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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0048, 1945-12-03.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0203

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 203 Date: 3 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 48

ITEM 1 Coal Output Reaches Crisis - The Asahi Shimbun - 30 Nov 45. Translator: K. Gunji.
Full Translation:
The shortage of coal is now causing terrific confusion in our daily lives. When the Government decided, late in October, on the provisional measures for the increase of coal output, our fears had not materialized, and the crisis was only academic. Now, it has finally resulted in economic confusion, as demonstrated by disruption of railway traffic, suspension of gas supplies, and cessation of steel production. Yet, at this juncture, the Government and politicians are absorbed in the pursuit of fixing war responsibility, improvement of election systems and revision of the Constitution.
We believe that, without recognizing this burning situation, policies can never be carried out satisfactorily. Of course, we admit the importance of fixing the war responsibility, revision of the Constitution or improvement of the Election Law. But, if coal production is stopped, if transportation is suspended, if many people are forced to die from hunger, sickness and cold, or if people resort to lawless conduct, we doubt if an ideal election can be carried out or if the pursuit of war responsibility can have any significance at all. If the Government should continue to be involved in such secondary problems, disregarding the stern reality, we fear the people may solve the question by their own hands.
The lack of coal will make impossible the production of steal, salt, fertilizer, etc. We believe nothing is so critical as the suspension of railway traffic. If railway operation stops, the big cities, which owe the greater part of their food to the provincial districts, will at once be thrown into confusion. Suppose that railway transportation is reduced by 50 per cent in passengers and 30 per cent in goods. Urban life will be terribly affected because it leads not only to the decrease of the regular supply of food but makes impossible marketing which is necessary for the maintenance of life under present conditions. Moreover, in such a cold region as HOKKAIDO, the shortage of coal will cause death. Yet, the monthly output of cool in HOKKAIDO is about [illegible]00,000 tons, which is barely enough to avoid such a calamity. On the Mainland, it is only about 300,000 tons, barely enough to meet the demands of the railways if their traffic is reduced by 50 per cent in passenger and 30 per cent in goods.
Under such condition, we can not afford to speak of the production of iron, salt, fertilizer and other important materials. We must postpone the problems of the future and must take every possible measure for the maintenance of life at the present. To recruit many employees for the coa1 mines, the government must not hesitate to increase their food supply and to raise their salaries, without con-

