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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0066, 1945-12-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0255

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
NO. 255 Date: 7 Dec 45.

EDITORIAL SERIES: 66

ITEM 1 Students' management of schools - Tokyo Shimbun - 5 Dec 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full Translation:
According to the TOKYO SHIMBUN of 27 November the Education Ministry is of the opinion that it cannot support student management of schools because of their unsatisfactory personal qualifications as students. Doesn't this correspond with the situation in the early days of the MEIJI Era when the authorities disapproved of the people's participation in politics and of the opening of a Diet?
As he grows older, the student manages first, a family, second, a society, and finally, a state. He should have reason enough to help manage his school while he is a student. I want to know how the Education Minister replies to the above premise. He who does not learn to manage a school properly may go into society and poorly manage the state; he may promote a police system, a public Procurator-General, or a Justice Minister whose subordinates trample upon the rights of the people. But a student, who mismanages his school shall be corrected by his teachers or comrades. We want to know whether or not the Education Ministry is eager enough to support the students' aims at achieving full democratization f school education along the lines of the POTSDAM Declaration. Since it is important for us to establish a democratized JAPAN, we expect an honest and responsible answer from the Education Ministry about this matter.
ITEM 2 Do not Neglect the Importance of Secondary School Education - Yomiuri Hochi - 5 Dec 45. Translate K. Hirata.
Full Translation:
Our educational reform has been set in motion under the guidance and pressure of Allied Headquarters. Surely, it is an about face in the educational policy peculiar to JAPAN. As the educational activities based on the new policy extend to a wider scope, there will occur remarkable changes in the ideas and deeds of our Nation. Generally there has been an inclination in our country to emphasize elementary and higher schools, while, on the other hand, secondary schools are apt to be somewhat neglected. The reason that the former attract our attention is that boys or girls receive a school education for the first time in their lives and that students go out into the world for the first time in their lives after receiving higher school education. On the other hand, the latter has nothing special to attract attention.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 66 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Secondary school boys and girls are in a "critical" period of their lives from all points of view such as mental development, physical growth or changes in social standing because the basis for their future moral living as well as their learning is being formed in this period, educators must take scrupulous and scientific care of them. However, who has hitherto paid special attention to those who are so apt to be easily injured or sensitive? In the case of secondary school boys, most of them enter the actual world after completing their school course. Also, almost all girls receive no further school education after the completion of a secondary school course of study. Viewed from this point, our secondary school education has been inclined to be half-way in its contents, failing to meet completely, the social demands. This demands improvement as quickly as possible. Although too much cannot be expected so long as time and manpower are limited. Presumably it would be effective to eliminate the present uniform educational system and instead afford educators plenty of room for innovations and to let pupils display their potential abilities. That is to say, what is most necessary in current educational circles is more respect for individuality.
There are none who lack so much enthusiasm as secondary school teachers. Generally speaking, we can put them under two categories. First, those who received our normal school training which is traditionally conservative. They are feminine and lacking in aspirations for learning. Second, come those who are and will remain teachers against their will. In our country few persons intend to start as secondary school teachers. Failing to attain their ambitions, they often become and remain secondary school teachers against their will. Recent school agitations give good testimony to the poor quality of our teachers. Therefore, coupled with the drastic reform of normal school education as well as better treatment of teachers, it is vitally necessary for the educational reform to afford teachers plenty of room for initiative.
The abolition of military training and other courses will no doubt be important. However, we cannot expect from such measures alone much effect upon the education of younger generations. It is feared that of late school boys have been inclined to become more and more slovenly. Contrary to the practice of the Western countries, in the Japanese type of education our boys are indulged in their childhood and then suddenly receive extremely severe treatment in their youth. Being brought up in this fashion, boys then receive strict military discipline at school. This only results in shutting up boys in cage. Therefore, once at free, out of the cage, it is quite natural that they should lose the power to voluntarily restrain themselves. Needless to say it is essential to democratic education develop[illegible]the power to control or restrain oneself. Therein lies the mission of educators.
