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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0026, 1945-11-15.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0123

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 123 Date: 15 Nov 45.

EDITORIAL SERIES: 26

ITEM 1 Underfed School Children In The City And Counter-Measures - Tokushima Shimbun - 15 Nov 45. Translator: K. Nobunaga.
Full Translation:
In the national schools of TOKUSHIMA school children are being instructed now in two shifts at their nearest schools. Few are carrying lunch with them to school; in other words, the number of underfed children has increased. To remedy this, a policy for all schools should he put into effect.
Here we have an example of an actual survey of one of the schools: Of the 1057 school children, 390 are estimated to bring their lunches with them. Of this number only 288 have sufficient food. The food of 760 students is insufficient for one meal. Those who can have lunch at home number about 105, but generally have only ZOSUI (something like porridge). Four persons eat substitute food, and those who have no lunch number 72. Consequently, the number of those suffering from malnutrition is 117. The rate has reached 10.2 per cent.
Using those figures as a norm for other schools, the degree of insufficiency of food and subsequent malnutrition can not be estimated at less than this figure. If nothing is done, the efficiency of their learning will decrease. Therefore, what policy should be established? The restoration of the old food supply facilities and the special distribution of staple food to the younger generation may be considered best, although judging from the present food situation, it seems to be difficult. The prefectural and municipal authorities must plan to supply not only staple foods. but powdered food which may be made from products which usually go to waste.
Some, intend to change the teaching course. This should be done only as a last resort. If one school has 72 underfed persons 12 schools are estimated to have 840 underfed persons. For these persons, at least, food must be supplied.
In some prefectures, higher schools and colleges have already closed, temporarily, because of the lack of food, but we have not yet come to that extreme. Even if the efficiency of learning deteriorates, we hope, with great expectation, that the authorities will do their best to supply food with the possible assistance of the officials of this prefecture.
Alteration of the teaching course would be a very negative method of solving the problem. It is said that the TSUDA School is planning to purchase flour mill machinery to collect and produce unused food resources. As this is the time to gather food resources, school children themselves must be directed to do this. They must gather the leaves and vines of sweet potato bushes, acorns, etc. This will