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
sidering that of other employees. The extraordinary measures also must be taken regarding capital, prices and materials.
Of course, such measures should be only provisional, and the permanent policy for the management of coal mine and the stabilization of the employees life must be considered from other points of view. Now we must emphasize once again that the coal question is not for tomorrow but for today. It is a problem, not of future production but of maintenance of life today. This leads immediately to the conclusion that, aside from this question, any policy is nonsense.
ITEM 2 (I) The Representatives Should Listen to the Voice of the People. (II) The Views of Ambassador Pauley - Mainichi Shimbun - 30 Nov 45. Translator: J. Wada.
Full Translation:
(I)
It is very natural and reasonable that war responsibility should be discussed in a session of the House of Representatives. However, to our great regret, the present members are not qualified to judge war responsibility because they themselves are responsible.
In spite of their disqualification, the Diet parties such as the Liberals, the Progressives, the Social Democrats and the Independents are leaking efforts by frequent interparty negotiations for the presentation of a resolution concerning war responsibility. Those efforts on the part of each party are only a measure for the coming elections and nothing more than a farce. In the short 18 day period of the session, they are to discuss the three epochmaking bills of election, farmland, land reform, and labor unions.
Reasonably speaking, the present Diet should have been dissolved with only the Election Bill presented, the two significant social bills being presented to a new Diet reflecting a new will of the people. The people are not so generous as to expect strong and righteous arguments from the present members. Nevertheless, you, the members of the Diet, should recognize that the establishment of representative government is the foundation of a new JAPAN. It is very fortunate that you should have been given an opportunity to discuss such important bills as the Farm Lan Reform Bill and the Labor Union Bill. Thus, by devoting all you can to the discussion of these two important socia1 bills you can do something to atone for your past errors. The people are afraid that you may not pass these bills on the pretext of discussion being unfinished.
The people are now starving. According, to an investigation made by our office, expenses are twice the income in an ordinary household. Expenses will soon rise to three times the income. Cities and villages are going to be filled with unemployed people. Coal shortages have forced the government railway to cut operation in half. If the Representatives have the willingness to listen to the voice of the people outside the Diet a Building, the actions of the members in the present Diet are sure to be quite different from, their usual actions. The members should know that the majority of the Nation has been enlightened.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
(II)
Ambassador PAULEY, of the American Reparations Committee, on his returning to TOKYO from an inspection tour in CHINA, said the following to the press:
"JAPAN will not pay reparations. But, in practice, the enormous value of her assets and interest in the Far East shall be taken up. After this fundamental payment and the cost of occupation as well as the cost of import of the minimum necessities ar[illegible]reduced from her resources, there will be nothing left for reparations."
We knew that Japanese assets and properties in the Far East would be taken up for reparations. But we have been afraid that an enormous sum of reparations in goods would be levi[illegible]d upon us in addition to that fundamental payment. Accordingly, we are delighted at his statement "JAPAN will not pay reparations." But a little thought keep us from being too delighted. Ironically, his words may mean that JAPAN will never be revived above a useful minimum, even with the greatest success in her efforts for revival, since she must pay the cost of occupation [illegible]nd the cost of the import of the minimum necessities in addition to having her assets and properties in the Far East confiscated. "A useful minimum" means a standard of living of the countries, especially CHINA, against which JAPAN committed an act of aggression. If [illegible]take a standard of living as [illegible]national income, our average individual income cannot be more than that of an individual Chinese. And, if we take a total nationa1 income for a tota1 value of products, our production cannot be more than that of CHINA, relative to the population in each country.
It seems to be his conclusion, after his inspection tour in CHINA, that JAPAN cannot realize [illegible]n economic revival which will enable her to produce more than CHINA. By his conclusion, we know the difficulty our economic revival is confronted with in the future.
We are doubtful whether the ministers and representatives fully recognize this fact. The ways and measures to be taken for the economic revival of JAPAN are being shown to the Government one after one by the Allied Headquarters. Nevertheless, they seem to be bewildered as to how to dispose of the problems. They look like boys wh[illegible]were given delicate toys and were puzzled as to how to play with them.
ITEM 3 Do Not Misunderstand Democracy Yomiuri Hochi - 30 Nov 45. Translator: K. Hirata.
Full translation:
Our nation is now disappointed over many domestic affairs. First, we are disappointed at Prime Minister SHIDEHARA's Diet speech delivered at the very beginning of the current plenary session. We again felt dissatisfied with the questions raised by SAITO, Takao, in the Diet. We can not shut our eyes to his misconception of democracy. We were requested to introduce democracy into our country in compliance with the terms of the POTSDAM Declaration. However, most of our countrymen do not yet understand fully what democracy is. It is understandable that they still find it difficult to understand thoroughly. They were, until the surrender, misled by absurd Shintoism. However, to our complete disappointment SAITO, who considers
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 48 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
himself a liberal, trained in AMERICA, should answer his own question in the Diet, saying "What is democracy? If it means sovereignty belonging to the people, it is contrary to our nationa1 constitution."
There will be many definitions of democracy. But in the end it will be concluded that sovereignty must belong to the people. This must be the basic premise of democracy. Where can we find a democratic country which denies that premise? Hitherto, in our country many liberals could not dare declare publicly this very plain fact because of a fear of constraint from reactionary quarters. Today, however, we can declare freely and boldly what we think about true democracy. SAITO, in denying this universal axiom, shirks the duty charged to all of us, that is to make JAPAN a democracy.
This deserves our serious consideration. If our democracy does not result in sovereignty belonging to the people, what will the other nations of the world say? Is our Government waiting for General Headquarters to issue directives in order to awaken them? His Imperial Majesty told Allied newsmen that he wanted a constitutional monarchy to be established patterned after GREAT BRITAIN's. Such a constitutional monarchy means sovereignty belongs to the nation. We reiterate that it is especially important under current conditions while constitutional reform is under consideration.
Most of our nation, as well as our politicians, have not yet fully realized that sovereignty belonging to the people is not necessarily inconsistent with the Emperor system. However, among the advocates of the Emperor system there still remain not only those persons with feudalistic leanings, but also these who[illegible]are, in their ideologies, not above the uncivilized people of the primitive age when the communistic community dissolved. Thanks to them, most persons are led to entertain the misconception that the Emperor system is incompatible with the sovereignty of the people. We must be fully aware that the cause which led our nation to wage a meaningless war resulting in our surrender and our current pitiable condition is entirely due to our failure to carry out the axiom that sovereignty must belong to the people. If sovereignty had belonged to our people and our popular will had been more respected by our government, the last war and, what is more, our defeat might have been voided. Hereafter, we must strive to foster the free and sound development of democracy in our country without losing sight of the above-mentioned universa1 axiom.
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