For this purpose, it is important to lead boys so as to enable them to find by themselves the way they can control themselves. We must, also, elevate them by attracting their keen attention to all natural and social phenomenon, on the one hand, and on the other hand, b[illegible]letting them entertain noble aspirations for ideals or ideal figures in the domain of deeds and scholarship. Only by this type of education, will the power of younger generations prove available as a motivating force of social progress. We have stated the above about the importance of our secondary school education so that our nation may realize it more adequately.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 66 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Completeness in Questions and Answers - Asahi Shimbun - 5 Dec 45. Translator: Y. A. Suzuki.
Full Translation:
On the second day at the general meeting of the Budget Committee, held in the House of Representatives, the members earnestly discussed inflection and food problems. On the fourth day, the Election Law Committee was formed and on the same day questioning began as the council took up the business at hand. At the General Meeting of the Budget Committee, Mr. KAWASAKI, Katsu urged that since imposed taxes, such as the mar profits tax and property tax, amount to 100 billion yen, specific new financial laws covering them must be submitted to the people. Mr. TANAKA, Mitsugi asserted that, before burdening the people with such a great sacrifice, the Government, itself, should thoroughly readjust financial expenditures and the political organization which expanded so greatly during the war. Both opinions are reasonable and those problems must be dealt with immediately by the Government. However, the war profits tax and property tax, should not be criticized merely from the financial standpoint. They possess more importance as a social problem in the reconstruction of a defeated JAPAN. If this point is unnoticed then there is need for criticism.
Does value of adjusted currency promote inflation or does it aid in its prevention? It was quite clear that the purpose of this enforcement during the war was to prevent a rise in prices. Mr. TANAKA showed that several billion yen of uncontrolled currency was the greatest cause for accelerating inflation. The Finance Minister answered this by saying that the most important problems such as the coal situation should be solved gradually, and then steps be taken to lighten the consumer's burden. Otherwise, prices would immediately rise several hundred per cent. On the other hand the inflation counter-measures of financial currency control did not work. Careful considerations are; therefore necessary for there is great danger of chaos in values where a huge latent purchasing power exists.
A certain member of the Diet asked a question about the means of managing the coming general election campaign without publicity, requesting the Government to solve this problem. The Home Minister answered, "More than ten sheets of paper and a million postcards will be given to each candidate." The members cheered in spite of themselves. The members of the Diet are apparently more frank than one imagines.
ITEM 4 Fine Art Exhibition and Bureaucratic Policy - yomiuri Hochi - 5 Dec 45. Translator: M Kawanabe.
Summary:
The inability and conceit of our bureaucratic officers astonished us during the war and we can say that it continues to do so after learning that the first postwar exhibition of fine arts will be held under the auspices of the Ministry of Education.
We hoped for a lively and fresh exhibition with the appearance of new artists, aiming at the democratization and the advancement of Japanese fine arts. The announcement of the exhibition planned has completely surprised us. The nominated members, with the exception of only two or three, are those who have no cognizance f this new age, who have no visions toward the future of fine arts, and who have no intentions of correcting their old habits which spoiled the purity and independence of the fine arts in the past that such men should be appointed examiners, not to
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 66 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
mention the chief examiner who holds the high position of the Vice-Minister of Education, is unforgivable.
It is at least commendable that the free pass privileges of MUKANS class—a class whoso members have been permitted to exhibit their works without examination, has been suspended, but why do the authorities grant the free pass privilege to the former examiners? Everyone should be given an equal opportunity. The appointment of examiners should also be done by fine arts circles, without the participation of the educational authorities. The Education Ministry ought to encourage and promote the fine arts.
ITEM 5 Let us Overcome Traffic Difficulty Caused by the Lack of Coal - Asahi Shimbun - 5 Dec 45. Translator: K. Nobunaga.