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 26 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
be one way of obtaining a collection of food for all schools in this prefecture.
Citizens, who derive their nourishment from powdered food, must make the best of unused food resources and there must also be a demand for the distribution of more staple foods to protect the younger generation from malnutrition.
ITEM 2 Everything Is Related To The Food Problem - Mainichi Shimbun - 18 Nov 45. Translator: S. Ohta.
Full Translation:
The total sum of the number of demobilized soldiers, former workers in industries that have been abolished and repatriated civilians will amount to 13,240,000. Of these about 6,000,000 will be unable to get jobs according to the estimates of the Welfare Promotion Ministry. Moreover, the unemployed will be in a miserable situation not because of over-production, as it used to be, but because of little or no production brought by the complete defeat in the war. Herein lies the various complexities and difficulties that were never before experienced.
To solve the unemployment problem The Welfare Promotion Ministry submitted the items requested of each ministry in regard to the prevention of unemployment at the Cabinet meeting on the l6th, and asked that the function of each ministry should be directly related to the unemployment problem. This aims to absorb systematically the masses of unemployed. But is it possible, as is expected by the ministry?
The number of unemployed in TOKYO due to the defeat is said to be about 600,000 But the number of those who asked to get jobs at the Employment Section of the Police Board, or other such offices, is less than the number of those who wanted to hire workers.
Actually, 20 percent more employees are needed, and the curious situation of too many jobs and too few men has arisen. The reason for this is that the food shortage has forced people to go hungry ever, though they have steady jobs.
For the relief of the coal crisis, the Welfare Promotion Ministry plans to send new workers to coal nines, 60,000 workers will be sent in November and December and 70,000 workers from January to March of next year, a total number of 130,000 workers. The Ministry tries to tempt men for this work by increasing the ration of socks, working clothes, or other neccessities granted them. Unfortunately, very few workers have applied for these jobs up to now.
It is because of the food problem. If the worker himself is to get five go ration of food as a heavy worker, his family only gets slightly over two go per day. In fact, they cannot live on the present ration.
According to the investigation made by the Welfare Promotion Ministry, the caloric value of nutrition supplied officially to one person per day is, for example, 1,437 calories for TOKYO, 1,298 calories for the city of YAMAGUCHI, and 1,382 calories for the city of MORIOKA, but the actual calories in take by a person per day is 1,798 calories for TOKYO, 2,026 calories for YAMAGUCHI, and l,745 calories for MORIOKA. The Govern lent has admitted that people live on more than the official ration.
The minimum amount of nutrition to support human life is, according
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 26 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
to the established theory, 1,800 calories per person per day. The present ration is lower than this limit by 400 to 600 calories, yet few of us suffered from permanent hunger or malnutrition, which is explained by the extensive use of the black market. The black market carries all kinds of goods, but recently the black market has handled, chiefly, the nece[illegible]sities of life, especially food.
It has become a social force. If legislation is carelessly introduced, forcing abolition of the black market, social confusion may be anticipated. Those who lost their occupation by defeat in the war can not always be termed unemployed in its strict sense; they are pseudo-unemployed as there are various means by which they can live simply and with ease without any regular business. Those ways lead to the black markets.
Hence, the true policy for prevention of unemployment must begin with "cleaning up" the black market. This can be done only with careful thought and a firm resolution to solve the problem of increasing the ration of foodstuff. We admit the impossibility of increasing the ration, judging from the estimates of supply and demand for next year's rice crop. This is why we want the government to act boldly.
The Agriculture and Forestry Ministry has announced that the anticipated amount of rice crop for this year is about 46,000,000 koku, but the actual amount should be a little more than the anticipated amount, as it has been so in the past years. Then, if the purchase is set at fixed prices the amount of 30,000,000 koku ought to be secured by official purchase.
Use of the black market may be convenient for war profiteers or "private owners of official assets", but most consumers, especially the salaried men, are being drawn into black market dealings every moment, as there is no other way for them to obtain rice and wheat. The administration should be made aware of this.
ITEM 3 Speed up Reformation 1 - Asahi Shimbun - 18 Nov 45. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Full Translation:
Prince HIGASHIKUNI and Prince KAYA revealed their determination to become commoners. Anon the peerage, Prince KONOE, Fumimaro; Marquis KIDO, Koichi; and Marquis TOKUGAWA, Yoshichika offered to renounce their traditional privileges as noblemen. Recently the Privy Seal system came to an end.
A series of these happenings are proving well that democratization of JAPAN is in steady progress. Aside from the democratization of JAPAN centering around the action of noted-men, the democratization of systems is also advancing though rather slowly. Democratization of systems, such as, the reformation of the constitution and the electoral law, reorganization of the House of Peers, the peerage, bureaucracy, administrative mechanisms and the like are in process.
However, the general masses, at present, cool enough to observe a substantial part of the present trend and are gravely concerned with the amount of time needed for a change. The people are likely to observe to what degree this democratization will help to stave off starvation.
Metaphorically speaking, so slack and slow is the time needed for JAPAN to change that it may be compared to the speed of a glacier
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 26 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
which is believed to advance only a few meters during a century. This very fact should be always kept in mind by our statesmen.
The statesmen are requested to waste no time in taking every effective step, or the general masses will be bitterly disappointed with the Government in the execution of its policies. There is every reason to believe that the general populace of JAPAN, at least, will sympathize with the Allied General Headquarters which shows irritation over the delay of the Japanese Government in carrying out its reformation.
"In making some reform, consideration of the effect on those reformed results in limited, imperfect reformation", Prince KONOE stated on the change of the House of Peers before the outbreak of the CHINA War. Then he continued, "Accordingly, in executing reform of the House of Peers it seems more desirable for the Government to work out a (reform) plan on its own responsibility."
To our regret it appears to the nation that the Government authorities today, are taking into consideration too much "the effects on those reformed." in making the reformation.
ITEM 4 Retirement of all the chief vassals should be enforced - Yomiuri Hochi - 18 Nov 45. Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
The Privy Council is to be abolished, and the Peers will be deprived of their privileged majority. The Privy Seal which is nothing but a black market of political power, will soon disappear.
Military services no longer exist, and all diplomatic functions and agencies are checked, except such remaining offices as those for repatriation of soldiers and post-war liaison.
Now that the situation is as mentioned, it would mean very little even if Imperial supreme authority should, be eliminated in the forthcoming reformed constitution.
The Imperial guard was extremely simple when His Majesty the Emperor visited the KANSAI district some days ago. His Imperial Majesty symbolized the new future of the imperial House, in uniform without side-arms. What is more remarkable is that information of the Imperial visit was published before the visit was made. When His Majesty worshipped at the ISE Shrines to pray for victory, the fact was published after he returned to the Imperial Palace.
It is hardly necessary to say that the privileged member of the Court, guided rampant under the protection of the Emperor, dared to try to shift the blame for the war onto the shoulders of His Majesty himself. The people don't blame the Emperor, but those who have done wrong in assisting the Emperor. We know no disloyalty beyond that. If only all these privileged ranks were eliminated from the Gourt, the Imperial House would rid itself of gloom, and thereby more intimate sentiment for the Imperial system would arise among the people.
According to statements, addressed to the Allied Headquarters and to the Prime Minister's official residence, it is understood that the voices supporting the Emperor system are more numerous than those which do not. This is not in keeping with the opinions shown concerning the case of the Privy Council and the Privy Seal. Of course, the Peers are relatives of the Imperial House, but none of the people support them because of it.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 26 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
President HIRANUMA of the Privy Council. Lord Keeper KIDO of the Privy Seal and the Court official KONOE, all these chief vassals, attending the throne, should become commoners to take the consequences of their mistakes; and should be deprived of any conveniences whatever. Then, many of them might be seized as war-criminals. Except for that change, if the institution of the Imperial Household should continue to exist, the vast majority of the people would breathe freely again.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0026, 1945-11-15.
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