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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0068, 1945-12-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0260

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 260 Date: 7 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 68

ITEM 1 New Facts on Lunch Robberies - Tokushima Shimbun - 25 November 1945. Translator: I. Hotta.
Extracts:
The food problem is growing more serious daily. It is indeed deplorable that the schools are obliged to suspend classroom work temporarily because of the food shortage. The fact that the teachers dispossess students of what they cultivate in the school garden is always given as a reason for the strikes in middle schools. The pilfering of lunches in the national schools (TN. Elementary schools) is a frequent occurance. Such cases are indeed shameful. The school authorities intend to suspend classroom work in order to settle these cases, but holidays cannot solve the food problem. Neither the general public nor the school authorities know how to solve this problem.
The present supplies of food staples are inadequate to meet the demand, and it is difficult for the general public to obtain food staples and other rations because of excessive prices resulting from the black market. There are some who cannot work because of the lack of food.
Some families in TOKUSAIMA Sho are dying from hunger. Families with many children are especially suffering from the food shortage, and this has resulted in the lack of many students having lunches at school who inturn steal from others. The cases of pilfery in national schools are extending to middle schools. This particular case occurred in a middle school in the farm district, most of the students of this a school are the sons of farmers, but it was discovered that about ten students were without lunches.
The teachers can relieve the situation by giving them the potatoes which they have cultivated, or collecting a small quantity of rice from each student. The reasons for the inability of students to bring lunches to school should be carefully determined, and we think it is the responsibility of the educators to study these problems and take the necessary measures to correct them.
It is really surprising that this case happened in a middle school, which is different from a national school. We pray that not only the educational authorities but the general public will pay strict attention to this fact and consider the necessary action.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 68 (Continued)
ITEM 2 About the Diet Discussions - Chubu Nippon Shimbun - 1 December l945. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Extracts:
In his administrative speech Prime Minister SHIDEHARA declared that the compass of international relations must not be arms, but virtue. HATOYAMA, president of the Liberal Party, stressed that a world policy must be based upon joint international responsibility by the world powers. These two statements sum up the beliefs of the Japanese Government and Nation in this respect. To our disappointment, the Liberal Party did not refer to this matter. After stressing the necessity of construction Japanese democracy, Mr. HATOYAMA pointed out the weakness of democracy, warning the people that they should clearly distinguish liberty from lawlessness.
The speech of SAITO, Takao, Progressive, on the war responsibility is representative of what our nation really thinks. At any rate, it is the food problem that concerns the Japanese people. To our great regret, the discussions made so far on this matter have been rather dull. Not only the Government but also the Diet seems to have no outstanding policy on the matter. The cardinal points of the food policy are the following three: 1. Extending national movements to strengthen the compulsory allotment system for rice; 2. asking for Allied Headquarters' permission to import food; and 3, utilizing food iteis not used so far.
We expect the Government to take every effective means to realize the above points. At the same time we must bear in mind that the compulsory allotment system of rice requires the full co-operation of the farmers.
The utilization of the so-called 'unused food item" requires nation-wide co-operation. We are allowed by Allied Headquarters to import food only when the world food situation permits and our Nation's efforts to produce food is certified by Allied Headquarters as being strenuous. Therefore, the effective execution of the food policy obviously requires the Nation full co-operation, and it is up to the Diet members to carry on effective means in co-operation with the Government.
ITEM 3 "The Finance Minister is Extremely Lacking in Responsibility in the Present Situation" - Mainichi Shimbun - 5 December 1945. Translator: S. Furakawa.
Full Translation:
The speech of the Finance Minister at the plenary meeting of the house of Representatives on 3 December can be summarized into the following points:
According to the budget for the next fiscal year, the ordinary revenue is estimated at 12,000,000,000 yen, while the ordinary expenditure will require 13,600,000,000 yen, showing a shortage amounting to l,600,000,000 yen.
