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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0023, 1945-11-27.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0109

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 109 Date: 27 NOV 45.

EDITORIAL SERIES: 23

ITEM 1 Construction of Dams - Asahi-Shimbun - 16 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Summary:
Following is a letter addressed to the editors of the ASAHI SEIMBUN.
I was astonished at the dam construction program which, according to Premier SHIDEHARA, is supposed to relieve unemployment.
Premier SHIDEHARA said that instead of road construction as planned in GERMANY for settling the unemployment problem, his government is planning to construct dams. But there is one great differences between these two plans. The construction of roads requires for more labor then dams. A large quantity of cement, more than 1,000,000 tons per month is necessary for the construction of dams. Many plants for cement production, however, have been closed since the end of the war and the plants still active suffer from the coal shortage. Is the mass production of cement possible?
The premier went on to say that the constructions of dams will facilitate agricultural irrigation, he failed to say that it requires accurate calculations and careful planning to co-ordinate the generation of electric power with agricultural irrigation.
The Premier went on to say that more cement will produce more dams and more dams will produce more cement. But he neglected to say that many generators and other facilities must also be constructed before cement can be produced.
So far the estimate of labor required for the dam building project is not yet complete. This must be done first.
In conclusion, I, who from the bottom of my heart advocate the electrification of farming communities, hope the Premier's project will not turn out to be just a plan on paper.
ITEM 2 Not be desk-plan - Asahi Shimbun - 16 Nov 45. Translator: N. Kawanabe.
Summary:
In a letter to the editors of the ASAHI SHIMBUN, a reader expresses the opinion that all the proposed plans to relieve unemployment will theoretically employ more workers than are now available. This, he says, shows a lack of co-ordination between government offices.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 23 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Education In the Classroom and at Home - Asahi Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kawanabe.
Full Translation:
GUEST: "How did you cultivate the stout spirit which made you defy the threat of death and stirred you to that great service to our country during and after the war?"
HOST: "It's chiefly by virture of education."
GUEST: "Where, do you think, the education was most effective?"
HOST: "Mainly in the high school and at home."
GUEST: "How was it in the high school?"
HOST: "It was rather the dormitory life than the school-room life that had a great influence on my spirit. In the dormitory, I and my school-mates made the most of our youth in exchanging ideas and in training each other's character. Furthermore, the study of classics benefited me very much."
GUEST: "What kinds of classics do you mean?"
HOST: "They are, for example, those by CONFUCIUS, FUJITA, TOKO etc."
GUEST: "Had you any other chances to develop your spirit?"
HOST: "Yes, I had so many chances that I can't recollect all of them, But, for instance, I have learned at SHOKOJUKU, a private school founded by Mr. SUGIURA to meditate on the meaning of life. I think this was useful to me to a degree."
GUEST: "Is there anything else you would like to tell me?"
HOST: "Well, in short, my spiritual inclination has been entirely influenced by the high school life. The spirit which has been cultivated quietly in reading, in contemplation and in playing sports has become a guide in my life. I think, therefore, the high school period should be made longer."
GUEST: "That may be a good opinion. Then, what is the education at home?"
HOST: "It is a discipline of conduct at home. My parents were very strict and particular about their son's conduct and always used to show him the difference between what to do and what not to do."
GUEST: "What is your opinion about present education by the family?"
HOST: "It may be a good thing for parents not to scold their son too mush and to show respect for his liberty. But they must differentiate clearly between liberty end indulgence in educating him. If he does not experience strict discipline in the home, he will not have any strong will and if he is indulgent he will fail to acquire the power that defies any hardship.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 23 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Though I am old end my words may also be old, what I mentioned above, I dare say, is worthy of young men's attention in new JAPAN."
ITEM 4 The necessity of examining a public opinion survey - Asahi Shimbun - 19 Nov 45. Translator: K. Hirata.
Full translation:
In these days there is an increasing tendency to survey public opinion, Needless to say, public opinion must he respected in a democratic government. Therefore, we must conduct more careful surveys by using scientific methods. It is not only useless and harmful but dangerous that we should confuse false public opinions with sincere ones. We are told that MacARTHUR's General Headquarters, in carrying out its occupation policies in JAPAN, is anxious to know what the Japanese are thinking. It is revealed that an organization of the Japanese public opinion survey is to be set up within the Headquarters. Brigadier General DYKE, referring to this problem, stated "If incorrectly conducted, the survey is apt to bring an entirely different result from that expected. Therefore, we do not intend to commence this task until sufficient arrangements are made and American experts are here." Such is the Americans' attitude toward a public opinion survey.