Full Translation:
During the war four million tons of coal a month were produced in JAPAN, but, of late, the production has decreased to less than 500,000 tons. Railways need an average of, at least, 570,000 tons a month, and the total need, including other industries is, at least, 2,500,000 tons every month. Besides this, it will be necessary to supply a fixed amount of coal for the Allied Forces in our country. A decrease in transportation facilities and restrictions on gas and electricity are inevitable, but when we think of our national life, our hearts ache in the cold and darkness caused by the lack of coal.
The railway authorities concerned must take further action to solve this problem and must not forgot that our people, in general, will willingly undergo further sacrifice for the common benefit. Disorder in transportation can be obviated by arranging more racks and straps as quickly as possible on the tram cabs, and also by regulating exits and entrances of the cars.
By preventing people from getting in and out of car windows and requiring more orderly entry into the cars, traveling conditions will greatly improve. Station workers and car men should be more courteous to passengers. Restoration of normal conditions far our defeated country must first begin with the orderly transportation of our people.
ITEM 6 The Transitional Cabinet on One Side, the Diet Members Concerned with the General Election on the Other Side - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 5 Dec 45.
Full Translation:
The synthetic counter measures against inflation view from the problems of goods, currency, and others are, at present, most essential to stabilize the people's standard of living. We were quite discouraged in the Diet members' interpellations and the government's answers at the budget plenary session of the Lower House held on 4 December. If we fail to prevent inflation, now, we shall never be able check it later. Allow inflation to get a start and it will destroy the people's standard of living in the near future. Nevertheless, the interpellations and answers at the Diet were only abs[illegible]act and superficial, and did not impress us with a feeling of concern. The Diet members and the Government seemed to think inflation was not their concern.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 66 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
For instance, the greater part of Mr. TANAKA, Mitsugu's interpellation was literal and meagre in concrete details. He merely said, "Let the rationing of rice be carried out by a method suitable to the circumstances of the agricultural districts," but did not explain the real situation. Thus he revealed his complete lack of statesmanship as a representative of the people. As for the government ministers who are responsible for that problem such as Finance Minister SHIBUSAWA, Commerce Minister OGASAWARA, and Agricultural Minister MATSUMURA made their replies consistent, but their policies lacked a positive approach to the question. The Finance Minister, especially, showed no self-confidence, repeating "under investigation" or "under study". Even the Finance Minister who should be the pivot of the policy was so unreliable that we all felt helpless.
Though the Premier said, "The Cabinet as a whole must bear the responsibility for inflation," this is too vague a reply to see where the responsibility lies. Hence it is clear that the Cabinet cannot take the responsibility at all. We want the Cabinet to select a minister who will assume responsibility and take appropriate, action.
While the Diet remained idle, the end of the session is drawing near. Among the important bills, the Diet only took up the Election Law, and left the Farm Land System Bill and the Labor Union Bill intact. An atmosphere which seeks to prolong the session has been created. But the adjournment is not worthy of the present Diet, because the Diet itself has no merits. The great majority of the representatives are occupied in the question of how they will excuse their war responsibility and express their repentance. They wish to save their faces. And of course, are occupied in the coning general election. Their mental calculation concerning the next regime and the effect of the mandate for the arrest of war criminals on 3 December has caused then to lose their composure and unity, hence the Diet is assumes a lower plane every day.
It is useless to deliberate the Farm Lane Bill and Labor Union Bill which are the most essential bases for democratizing JAPAN in such an inactive Diet which is made up of representatives elected under the Recommendation System. If they dare to deliberate on those bills, they may be said to be extremely presumptuous. Let the Parliament be dissolved immediately after passing the Election Bill and a new lively democratic Government be established as soon as possible. If the representatives call the SHIDEHARA Cabinet a "cabinet of election," the present session of the Diet is certainly nothing but a session of election, too.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0066, 1945-12-07.
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