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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0045, 1945-12-03.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0206

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 206 Date: 3 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Tenancy and Farm Land - Asahi Shimbun - 30 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kato.
Full Translation:
(Contributed by IGUCHI, Isamu, a landed farmer)
Most of the tenants are rather indifferent to the farm land problem, despite active discussion by general public, because no reduction or exemption from the tenant rates are being considered due to crop failure. Another reason is that the tenants, if they are made landed farmers, will be obliged to pay the various taxes and incidental expenses of landowners. A third reason is that the tenants' income exceeds that of landed farmers' by l6 yen per bale at the present rice price.
Generally speaking, sons of landed farmers, tilling forms of two or three cho have hetherto obtained some work in companies, banks, prefectural office branches or schools while the remainder of the family has engaged in farming on four or five tan of land with the object of harvesting rice for their own use. The current trend is for these sons to return home from their work in towns and cities to resume their lives as landed farmers through recovering their farm land from the tenants. Some farmers [illegible]ay be thrown out of work, it is feared because of lack of big landed proprietors in this area. Another trouble is that these new farmers may not be competent in their farm work so that there may be a decrease in production.
The establishment of landed farmers will not necessarily bring production increases. The tenants have not been as lazy as is generally suspected. The close relationship between the proprietor and tenants should be examined.
(Contributed by ISOYAMA, Mitsuyoshi, a farmer,)
The purchasing price for farmland, determined at the Cabinet meeting is reported to be 40 times the tenant rates in rice fields and 48 times in other fields. The price of rice fields will be 2,200 yen per tan since the tenant rate is 55 yen. The price of rice is 60 yen per bale (0.4 koku) at the public price; the proprietors make 22 yen and the tenants 38 yen. The price of rice fields here is estimated at only 700 yen, with 2,200 yen being an exorbitant price.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 49 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
It is true that the major problem in increasing production is undeniably the promotion of the establishment of landed farmers; however, the tenants are not as rich as is generally believed or able to purchase land at so great a price.
(Contributed by KITAMURA Masao, a farmer)
The bill for farmland reform, to be introduced to the Diet by the Government, is welcome news for us. Certain items are favored by the farmer and should be completely realized. The efforts by the owners of 3 to 5 cho or the exertions of their fathers to secure these farms should be considered. They gave out their farm land to tenants because they lacked farm hands or for other reasons. Therefore, depriving them of their farm at the uniform price of 40 or 48 times the tenant rate will be synonimous with confiscation, in view of the fact that vegetables are being sold at 3 to 5 yen per kan.
Calling the payment of the tenant rates in crops feudalism is far from the truth. The main object of the change projected by the government is supposedly the reduction of the tenant rates; however, change to payment in cash will prove unfavorable to the tenants. Payment in kind, which has long been the custom, is favorable to the tenants because of its freedom from the fluctuations of price. In conclusion, the reduction of tenant rates in the payment in kind must be realized to attain the object of production increase.
(Contributed by HIRANO, Kisou, a member of the Farm Land Committee)
The government's reform of the tenant rate railing for payment in cash shows ignorance of the real circumstances. This will give rise to an undesirable result in rice supply. The truth is that the tenants are reluctant to supply their rice to the Government, and on various pretexts they attempt to reduce tie amount. The tenants supply their rice to the Government as the tenant rate because if they neglect this duty, they any lose their farms. The payment in cash will not cause such an action. In the case of the payment in cash they will make the sum by selling only two or three sho (0.02 or 0.03 koku) at the blackmarket price of 50 yen per sho. Their payment in cash is 50 yen, which is the price of one koku at the public price and the tenant rate for one tan (0.1 cho). The result will be the promotion of blackmarket dealing among farmers.
The payment in crops does not mean the delivery of rice by the tenant to the proprietor. The tenants will present their crop to the village Agricultural association and the proprietor will receive it a ticket proving the acceptance of the rice, which the proprietor can exchange for money. Thus there is almost no distinction between the two methods in their result. The Government should bear in mind the fact that by virtue of the payment in kind the obligatory supply of rice to the Government is satisfactorily carried on.
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EDITORIAL SERIES, 49 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
(Contributed by SUGIYAMA Shukei, a farmer.)
