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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0059, 1945-12-05.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0233

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 233 Date: 5 Dec, 1945


ITEM 1. Awaken the Educational Group. Asahi Shimbun. 3 Dec. 45. Translator M. Kato.
The attitudes of educators who are engaging in the important business of the education of the younger generation may be attributed to the distorted educational system of the normal school, from which they graduated As students of the normal school, they were instructed and disciplined along strictly military lines, individual freedom was ignored, and they were packed in dormitories under the supervision of bureaucratic directors. The result was the production of weak and ineffective teachers.
As graduates, they could not expect any proper treatment from society. The pay was low, their social standing low. In the case of village teachers they were obliged to follow the directions of the village mayor or even the village farmers who were members of the village Agricultural Association. There were cases in which the educational authority was violated by these village leaders. Such being the case, those instructors and specifically schoolmasters, who wanted to distinguish themselves tended to be hypocritical. They resorted to every means to make themselves well known in order to rise in pay and position, they ignored the cultural advancement in an attempt to boast outward splendor in school management or in teaching methods, which led to formality, lack of originality and positiveness in education.
Once selected as school inspectors through bribes from teachers, they became corrupt. The abuse of their authority has long been a target of criticism. To prevent this abuse of authority, we must keep a sharp eye on their moves lest innocent instructors be dismissed in the eradication of militaristic and ultra-nationlistic elements in our educational circles.
Our suggestion for reform is to establish an organization to supervise district education. It would be composed of inspectors elected from teacher as well as the governmental inspectors. Thus the democratization of education by our own hands might be attained. On the staff, instructors will be added and occasionally alternating appointments between the schools and the organization must be attempted in order to utilize the experiences of instructors.
In addition instructors treatment particularly in the villages should be much improved in order to prevent their wrongdoings because of their scanty livelihood. There are many pending problems to solve in the educational world, however the above mentioned evils should be given priority for solution.

