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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0038, 1945-12-02.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0172

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTON
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 172 Date: 2 Dec 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 38

ITEM 1 The Finance Minister's Ideology - Mainichi Shimbun - 28 Nov 15. Translator: J. Wada.
Full Translation:
The Governments plan to carn a revenue or 100,000,000,000 yen by levying a war-profit tax and a property tax is opoch-making, even revolutionary. If this plan is put into practice with storness, impartiality, and strength along democratic lines, it will surely enable the proper balancing of finances and the realization of a fair distribution of the national income.
However, the Government must be prepared to face many difficulties in making effective this plan to bring about the expected result. We cannot predict the precise amount of national income for the coming fiscal years, but each amount will probably not exceed 30,000,000,000 yen. If the amount is estimated at 30,000,000,000 yen per year, achieving a revenue of 100,000,000 000 yen will take more than three years. A revenue of 100,000,000,000 yen must consist of one third of the total amount of national savings estimated at about 350,000,000,000 yen. This amount of 100,000,000,000 yen wi11, in practice, be taken up from the surplus values of the past and coming years. The surplus value, however, is the propelling power in the rehabilitation of our economy, serving as investment capital.
How to solve this contradiction? The Government implied that this amount of 100,000,000,000 yen should be used for real oration of national bonds. If so, a large part of this amount will run the banks which are holding most of the national bonds. This can never mean the realization of a fair distribution of national income, but means only a shift of income from the industrial capitalists to the financial capitalists. As is clear from the above mentioned, this plan to earn a new revenue of 100,000,000,000 yen by establishing a war-profit tax and a property tax will be the min financial policy in preventing Japanese economy from going bankrupt. Nevertheless, the slightest error in practice will not only make the task of redistribution of income impossible but also make our national economy fall into more serious disorder.
For the successful realization of a democratic society based on fair distribution of national income, it is a prerequisite that the Government authorities, especially the Finance Minister have a precise knowledge and proper perspective of economics together math an ability to display extreme bravery and burning zeal for the realization of democracy.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 38 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Finance Minister SHIBUZAWA, judging from his usual attitude, is not so great as to display extreme bravery. Moreover, the words the Minister expressed when ordered to enforce the new epoch-making tax system made us fool neither his burning zeal for the realization of a democratic society nor his precise knowledge and proper perspective in economics.
First, he fails to see the fundamental and revolutionary influence which the two taxes are sure to bring on our economy. He did not utter a word about the important effect which the new taxes would have on us, only emphasizing that the suspension of indemnities would "prevent all economic me connections from working.
Second, he is mistaken in his theory that inflation can be avoided since a larger part of the money paid as indemnities will come back to the Bank of JAPAN. If the money is spent in reconversion or extension of production, as the Minister said, the money tends to encourage inflation while in circulation.
The Minister's theory is quite the same as the same as the old theory that there is no maximum limit for the issuance of deficit bonds. This old theory which once prevailed is that there as no possibility of inflation being caused by the issuance of deficit bonds as the deficit bonds issued will come back to the Bank Of. JAPAN in the long run. We are new feeling the error of this theory in our daily lives.
The Finance Minister wont farther to say, "We are eager to effect a substantial tax increase, especially an the indirect taxes."
It is common sense in finance that the masses bear the brunt of indirect taxes. We are surprised at the irrationality of his willingness to effect a substantial increase especially in the indirect taxes. His reason may be that an increase in the direct taxes has already been attained by the two newly established taxes. However, the property tax and the war profit tax do not double the burden. In extreme increase in indirect takes is nothing less than reaction in the tax system. The Finance Minister emphasized the need of payments of indemnities amounting to 56,500,000,000 yen. The munitions companies will apply the sum to the payment of the war profit tax and the property tax. This means that the Government will help the [illegible]tion companies in paying the war profit tax by which the Government intends to squeeze out all undue profits from the companies. An [illegible]in the indirect taxes and the payment of indemnities are obstacles to the realization of a democratic society. After all that, can the Minister claim to be called a man zealous for domecratization?