Such expenditures as war calamity rehabilitation, increase of food production, relief for Japanese returning from overseas, welfare measures because of the suspension of the pension system, sustenance of the occupation forces, reparations, and compensation for lost overseas investments must be added to the ordinary expenditures, bringing the total sum of expenditures to an astronomical figure.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 68 (Continued)

ITEM 3 (Continued)
By taxing profits and property, the revenue is estimated to be increased to 100,000,000,000 yen which is scheduled to be appropriated for the redemption of the national debt.
Increase of the income tax and of the price of popular luxuries such as wine and tobacco is under consideration.
All the war insurance and indemnities for the losses caused by the cancellation of public promises are to be paid.
The present banknote is to be exchanged for the new banknote which is to be issued from the Bank of JAPAN.

The above-mentioned points are all from the Finance Minister's speech at the plenary [illegible]eetingon Budget. The total amount of the expenditures in the next fiscal year is not shown clearly in his speech. But at any rate, it will amount to be less than 30 billion yen, including special expenditures for the Occupation Forces, compensation for oversea assets, and rehabilitation. With the ordinary expenditures which amounts to 13,600,000,000 yen, the total sum reaches to 43,600,000,000 or nearly 50 billion yen. On the other hand, the ordinary revenue amounts to only 12 billion yen, and it cannot reach over 20 billion even with the increase brought by income taxes, etc. The 100,000,000,000 yen which can be obtained from taxation of war profits and property cannot supply the shortage in the next fiscal year, because it is to be used for the redemption of national bonds.
The Finance Minister further states that the property value of those entitled to compensation will be grasped in to by the creation of new taxes, so we see that he stands on the principle of "give and take". Accordingly substantial increases by the new taxes would have to be lowered to 50 billion yen because of the compensation amounting to 50 billion yen. At any rate the budget of the next fiscal year will see a deficit amounting to at least 30 billion yen, according to the Finance Minister's statement.
Vicious inflation is now at hand. The increased spread of inflation is inevitable, if a financial shortage amounting to 30 billion yen should appear. We suppose that the Finance Minister is already aware of this danger, but in his speech we can not find anything designed to combat inflation. In the present Japanese economic situation, the most important and practically singular duty of the Finance Minister is to prevent inflation. From his speech we cannot out regard his attitude as that of a spectator looking at the inflation problem, which he terms "inevitable" in order to cover up for his inefficiency. His irresponsibility in the matter can be considered most extreme indeed.
Is it impossible to prevent inflation effectively by measures which the Finance Minister might take? We don't think that it is impossible. By the suspension of payment of compensation for war industry losses and others, the revenue of 100 billion yen can be obtained. Secondly, the payment of principal and interest of national bonds should be suspended temporarily. Third, the amount of currency should be cut down considerably by the compulsory exchange of the present banknote for new ones.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 68 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The deficit in the next fiscal year is to be 30 billion yen, and it will not he too difficult to overcome this deficit by revenue which can be obtained from taxes on war profits and property. By the temporary suspension of payment of principal and interest on national bonds, inflation will be checked. Also, there will be no need to be anxious about inflation because deposit money, which increased alarmingly during the war, will be decreased suddenly for the payment of property or war profit taxes.
Furthermore, it is possible to expect a fall in prices to some extent by the contraction of currency caused by issuing the new banknote. Thus, to prevent the increase of inflation, measures which will be effective in stabilizing the value of yen should be taken. The Finance minister has measures provided by the Supreme Commander against inflation. Nevertheless, he has no intention of taking these measures for effective use. We conclude that the arguments of the Finance Minister should be regarded as most unconvincing.
ITEM 4 Diet Impressions - Yomiun-Hochi Shimbun - 5 December 1945. Translator: H. Arai.
Full Translation:
Since Finance Minister SHIBUSAWA said that he had a five-year financial program to bridge the present financial troubles, representatives have asked him to state it plainly. However, we find that it exested only in his imagination. He could not show his so-called plan to them. He was obliged to draw up a concrete program in a hurry for presentation to then within a few days. Fortunately, nothing came of the affair, for the party with whom he conferred was not General MacARTHUR's Headquarters but Japanese representatives.