Public opinion surveys are an entirely new experience to the Japanese whose right of free speech has been unduly suppressed for years. The Japanese nation is not yet enjoying freedom of speech although the bonds supressing free speech have been already loosened by MacARTHURS' General Headquarters.
In view of this fact, the method for conducting JAPAN's public opinion survey must be by all means, scientific in order to stimulate the desire for freedom of speech by the Japanese. The present Cabinet welcomes the letters of the nation to the Premier, which the Board of Information makes public from time to time. It is good as well as necessary to listen to a voice of the nation for the purpose of having true democratic government. However much such letters may show the general tendency of public opinion not all the facts are always included. Needless to say, some write letters concerning vital subjects, but some write merely because they ere fond of writing.
Further, intelligent classes or urban citizens are apt to be sensitive to certain situations and write with ease, while most people of the rural districts are not so receptive to an outer stimulus as the former and seldom write. We can see from this how partial and unfair a view is, judging only from the letter. When the Government, or press and magazine offices, undertake a public opinion survey, they must be cautions neither to misuse survey methods nor fabricate false results according to their own wishful thinking. This, of course, defeats the purpose of a survey.
American public opinion surveys have undergone many changes. The Digest poll of the Literary Digest, a review magazine which had two million readers, was the most influential. At every Presidential election the magazine had made successful forecasts based on its survey. However, in 1936 when ROOSEVELT was re-elected president, the magazine predicted the success of LANDON of the Republican Party. Owing to this incorrect prediction, the magazine was purchased by Time magazine. However, the magazine once enjoyed a wide circulation among the leading classes throughout all AMERICA. And conducted public opinion surveys
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 23 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
by means of questionnaires. But, in 1936, it failed to include the opinion of the workers who supported the New Deal Policy.
Quite different and successful was the forecast "based on Doctor GALLUP's method. He did not fail to pay attention to all classes comprising the whole nation and classifications of sex, age, occupation and wealth were not overlooked. Thus he sought to survey public opinion [illegible]n an entirely scientific bases. He once sent 1,000 surveyors throughout AMERICA and set up a branch in LONDON. Thus he was regarded as a veritable wizard in the public opinion survey scene. However, afterwards, he inclined more and more toward commercialism. So, at present, the scientific survey based on the "diffusion of intelligent population" has gained popularity. This method is used on the Measurement of Attitudes in Harvard, Columbia and other universities.
In the present changing days of JAPAN, the mission of the survey will be different from that in AMERICA, At present, JAPAN seems to be quite at a loss as how to cope with the critical situation in spite of the urgent necessity of reconstruction. These problems comes as a direct result of an about-face following the surrender. The ideas and sentiments of our nation are in a chaotic state. However, by seeking for true public opinion, out of the chaos we can find the means for reconstructing our country. Scientific survey and logical judgment and a survey not by prompted wishful thinking are absolutely necessary.
What has been stated above is the writer's warning against a public opinion survey which has recently come to be in vogue JAPAN.
ITEM 5 The Communists and the Red Terrorism - Asahi Shimbun - 17 Nov 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Full translation:
The Communist Party held two meetings recently. The first was a mass meeting to welcome discharged friendly prisoners, held in the Japan Aviators' Association Hall. The second was a meeting on 7 October in memory of its martyrs. At this latter the party's policy was announced and later published in the party magazine, "Red Flags".
A correspondent attending the meetings reports that the party's program of terrorism would doubtlessly prove an obstacle to the party's developement.
At the 7 October meeting a list of names of the men whom the party disapprove was read. Then, while many shouted, "Kill!" end "Beat to death", a few people rushed from the hall in opposition to the proposed use of force.
A poster on the wall exclaimed, "Down with white terrorism!" When a speaker alluded to the name of a police sergeant whose action resulted in the death of a party member, someone shouted, "I'll go out and get the cop."
The cry of "Kill him, kill him", filled the hall.
The correspondent concluded that unless the communists reconsidered their policy advocating the use of force, he doubted that they could become popular with the people.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0023, 1945-11-27.
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