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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0050, 1945-12-04.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0209

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 209 Date: 4 Dec. 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 50

ITEM 1 Relief Action for Coal Shortage - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 30 Nov. 45. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
Railways which are the main arteries of industry must [illegible]and various sections of industry, including iron manifecturing, are about to stop because of the coal shortage. Their influence upon the life of the nation cannot be ignored. What are the causes of the shortages? First poor labor policy after the termination of the war must be pointed out. The government is responsible because it did not decide immediately after the war upon the fair treatment of foreign workers, such as the Koreans and Chinese who were brought to JAPAN to make up for the shortage of Japanese workers during the war. The Korean and Chinese coal-miners amounted to 140,000 in the whole country, and were engaged chiefly as labors in the mines. They turned to sabotage and strikes after the war because of dissatisfaction with their treatment during the war. The security of all coal-mining activities was endangered by this, and it spread from HOKKAIDO all over the country. Thus the total amount of coal-production dropped from that of 3,500,000 -3,600,000 tons per month last spring, to 540,000 tons in October, and to about 500,000 tons in November, with no increase in production expected in December. Now that almost all the coal stored in the wharves has been consumed, we are getting along at present by the forced delivery of the coal stored at the mines.
As to the treatment of the Chinese and Korean workers. The government is hastening to make Chinese and Korean workers leave the mines. Aided by General Headquarters. They will be repatriated almost completely by the middle of December. The problem of foreign workers was settled at the eleventh hour. Next comes the problem of the workers to be substituted for them. The government laid down the urgent Goal-Production Policy, which plans to send 60,000 workers to coal mines by December, and 70,000 more ay next March, a total of 130,000 workers.
Food for the miners is urgently needed. In HOKKAIDO not only must the ration be improved but it must be extended to the workers families. It is also necessary that the lot of the laborers be improved with a more generous distribution of all househould commodities. Only in this way can the decrease in coal-production be checked.
Today coal shortage is not only due to the shortage of workers but also to the shortage of materials, such as wire-ropes, electric motors, pumps, and explosive powders, all of which could not be fully supplied during the war. For this reason the cool nines, which were highly mechanized before the war, were forced to go back to using primitive production methods. Moreover, the coal was dug at random, ignoring the economical digging in order to rapidly increase coal-production during the war emergency. All these things must be remedied if production is to increase.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 50 (Continued)
ITEM 2 Students at a loss - Tokyo Shimbun - 30 Nov. 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full Translation:
It is not an exaggeration to say that today everyone in our Nation is at a loss as to what to do. Therefore it is not proper to say that the students, alone, are at a loss. However they are especially so because of their naivete and sensibility. We do not say that the government has let them alone without indicating the direction which they will go. They not only face the shortage of food and dwellings as do people in general, hut are also harassed by such conditions as the decline of scholarship due to labor service and the shortening of the school year, the shrinking of the Japanese economy due to the defeat and sudden changes in educational methods.
Schools have been reopened, but the students going to school are few and there are many among, them who want to change schools or curriculum. Students may be able to decide the trends by their own judgment, but the true state of our society will not let them do so. Many school strikes have come from their bewilderment.
Both the authorities and students' parents may have understood their situations and minds, but both are also unable to foresee the future of JAPAN, and are at a less as to what to do. It is a serious matter to our country to ignore our students. The future of JAPAN falls on their shoulders and depends upon their education. Therefore parents as well as the Government should sympathize with the students' situation. Education in the past had existed only for finding employment, and it is still so today. As long as students seek immediate gain by changing their desired subjects of study, and if our education remains as it is, we cannot expect much for the future of JAPAN. School authorities and guardians, not to [illegible]of the Education Department, should clarify this illusion and reform the educational methods to rescue the puzzled students.
ITEM 3 Plea of a Farmer Yomiuri Hochi - 30 Nov. 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full Translation:
I am an honest young farmer and make the following plea to the government. I hope that they will immediately investigate, the numbers of rice bales collected before the termination of the war and transferred from the warehouses of local agricultural associations to ones privately owned. The numbers of such bales is not small. The find it strange to hear that such crops should remain untouched and the request for new crops to be allocated for distribution to city dwellers. It is also incomprehensible that all the agricultural associations, local branches, prefectural offices and food associations should not make any appeal about this. Do these rice crops belong to no one? Control of perishable vegetables is abolished, but what about that of seeds and seedlings? It is very difficult to have a greater production when seeds and seedlings are put together and distributed after the planting season is over. We, of course hope they are put up for sale and ask the government to abolish their control. Should the control remain unchanged, won't they permit their distribution in time for planting? They say that fanners who have made 100 per cent allocation shall have special distribution. That is a good idea, but do you know what percentage of these distributions have actually reached the hands of farmers? We do not want to have distributed to us what may disappear on the way to us. When you let us have such distributions,
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EDITORIAI SERIES: 50 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
please make public writing the articles to be distributed. This will help prevent usurpations to an extent.