The Finance Minister may not be the only person who entertains this kind of ideology. The same ideology is in the hearts of all ministers and bureaucrats. The present JAPAN guided by these ministers and officials is a ship without a rudder.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 38 (Continued)
ITEM 2 The Swarming New political Parties and Political Under-currents - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Nov 45. Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
Many political parties have been inaugurated since the restraint of associations was rescinded. Thirty-five parties are listed at present. Of these, three parties, namely the JAPAN Progressive Party (NIPPON SH[illegible]PO-TO), the JAPAN Liberal Party (NIPPON JIKU-TO) and the JAPAN Social-Democrat Party (NIPPON SH[illegible]-TO) have seats in the 89th Extraordinary Diet Session. In addition to these three parties (the so-called "Diet Political Parties"), the JAPAN Communist Party (NIPPON KYOSAN-TO) must be taken into consideration. The political potencies or abilities of the ether thirty-five odd parties are not yet known. Some of those parties seem to have already begun to lose their spirit, for they are to lose their funds by the drastic taxation on war profits and property.
As for the JAPAN progressive Party and the JAPAN Liberal Party, the adverse influence of those two taxes upon their source of funds cannot be ignored. But the JAPAN Social-Democratic and the JAPAN Communist Party have something in their character which make their basis more favorable in these circumstances.
The power forming the maim current of the present Diet, namely, the JAPAN Progressive Party, originated from the consolidation of the (SEIYU-KAI) and the KINSEI-TO. The consolidated party became the JAPAN Political Party (NIPPON [illegible]-KAI) by of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association (TAISEI-YOUSAN-KAI), and then it was reformed to the present JAPAN Progressive Party. This party aims at a constitutional monarchy; hence the Policies advocated by this party are within the bounds of common sense. The troubles of this party lie in the various kinds of policies or interests to be compromised and the possibilities of internal strife, covered at present by the desire that the party will take the reins of the Government in the near future. Therefore this party is destined to undertake decisive self-purification in the near future.
Next comes the JAPAN Liberal Party, which stresses the "accomplishment of the human character." However, what is demanded from political parties, is statesmanship and policies, and the execution thereof, and the realization of a reformed society which will enable "accomplishments by each individual." Only the future will judge whether the JAPAN Liberal Party can really demonstrate its raison d'etre. We cannot say that the party is qualified for the new era merely because it did not actually participate in each sta[illegible]e of the aggressive war.
The Progressive Party and the Liberal Party do, not lay socialism as the basis for their formation, and as such they are the old parties with only their names written an[illegible]w as democratic. On the contrary, both the JAPAN Social-Democrat Party and the JAPAN Communist Party very clearly show in their slogans that they are founded on socialism. If they are socialist parties, their bases are situated among the [illegible]asses, and are[illegible]at all threatened by both the war-profits-increase the power of the parties.
The JAPAN Social-D[illegible]Party has fifteen seats in the present Diet. Though this party has war less members than those of the conventional parties its growth and development is to be expected if the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 38 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
party is suitably maintained and if it is supported by the masses. However, judging from present conditions of the party, it seems not always free from the weakness of a "mixed team", and we fear unity is lacking in the party.
The JAPAN Communist Party at last acquired legitimacy after its sub-rosa existence for so man[illegible]. The party seems to have left the pen[illegible]stence of a particular ideology and has become very flexible. It seems that the party wants to make an allied people's front in the vast fields of actions for democratic emancipation with all persons with whom they can cooperate. For example, the party revealed its attitude in the statements that they are ready to participate in an associated cabinet under the Imperial System, though their ultimate object is the establishment of a people's republic.
No one, can deny that the most important matter in future Japanese policy is how and by that process the Japanese Social-Democrat Party and the Japanese Communist Party will be developed as socialist parties. Yet, these tore parties do mot form the main currents in the present Diet.
The distribution of political "atmospheric pressure" is moving towards the hegemony of the socialist parties. The present members of the Diet are taking shelt[illegible]from freer the passing shower under an old roof, but the atmospheric pressure itself is moving outside the Diet to the masses of people.
ITEM 3 Our Disappointment - ainichi Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: Okuyana Sorvice.
Full Translation:
Disappointment is the only word, we can bestow, by way of comment, on [illegible]Shidohara's opening speech on general policy in the Diet. That the people, languishing at the bottom of impoverishment, desire to know from the mouth of the Premier do what measures the Government will take today, not the promise to establish any later policy.
The Premier mentioned, "Large, scale plans for the polling up of untilled lands, and reclamation of land by drainage will be put into operation," or "The development of acquatic industries and of protein food resources is also under consideration." He also premised, "The Government is leaving no stone, unturned[illegible]regarding the housing issue by encouraging the construction of simple dwel[illegible]ings, the repair of the damaged buildings and the remodelling of factory dormitories and military barracks." Every one of them is a very good policy, but when will this policy be enforced? That is the question.
