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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0046, 1945-12-02.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0197

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 197 Date: 2 Dec 45.


ITEM 1 A complete investigation of the causes of defeat - Tokushima Shinbun - 23 Nov 45. Translator: S. Inque.
Full Translation:
The Government, in its regular cabinet meeting of 20 November, decided to organize "The Greater East Asia War Investigation Association" to try to delve into the causes of defeat, general or detailed, so as not to commit such a horrible mistake again. The causes of defeat are too serious to leave untouched and uninvestigated. However, did these causes not appear during the war? Were the so-called "Whole Nation Equipped with Arms" and "Whole Nation Jumping into the Fight" campaigns during the war, and that of "Whole Nation Penitent" at the end of the war, planned to transfer the responsibility to the people? Why? We warned them very often to realize that if the. situation failed to improve defeat would be inevitable. Alas, this prediction has come true and now we are suffering in the throes of misery.
Here are three great causes for defeat: (l) The Government made errors in the fundamental policies of economy; (2) deception and concealment of the truth from the people, and (3) putting the Army in a difficult position because of the lack of munitions and technical superiority.
What ware the economic errors? The Government did not decisively practise a low price policy. It wee uselessly diligent in fluttering the producers and nullified the effects of the so-called "Price Ceiling Ordinance" by raising prices for the purpose of greater production. Thus our sincere services were wasted. Unjust dealings in the market and sabotage in the factories greatly prevented strengthening of military preparations.
What were the errors in mental guidance? Because the war was started by the dogmatic ambitions of the militarists, there was no common knowledge of the real cause of the war and we were informed only sketchily. Only the advantageous side was published and disclosing the disadvantageous was avoided, thus leading the people to relax and to depend upon providential aid.
Lastly, what about the lack of munitions and the technical inferiority of science? These are all too clear to require any explanation. The war leaders tried purposely to induce us to make light of the enemy's abundance of munitions by declaring that we need not fear it, but would overwhelm it with our superior moral powers. They purposely overlooked the fact that superiority of moral power will be effective in war only when the combatants are equal to each other in armaments. What is worse, they limited the free speech of the people, prohibiting the spread of truth and thus spontaneously fostered wide spread alarming rumors. This was one of the causes of the weakening of military power. In addition, we did not know how to reprimand the injustice of governmental personnel because they were endowed with such great powers. We did not complain about common poverty but were indigent at unequal

