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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0077, 1945-12-11.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0279

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 279 Date: 11 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 77

ITEM 1 Impressions of the Prime Minister's Speech on the Administrative Policy - Chugoku Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: H. Arai.
Extracts:
Prime Minister SHIDEHARA's speech on administrative policy was, very commonplace. We have found from a study of this speech how many difficult and complex problems defeated JAPAN is facing, and what a hard future lies before us in the establishment of a new JAPAN. Minister SHIDEHARA is not qualified to solve these vital problems, which will decide JAPAN's future and have a profound influence upon our national life. We are not shown any complete and definite policies by the present Cabinet. But we may be thankful for its efforts to meet this troublesome situation, even though all its measures are results of the directive by the Supreme Allied Headquarters.
The SHIDEHARA Ministry was not formed as a result of the Prime Minister's desire to solve the grave problems, nor was he selected by a nation which believed that he was the only person who would be able to cope with the situation. What we want now is not a speech on administrative policy, but active discussions which can be carried on by all political parties. We desire them to raise opposition to the Government in order to stimulate discussion and criticism. In this way, constructive ideas and plans can be formulated for the Nation which was overrun by the worst possible despotism. At present this Nation is desperately in need of moral as well as physical courage.
ITEM 2 Apology by the Army, and War Responsibility - Kahoku Shimpo - 3 Dec 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Extracts:
War Minister SHIMOMURA, before the 29 November session of the House of Representatives, apologized to the nation for the crimes committed by the Army, Many representatives were moved to tears. To our knowledge the Army has made no unconditional apology for its misdeeds. For the Army's miserable end, we also weep with sympathy.
Nevertheless, while being swayed with feeling, we should not neglect to seek out war, responsibility. We are not going to seek responsibility in order to persecute the suspects. Our object is to investigate its causes dispassionately so that the nation will not repeat its crimes. The war suspects without giving evasive answers or looking to their own safety should make a clean breast of past crimes and cooperate with us in investigating the causes. They must realize that it is the only way to rectify their responsibility.
Meanwhile, the Government in accepting its own responsibility, should endeavor to clarify the situation. We have had nothing to boast of but the existence of our Army and Navy. We have been taught to

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 77 (Continued)
ITTE 2 (Continued)
believe that our military strength was worthy of pride, but it has been clearly demonstrated that our power was inferior to that of other countries, and contrary to the interests of humanity.
We are now entrusted with the mission of contributing to world culture. The Government must, therefore, do its utmost to restore national self-confidence and vigor.
ITEM 3 Labor Unions and the Wage Problem - Kahoku Shimpo - 4 Dec 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Extracts:
The Labor Union Bill will be enacted shortly. It proposes to handle labor problems by equal representation, but if the labor committee members are selected unjustly, the differences between capital and labor will become violent. As their relations were not entirely harmonious during the war, they must be adjusted as soon as possible. Laborers should be treated with justice.
What will be labor's attitude toward such problems as increased unemployment, slow reconversion from munitions to peacetime industry, the sudden rise in living expenses, and the revision of the Wages Control Law?
It is certain that strikes for better working conditions will increase. To prevent this, the wage problem must be completely solved. Most of the expense of living is now being consumed for black market purchases of food, but one cannot foresee when prices of commodities will be lowered. Hence, wages must be set in proportion to the profits of capitalists and the rise in the cost of living.
As long as the problem of unfair distribution exists, prices of commodities and wages cannot be permanently adjusted. The only security for laborers will be that offered by the labor unions. In this sense, the labor unions will offer security, but existing economic conditions are becoming a great menace to the unions themselves. Therefore, authorities should systematically investigate the problems of profits, prices of commodities and wages.
ITEM 4 Lets Democratize The Police System and Elect the Chief of Police by Popular Vote - Asahi Shimbun - 7 Dec 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Extracts:
The establishment of a democratic police force is to be made by improving police officers' character, but it will be useless to promote such a plan unless the police are better-paid. It is common knowledge that police are callous in the performance of their duties. Higher officials are also extremely cold and uncooperative. The rivalry among police officers is more intense than in any other social institution. Sections compete with each other for the number of people they succeed in arresting. Supervisors of each police station issue orders for the arrest and the totals are recorded. The officers arrest, therefore, even the petty offenders, and lock them up for the night in the house of detention.
Since the end of the war, the rate of atrocious crimes as well as larceny is increasing daily. This is a matter of deep concern. Among the criminals are those who committed petty crimes, driven by hardship
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POLITICAL SERIES: 77 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
of the times. We policemen are obliged to arrest such offenders against our will for fear of the supervisors. Since such is the case, we can not tell whether the police is maintained for the people or the people for the police. The chief of a police station gives out the number of arrests each month. This, I think, aggrovates the evil. It is of no use to order policemen to reform their policies so long as the supervisory organization is not reformed. (Letter from a policie officer, TOKYO).
There is nobody as distent from the masses of people as the police officer. Police have been organized to protect peoples' rights, yet the people and the police are estranged. Now is the right time to construct a democratic police force to befriend the masses. The qualifications for service should be higher than merely completion of middle school as at present. The training period for police should be longer than two years.
Moreover, facilities for policemen must be improved. If they have no security, it will be unreasonable to expect them to be men of pure heart and clean hands, who will maintain the dignity of their office. (Letter from a dentist MIYAGI Prefecture).
I am in favor of a reformed police system. Police authority and jurisdiction should be transferred from the Government to the people, and the chief of each police station as well as the judges of the courts should be elected by popular vote from candidates of moral influence and real ability within the district. Appointments and dismissals should be made only after consultation with the chairman of the provincial assembly and the prefectural governor.
Today, election of governors by popular vote has already been decided. With the adoption of this system, the people in each locality will be able to administer and supervise legislation and administration, and to dispose of corruption through their own democratic responsibility. (Letter from a primary school teacher, NAGANO Kew).
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