In mountain villages, farmers owning one or two cho farms are rare. Five cho farms are even more rare. In CHICHIBU, farmers owning as much as 5 cho, amount to only one or two for a village. Moreover, seventy percent of the farmers are tenants with absentee landlords; therefore the Government plan proves ineffective for the mountain villages of our country.
ITEM 2 War Criminals and the Nation's Responsibility - Mainichi Shimbun - 30 Nov 45. Translator: K, Nagatani.
Full Translation:
SAITO, Takao declared in his speech at the present Diet session that the nation was not responsible for the war Nevertheless, the people are war-sufferers. The people might be responsible far having elected representatives who were unable to check the arbitrary behavior of the Japanese military clique. It was not on 8 December 1941 when the war broke out. It was not on 7 July 1935 when the CHINA Incident occurred. It was not on 18 September 1931 when the Manchurian Incident occurred. We must review the circumstances prior to these dates. There had already been the hovering cloud over Japanese politics before the heavy storm. Japanese political parties have for a long time been united with the military clique in order to gain political power. Political parties successfully utilized the military clique until, at last, the latter conquered the former. Merely, for the purpose of overthrowing a cabinet, opposition parties often opposed disarmament and anti-war pacts. They shouted for protection of the powers of the Supreme Command and regarded assassins as patriots. They condemned a professor whose supported the theory that Emperor was only a figurehead, as unpartriotic and helped ferment Fascism in the judicial system. Our political parties remained inert at the Manchurian Incident of 1931, at the 15 May Incident and at the 26 February Incident. In the days of the HIROTA Cabinet, a contention arise between HAMADA and the minister of War, TERAUCHI.
When the HAYASHI Cabinet was formed, the Japanese political parties were beginning to stags a comeback, but it was too late. In the first KONOYE Cabinet following HAYASHI'S the CHINA Incident occurred. In this way political parties are responsible for the war just as the nation may be responsible. Our nation may be responsible for having sent to the Diet the so-called "Yokusan" members, who were mere puppet representatives of the TOJO Cabinet. However, the nation has already atoned for its past misconduct by suffering from the results of war before the surrender.
A lack of wisdom and ability on the past of the nation might well account for its present fate. However, if our nation overlooks the fact that tie upper stratum of JAPAN is still composed of the military clique, elder statesmen, ZAIBATSU, Government bureaucrats and politicians, there will be a greater burden for the nation.
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EDITORIAL SERIES, 49 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Therefore it is up to the people to place the responsibility for the war on those groups who are busy shifting the blame on to the shoulders of others.
None can deny that SAITO, Takao is one of those rare statement well qualified for tracking down the war criminals. Not a few persons responsible for the war seems to be blaming others. It is reported that General YAMASHITA advised Mineral TOJO that we would never win the war against the Anglo-American powers, yet his advice was brushed aside by TOJO. During these days many famous men are declaring that they were strongly apposed to the war. How does General Headquarters of the Allied Forces feel about this?
ITEM 3 What we Expect of the Representatives - Tokyo Shimbun - 30 Nov 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full Translation:
We do not ask mere about the characters of the present members of the Diet have. When we consider what direction the Japanese politics will take, we find that their duty is very great. We do not blame them for their past when they were clay figures passing bills as drafted and waiving their rights of freedom of speech. The dissolution of the current session of the Diet has already been decided. Ten million new voters, including women, will appear the coming general election. What is a democratic Diet like? How are state affairs deliberated? To what extent is public opinion reflected in the Diet? How is the nation's interests in polities promoted?
The current session of the Diet presents the best opportunity to solve those questions and to educate people politically. In this sense, the present representatives are given a good opportunity for public service. Both the Government and people hitherto have been very feebly interested in politics. Needless to say, the militarists and bureaucrats had consider the Diet troublesome, and the nation too had not been interested in it. This came from our nation's lack of political education. It is likewise due to the fast that the Diet and representatives have been very indifferent to deliberating state affairs. If the parliamentary system remains as it is, the nation will disregard it more and more. On the contrary, if the parliament changes its appearance and demonstrates the significance of its existence the Nation will be promoted politically and in esteem.
We hereby hope for the representatives although they may not be elected again, to make their last effort to realize true parliamentary polities in this session of the Diet and serve society by correctly educating the new voters politically in time for the next election.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0045, 1945-12-03.
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