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 46 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
poverty. This indignation became chronic toward the end and played a gloomy role in the funeral procession of defeat. The war leaders tried to subdue this anger by "pooh-poohing". "Stop complaining and being dissatisfied", they said.
What we expect the Greater East Asia War Investigation Association to do is to gouge out the real causes of defeat and make a genuine record of them. The only way we can go forward is to establish a highly civilized and peace-loving state. Therefore, the Government must make this association a function of the newly-born state. We therefore, sincerely hope that this plan will not end in a mere gesture and that the many expert participants in this organization will not perpetuate a farce on a public stage.
ITEM 2 The People are Vigilant - Yomiuri Hochi - 26 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Full Translation:
The 18 days' session of the 89th Diet, for 27 November to 17 December, may be said to unusually long for an Extraordinary Deit. The three big bills which are expected to be submitted to the Diet, the Election Law Revision Bill, the Farm Land Adjustment Bill and the Labor Union Bill, are most important in the Reconstruction of defeated JAPAN. However, it is a pity that such important bills should be discussed by the House of Representatives, whose members are "Government made," and by the House of Peers, which remains as stupid, as ever, like a ghost in the daylight. Now that the bills must take their natural course through parliamentary procedure and must be debated by members of both Houses, we must, at this point, make known certain demands in order to promote fairness in the deliberation of the bills.
First, we desire frankness and boldness on the part of the Government in its administrative policy. Addresses made by premiers and other ministers during the past ten years have been too formal and fraudulent, some of them wars nothing more than mere reading of drafts, presented by subordinates. Sincerity of reply was not to be expected. The war ministers made known this fact most distinctly, uttering stereotyped phrases of absurdity and using abstract words, often fumbling with their sabres as if to overawe the audience. What foolishness! And the disgrace of the members who were actually fooked by these gestures! This time, if any minister dares to deliver an insincere reply in the coming Diet, the representatives should have the courage and sense of responsibility to oppose him. If they do their duty as representatives by [illegible]such action, we are ready to pardon them for any slight faults they may have comitted in their political careers.
Second, the Government should spare no efforts; the streets are flooded with unemployed and starvation is approaching and our brethren in the South are craving for an early return to their homes. It is natural that the members of the Cabinet, who have led lives not necessarily immune from responsibility for the war, should fight for the people until exhausted. They enjoy neither the respect nor trust of the people at the present time. The only way to secure the people's trust will be to make supreme efforts
Third, the criticism of the representatives should be sincere, especially in debating the Election Law Revision Bill. If they try to revise it so that they may be more easily returned in the next general election, they will be sure to incur the people's wrath. The only consideration in the Election Law Revision Bill should be make the vote effective.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 46 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
It is already more than three months since the war ended and the people have been awakening day by day; they must be awakened still further. The representatives, even if they have managed artfully to shift for the present, will not be able to avoid the last judgment by the people. The three big bills are owing to the lack of time for planning, far from satisfactory and must be revised several times. The representatives must, from the first, concentrate their efforts in perfecting the bills.
Three parties are marching to the Diet. They are the Liberal, the Socialist and the Progressive Parties. The fact that the leaders of the Socialist and the Progressive Parties are not yet appointed and despite their bluffing, betrays the difficulty faced by the parties in this period of transition. Only great efforts, defying all difficulties, will pave the way forward. We desire earnestly that the Government and the Houses should conduct themselves well and try to atone for their crimes, ever keeping in mind the wretched state of the nation.
ITEM 3 From the Diet - Yomiuri - 27 Nov 45. Translator: G. Kumayo.
Full Translation:
When American journalists attended sessions of the Lower House, they found many members without party affiliations. They found this difficult to understand. They can not envisage politicians who don't belong to any party. In our country the present Cabinet does not belong to any party. There are also many other members who failed to join any party. We must make this session the last one in which such a phenomenon exists. If it continues to exist, we fear that democracy will never succeed in JAPAN.
A resolution was offered, stipulating that those who supported the TOJO Cabinet and took advantage of its favors should refrain from attending the session. Among such men, it is reported Mr. MAEDA, Yonazo, will not run at the next election. We believe there are many others who should volunterily give up their intentions of being re-elected. It is also reported that the Liberal and Social Democratic Parties will concentrate their attack upon the Progressives. The independents, also, said to have banded, against it. The reason for this can be traced to the fact that the Progressive Party consists of members who obtain their present posts by backing the TOJO Cabinet. Doing away with the oppression by the militarists, bureaucrats, and gendarmerie, (in their speeches), they appear to enjoy the liberal atmosphere. They are rather apt to go too far. A certain member from among them professes to have prepared a reckless speech for the session, which he expects to be useful for his candidacy. Should "free speech" be such a thing? The fact that within the House many bills are written in English, and American journalists are admitted, Indicates that even the Diet is under the influence of General MacARTHUR. JAPAN defeated, the White House is supreme.
ITEM 4 About the Prime Minister's Address - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 28 Nov 45. Translator: G. Kumayo.
Full Translation:
We are greatly disappointed by Premier SHIDEHARA's speech in the Diet, which was a mere survey of the problems which the Government is required to solve. Of course, we did not expect much from the present Cabinet in view of its nature and its action since the end of the war. But, the cabinet handles those problems only because the Allied Headquarters recommendes them, or because the situation allows no delay. His explanation
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 46 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
about the measures which will be taken by the Government, is constantly vague. Nevertheless, his statements or how we should live as the vanquished touched us.
The Japanese people have for the first time experienced defeat. This has had an immemse effect upon the people, both mentally and materially, and is now bringing about an economic, social, and political revolution. At this juncture, we must make a great effort for the reconstruction of a new JAPAN.
Although we must recognize frankly the stern reality of a defeated country, we must not leave ourselves too long discouraged. The Government is still inactive and speeds valuable time in vain. Their administration is too slow to meet the urgent situations. They can do nothing without directives from the Allied Headquarters. The Cabinet should insist on a policy which is believed to be quite reasonable. If they are too anxious about the intentions of the Allied Forces, they can do nothing positively.
Of course, the Government must make great efforts for mutual understanding. Thus, they should carry out their business speedily. Inactivity is found among the people too. It may come, in part, from their privation, but it may be traced partly to their excessive reliance upon authority and to the lack of a spirit of independence. As things stand now, we cannot expect the reconstruction of a New JAPAN.
Lack of seriousness is also a remarkable phenomena seen in this country recently. There are many who advocate democracy without knowing what it is or who attempt to enjoy popularity by merely talking about social justice. They are misleading the people and retarding the progress of reconstruction. The attempt to attain one's ambition by taking advantage of the current of democracy must be checked for the sake of democracy.
When social unrest prevails as now, it is highly probable that the people may be misguided by faithless agitators. In order to avoid such a thing, the Government should make efforts to stabilize the people's life and to appeal to their reason. Nevertheless, it is regrettable that the government itself may be among those who misled the people. Indeed, refraining from going too far is the royal road to a bright future.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0046, 1945-12-02.
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