Directives issued, by the MacArthur Headquarters are slowly enforced duo to the negligence of Japan so Government authorities. The Director of the Text-Book Bureau has been punished. Those two things illustrate the manner of work of the Government officials. Since even the directives of the HacARTHUR Headquarters are being attended to in this manner, it way be natural that the Government's own plans should fail to be realized with dispatch, but with this state of affairs prevailing, can the Government be called qualified to cope
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 38 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
with the present serious situation even for a day?
By the way, does the Government understand-the actual circumstances in which the people find themselves today? The minister in charge inspected the miserable condition in which, many ware dying duo to starvation and illness and declaring that he did not think the condition so bad, took measures for relief. If the Minister must inspect the spot to know the actual condition, he most keep himself travelling all day every day throughout the country. This state of affairs is ascribable to the negligence of the Government officials. it any rate, the Government has too limited, knowledge of the actual situation confronting the people. Many persons cannot work though they do sire to work. Such is the situation confronting then today.
The Premier also mentioned that some of the people, overcome by the worst conditions both in materials and spirit, tend to become self-abandoned and that morals must be enhanced by means of renovation and strengthening of social education, But what can save the people from self-abandonment today is definite measures concerning the life of the people rather than improvement of social education. The Government cannot deny this, we presume.
Of course, we are in hearty sympathy with the people shouldering the difficult situation, but if the Cabinet cannot display enthusiasm or feels little responsibility because it is a stop-gap Cabinet, unlike a political party Cabinet, which would not become the Opposition once it fell, we [illegible]the Cabinet will retire at once. If the Cabinet really desires to work for the sake of the country regardless of the interest of the controlling strata to which it belongs, we hope the Cabinet will prove it in fact in the current extraordinary session of the Diet.
ITEM 4 (1) Teachers and Polished Rice, (2) Deceived by the Government - Yomiuri Shimbun - 29 Nov 45. Translator: [illegible]iss S.A. Suzuki.
Full Translation:
The teachers of a certain prefectural girls high school in the CHIBA Prefecture are, at present, collecting polished rice from the homes of the students. The following letter was written to their parents. "We would like each girl who comes from a farming home to contribute three she of polished, rice t their teachers who are unable to teach and at the same time protect their parents and children from malnutrition." Among the 400 girls in the whole school 5 per cent are the daughters of or farmers a if each brings 3 she that means 15 bags f rice are collected each time the letters are sent. Now strange sentiments arose lately between the farmer girls who are able to bring rice and the girls from the town who cannot give any. As a result the town girls are buying blackmarket rice from the farmers and contributing that to the teachers.
The reason for the boys' high school strikes going on lately are because the teachers have not equally distributed, the ration goods, and because the vegetables grown in the school garden wore taken only by them. The collection of the polished rice from the students
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 38 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
at this certain girls' high school is much more vicious. This is especially true because there are many girls from IBARAGI prefecture, and the school is forcing them to break the laws of the prefecture.
Every person in the country has the same amount of rice ration. Therefore the families of this prefectural girls high school don't get loss. When all the nation is suffering from hunger, do you think it is fair for the teachers and their families to satisfy their appetite? How could they educate and yet at the same time act in this manner? By sending the letters once, they loot 30 bags from the rice distribution Aren't they just like beggars? If they want to avoid malnutrition, why can not they think of other ways? Educators must pay attention to these problems. (KATORI, Yoshihiko from CHIBA)
Deceived by the Government - I am one, of the afflicted returning from KORNA. Deceived by the discredited Government -General of KORNA, I have fallen into the status of a beggar. After the end of the war, the Government-General announced every day boisterously through the radio the ways of returning. It was as follows:
Money deposited in any bank or finance association can be taken out as much as 500 yen per month.
Honey will be, paid to a Japanese drawee by remittance check, no matter how largo the sun.
Money up to 500 yen a month could be withdrawn from any bank back home through postal deposits.

I was at a loss since the first two were frozen. For the time being I was thinking of sustaining myself by the third method, but that too met the same fate last week. This means that not only I, but nearly 5,000,000 Japanese residents of KOREA along with those of MANCHUKUO have their means of living suspended. Methods which were said to be reliable have come to naught. If this is the order of the occupation army, it cannot be helped.
How irresponsible the Government is. They are unable to defend themselves in this problem. In those days when radishes are two yen, we the affected people need more than a 1,000 yen to buy one quilt. Hasn't the Government planned some kind of protection for the millions of returning residents who are in trouble, faced by the cold winter? (From an Afflicted Resident)
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0038, 1945-12-02.
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