cliques in the future. The idea should not be ridiculed, especially if we imagine the rise of democratic cliques in the future.
We should not overlook various opportunistic interests which, in co-operation with the military cliques, always utilize the current trends, militarists are found even outside military circles; among them are the advocates of continental policy and a certain group of bureaucrats. Because of the undeniable fact that they utilized the militarists and the trend of the times to achieve their ambitions, thereby increasing the inevitability of the continuance of the trend, they are as much responsible for the war as are the militarists. Some of them were obliged to go along with the trend, unwittingly or for their own convenience. It is, however, undeniable that they utilized other vested interests to achieve their own ambitions. Among our leaders will be discovered many such fakes and opportunists. We must take considerable precautions against them in the future. History from the MUKDEN Incident up to our surrender reveals to us what the other nations of the world know very well. By realizing that JAPAN's current plight is attributed to the misplanning by militarists grouped around military cliques, we must try to adopt a course which will insure that we never again fall into our present pitiable plight.
ITEM 3 Ornamental Leaders - Yomiuri-Hochi - 8 Dec 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full Translation:
Prince NASHIHOTO, who was ordered arrested by Allied Headquarters as a war criminal, said in an interview with the press that he had been a mere ornament forced to accede to a leading position, and therefore, he could not fully understand why he should be treated as a war criminal.
The more frank and pious wore his views expressed, the more disgusted we feel. Of course, we are very sorry for the Prince himself. Alas, so many irresponsible persons were situated in high positions and many worthless men shamelessly existed in the leading circles of our govern rent during the war! Briefly spelling, these irresponsible leaders may be exempted from the war criminals list and released. But how can we justify their being in those positions? How can we bear, to hear that he did not work actively and had no enthusiasm to work hard during the war? What shall we say to the fact that we worked so hard that we even sacrificed our lives under these leaders?
We sacrificed not only ourselves but our families with a burning patriotism under a whip lashed by these militarists. We are the ones
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 81 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
who are left starved, unemployed, diseased, deferred and whose families have survived fathers, sons and brothers under the miserable circumstances of the defeat. We hate such militarists, military factions, bureaucrats, capitalists and politicians who drove us onward into war. But we cannot help sympathizing with the self - criticisms, creeds and devoted endeavors of those who have realized their own war crime and responsibility for their mistakes and deficiencies, even though we hate them. because of their defeats. They are guilty and must be fully punished. But what shall we do with such criminals of war as "did not work especially actively and also had no special enthusiasm to work for the war"? It is hoped that the Supreme Allied Headquarters may let them justify themselves and they may be freed. But do they know how to apologize to us for their foolishness? Do they realize how those who sacrificed their lives and protected their country to the last moment are now burdened down with hardships? Let these people apologize to us and prostrate themselves before the nation without pride or property.
DISTRIDUTION: "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0081, 1945-12-09.
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