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ITEM 2. The Fickle and Frivolous Japanese. Yomiuri-Hocki. 3 December 1945. Translator Unayama-T.
Full Translation:
Colonel R. C. Kramer declared that he has been informed there is no proof to substantiate the allegations in a recent Public Relations Office press release that the Mitsubishi interests presented to Tojo Hideki: a house and money totaling 10,000,000 yen as gifts! This declaration has been made after inquiring thoroughly into the Japanese sources of the information at the request of the Mitsubishi interests.
Notwithstanding the fact that this problem has no relation to the actual dismemberment of the Mitsubishi interests and Tojo's crimes, the authorities of the Allied Powers have been seeking accurate reports. The feeling of greater respect and reliance on the part of the Japanese people has resulted from this just and fair attitude of the Allied Powers. On the other hand, their ill feeling is accentuated against the Japanese who offered groundless information to such authorities.
For example, they remark that it is doubtful that General Arake was a great influence behind General Tojo. They also say it may be a mistake to think that General Mazaki was an adviser to the China expeditionary force. Be they true or not, these allegations have little relation to the fundamental reasons for which these two generals were called war-criminals. But the masses want v[illegible]racity even in trifling matters. I f these charges were mistakes the responsibility lies with the Japanese who offered this intelligence to the Allied Powers with the intent of lessening the confidence in the Allied Powers.
As we read in the Shi-King (an anthology of ancient Chinese poems compiled by Confucius), the coquetries of the women of Shang, indifferent to the reality of the lost battle, are seen in every country from ancient times. The shameful conduct of the men who trail at the Chinese after vying in imitation of the Mongolian, as an old Chinese poem says. is more unsightly than the coquettish behavior of women. We venture, therefore, to warn those men among the Japanese who are both fickle and frivolous.
ITEM 3. Planned Trade and start of Economic Control Again. Mainichi-Shimbun. 3 Dec. 45 Translator K. Hirata.
Full Translation's
Recently the Government plan regarding trade covering the period up to the end of 1946 was revealed. The projected plan is not yet decisive in many points. It is to be expected that the scope and extent of the permission to be granted by the Allies, as will as the question of shipping capacity may affect the planned program. According to the plan, imports amount to 28,000,000,000 yen, the exports exceeding 30,000,000,000. These are no small figures in Japan [illegible]s situation. But, at any rate the planning of our economy is about to develope afresh, centering on trade. It has been our wish that control restrictions would come to an end after the war. Recently the government clarified its intention to lift the wartime control regulations as quickly as possible and restore the normal condition of free economy. However, long as foreign trade is to be put under government control, home trade must also come under the same restriction, the latter having much to do with the former. It is needless to say that planned economy is an economic organization which ranks above control economy. Control economy is inevitable before planned economy is carried out.
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ITEM 3 (Continued)
In the case of prejected trade planning, an official and a civil organ will be set up to handle matters relative to planning and trading. It is anticipated that there will be divided into sections according to various categories of exports or imports, destintions, etc. These organs will naturally allot imports to consumers and emports to producers. As the scope of allotment extends to the lower groups, the articles to be submitted to the planning programs will increase until all home economy will inevitably be placed under control. We cannot evade the planning of our economy since it is forced upon us by the Allied Powers, not by Japan's free will.
That is to say, Japan can take no course other than this overall control economy. We can easily imagine how gloomy our nation will feel, for they have already had bitter experiences of poor official management during the war. Therefore, we can only hope that the new control will not result in as unpleasant and inefficient a one as before. The control which we have experienced since the war is the so-called bureaucratic control characterized by the self-satisfaction and lack of diligence on the pert of bureaucrats. This time, civilians must take all measures on their own initiative and not allow officials to commit the same errors again. For the present, what we must strive to do is to set up a Trade Office (a [illegible]tentive name) differing in structure from that of existing offices. It is to be in charge of handling matters relative to planned trade. The line-up of the new office should consist of veterans picked from among civilian circles. In addition, the new civil associations to be created should be characterized by real self-control.
It has often been pointed out that civilians are inclined to become bureaucratized when they once become members of any semi-government control bodies, no matter how severely they used to criticize bureaucrats. In general, our civilians are lacking in public discipline. The government control which we experienced during the war was not satisfactory at all in whatever way we might consider it. Therefore, we must devise, somehow, not to commit the same failure again in the case of economic control under the future planned economy.
ITEM 4 Marketing of New Rice and Increase of Staple Food Ration. Nippon Sangyo Shimbun. 4 December 1945. Translator I. Huniko.
In reply to the nation's cry, "Increase our staple food ration", Minister of Agriculture Matsumura stated, "If we could forsee the rice conditions, a return to 23 go could be possible", As Long as the authorities stick to arithmetic tables, they will be unable to solve the food problem. The increase of the staple food ration, we think will have a good influence upon rice marketing.
Why is the Government feeling uneasy about new rice offering? It is greatly due to the lessening of the farmers desire to Offer rice for sale. The authorities concerned are planning to carry out a national movement, but if such movement does not hit the mark, all will be in vain. There ae many reasons why farmers do not want to offer rice for sale, but the greatest one is that they must nuke secure their own rations. We cannot expect them to market at the expe[illegible]e of diminishing their own rations. Therefore, there may be no suitable way mat except to raise the price of rice and cut down rice consumption by eating substitute foods. In reality such methods may be attended by several evils. Accordingly, to
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ITEM 4 (continued)
Stimulate marketing the Government should aim at farmers' rice holdings above and beyond their own consumption.
The farmers' in holding more rice than is necessary for self-consuption is to retain it for use as barter for their daily necessities, to support their relatives and acquaintances, or to sell at illegal prices. But such activities if the general consumers' ration were increased, would because unnecessary or be diminished. At present, farmers use rice to b[illegible]farm tools or daily necessities or even to pay doctor bills. This is due to the fact that farm i[illegible]plement manufacturers or doctors demand rice from them because of the shortage. Therefore, if the staple foe" system be increased, the consumers would not demand rice so each and the far oars' support of relatives and acqua[illegible]ntances would also become [illegible]ecessary Buying rice for hoarding would also be prevented by a ration increase.
The government has said that the ration will be decided by the amount of rice offered for sale, but this offering can only be increased by increasing the ration. Of course, the increase should be raised to the ration at which on can work. To summarize, the increase is nothing more than the nominal and just distribution of me rice that the consumers have hitherto gotten through iliegit[illegible]te channels.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0059, 1945-12-05.
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