The operation of trains has not ween cut in half because of the coal shortage. The Department of Railways and Communications publicized the special increase in operation of trains half a month ago, and published the changes on all the railway lines on 20 November. But the coal shortage has now spread all over the country, hence the operation of trains has decreased rather than increased. Those who are being trouble are fortunately only the Japanese. If the Government's information to General MacARTHUR's Headquarters is wrong, they would at least have to make the responsible person apoligize. We Japanese, used to be played with by the authorities of the Army, Navy and officials, have been bred to be apathetic enough not to be surprised at these matters.
It is said that the members of the Diet will propose a joint resolution concerning the coal shortage to the Government, but we wonder if anymore coal will be dug out as a result of this resolution, and also we wonder if a miner will go to the mine to work because of the Government's support of the resolution. The trouble is that if miners are not given this resolution, but instead, sufficient food and sake, they would work so hard that the coal [illegible]ines would fairly hum with activity.
The solution is this case seems to be to beg General MacARTHUR's Headquarters to permit the import of foreign rice. Nevertheless, the agricultural authorities are publicizing self-supporting and self-sufficient programs with regard to development of manure, acorns, and potato-runner powder. If General MacARTHUR's Headquarters does not
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 68 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
give permission for food imports, and orders us to do with these programs as we like, what do you, the authorities, mean to do? When you beg, you must be frank.
KAWASAKI. Katsu, Progressive, claimed that when a majority party, is born in the general election, the Government will have to grant political rights to the patty. He is qualified to say this because he is not an official representative recommended by the Imperial Rule Assistance Association. For example, if a party such as the Progressive part, which has changed from the Imperial Rule Assistance Association into the Greater JAPAN Political Association and then into the Progressive Party with the same members, should become a majority party, the first question is whether General MacARTHUR'S Headquarters, not SHIDEHARA, will permit it. In former sessions of the Diet, what was an abnormal function for it used to be lightly passed over or ignored.
ITEM 5 Simplification of Election Campaigns - Tokyo Shimbun - 5 December 1945. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full Translation:
It seems to us, unbiased even by a lack of food, that judging from daily proceedings in the House of Commons, the members show far more eagerness in electoral preparations than in the solution of the food problem. They did not show the eagerness in discussing the food problem as was witnessed in a rollcall on a resolution concerning the responsibility for the war.
This Attitude is also shows in the report of a foreign newsman who was astonished at a scene in which some Peers were dozing while one of their colleagues was discussing the starvation of the people. A resolution adopted by the Prefectural Assembly of NIIGATA to the effect that the Government must postpone the general election indefinitely until the food crisis is over, is regarded as a protest by the people. Resolutions of this kind have not been adopted so far in prefectural assemblies other than NIIGATA, but there is some probability of its prevailing all over the land. Anile members probably will not go to the extent of adopting such a resolution, they may ignore the election. But viewed from another stand point, the general election may alleviate a food shortage for some people, because regulations and restrictions which have hitherto existed will be simplified or abrogated, and many of the unemployed will be employed as electoral campaigners. They may try to obtain special favors in the campaign in order to secure food. Candidates will not be able to gather electioneers without a supply of food and may fail in election. The abrogation of the restrictions on electioneering is very convenient for these electioneers. It is predicted that the prices of commodities may rise to a considerable extent as a result. But a general election, which serves only to increase prices of commodities, is purely detrimental to society.
However, a renovation of the Diet is very necessary and the election must be held at the earliest possible date. Therefore, we recommend complete management of electioneering by the Government. In order to avoid trouble with Government officials, candidates must simplify electioneering on a voluntary agreement among themselves. For instance, debates and statements can be limited, but they might be permitted to make further statements through radio and press. Although the electorial campaign has been unrestricte to a great extent, only those voluntarily set up on electorial organisation, which will not be inconvienient to the people, are fully qualified to be elected as our representatives.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0068, 1945-12-07.
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