It seems to me that the causes of starvation of city residents are all attributed to a grarian circles. I have completed, so far, full allocation of rice, barley, wheat, potatoes; all kinds of vegetables, eggs, straw-ropes, straw- mats and pine-tree roots. I have not yet been informed of how much rice crops are to be allocated for the current fiscal year, but my intention for a complete offering is unchanged. I have already offered barley and potatoes for the current fiscal year. What more do you want? Why muse we be accused by city residents merely because we are farmers? Do you think that we honest farmers will keep silent forever if we are left as uncared for as ever? Why is the government so idle as not to do away with troubles pressed upon us by cunning farmers, who are much fewer in number than the honest ones?
How did those who are reprimanding farmers these days feel to read an article entitled "From the Standpoint of Farmers" written by Mr. YAUCHI in this column dated 21 November? Do you know to what an extent production for the current fiscal year was reduced due to incomplete farming caused by the lack of foods in which farmers should have been sufficent? You must remember that the bad crop for this fiscal year is not only due to abnormal conditions of climate. You will fully understand what I mean when you think of the shortage of coal which can be had only by digging brought about by the lack of food. Please stop taking us for your enemies. Let us cooperate in tiding ever this crisis.
ITEM 4 Premier Remains Bureaucratic - Asahi Shimbun - 1 December 45. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Full Translation:
We farmers are very much disappointed at the Premiers' speech in the Diet. The administative policy he has disclosed falls quite short of our expectations. It is as outdated as ever and still retains the form of a bureaucracy. Can such a government be relied upon? It speaks well of democracy out it's policy is the reverse! A politician should be forthright and courageous in revealing his policy. The Premier is too timid to take a drastic step. He is afraid that complete democratization will result in intense hatred from the rightists. Such a negative and conservative concept cannot do anything for reel democratization.
Is he still intending to continue the bureaucratic policy after JAPAN has been decisively defected? For all the cries that the bureaucrats are raising and the deeds they are doing JAPAN will be nothing better than a hat she has been. We must do away with bureaucracy! Government officials, must be removed from the scene! It is on urgent need in JAPAN today to effect an completely democratic administration.
ITEM: 5 Labor Shortage at a Time of Unemployment - Nippon Sangyo Keizai- 1 Dec. 45. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full Translation:
It is natural that the present extraordinary Diet Session spends much discussion time on democracy. It goes without saying that the three major bills, the revision the Electoral Law, revision of Farm Land law and the labor Union Reform presented to the Diet by the government
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 50 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
will be the basis of the democratization of politics, society and economics. Now the word "democracy" has become as supreme and absolute slogan as that of "execution of war" was in wartime. However, when one slogan is made supreme and absolute as we experienced during the war, the meaning of the slogan is apt to become empty and be isolated from the peoples daily lives.
We are sorry to say that the unemployment problem, one of the most important problems since the defeat has now become isolated from actual fact by the needle as emphasis on academic democracy. The welfare Ministry estimates the number of persons out of work to be bout ten million. However it is more important to make the labor supply abundant rather than solve the unemployment problem. Although the labor shortage in agricultural districts is now alleviated by the demobilization of the Army and dissolution of war industries, it is very difficult under present circumstances to collect laborers for the large-scale land reclamation planned by the Government.
To solve the coal shortage which is now very serious, an abundant supply of labor is needed. Many problems now demand labor for their solution such as clearing fire-razed districts etc. The fundamental cause of the present deficiency of labor lies in the food shortage, and, in addition is due to various factors. At present laborers generally have enough money or can obtain more in many other ways other than by engaging in cannon labor. It can not be overlooked, however that the laborers will to work has now became much lower in general. This deterioration of labors spirit originated with the wrong labor policy in wartime and became noteworthy through the mental indulgence caused by our defeat.
When a man has an intense desire to work he will never choose to be on idler whether he has money or not. A man who wants to work seriously will not engage in such temporary and unstable a business as that of a street-vender. These now consist mainly of demobilized soldiers or ex-workers who have no experience in their present work. Of course, these new merchants make distribution of various articles easy in some ways. However, this is undesirable for the promotion of the working spirit, and the street-venders themselves are in an unstable situation which will need readjustment before long.
Many loiterers who can be found in TOKYO and other cities are not jobless people but idlers. Accordingly, it is more urgent to take steps to meet the labor shortage rather than unemployment. The present idlers who do not seek. employment will soon inevitably turn to unemployed who can not get employment. Therefore some counter-measures against unemployment are necessary. Without regard to the actual fact that the working spirit is low, mere propaganda on abstract policy for unemployment or labor will have a poor influence on the future. For instance, in ENGIAND the system of unemployment insurance resulted in many evils. The commendable program of the Imperial Government Railway which aimed at the promotion of its employees' welfare had no effect. Dismissals would make the employees more conscientious.
Everyone wants to enjoy an abundant life with easy labor and that is, of course, mast desirable for society. Nevertheless, this idea does not mean to make the people, idle. Our country, after defeat, can
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 50 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
revive only through the efforts of labor. The aim of the democratization of economy is to promote the working spirit of laborers by the elimination of political, social and economic oppression. The Diet wastes its time in discussing "democracy" and the government on the discussion of the unemployment problem, while in reality postwar reconstruction is delayed by the shortage of labor. Both the Diet and the Government have again strayed far from the actual problem.
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