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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0022, 1945-11-27.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0105

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 105 Date: 27 Nov 1945

EDITORIAL SERIES: 22

ITEM 1 The Establishment of the Judicial System - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: H. Furukawa.
Full translation:
Democratic government brings about the development of the party system as a matter of course. The development of the party system is apt to extend its influence into fields other than administration. A notable example is the growth of party influence in judicial circles. This tendency is already proved in other countries where democratic governments prevail. The idea that even the trial may be carried on by the people is, of course, suitable to the democratic spirit; so it cannot be denied in any way. As a result of this thought, the jury system is adopted in many countries.
The judicial power, however, must be carried on, based upon calm and strict judgment, and on the other hand, it requires extensive technical knowledge in the application of law, the adopting of judicial procedure, and other matters. It is evident that well-qualified judicial officials must be endowed with considerable competence. Of course, a judge is only human and may misjudge, or make an error which will be criticized by the people.
Prevention of errors by judges can only be done by law; under a democratic government it would be the proper duty of the Imperial Diet to check the arbitrary actions of the judiciary. But, after all, the morality and the decisions of the judge is the final problem. By the judge's moral sense or judgment, the fate of an individual, even his life is determined. The sentence of death, or even a year's servitude, is of grave importance. The judiciary is a function of state power; it can be regarded as the most important state power. Consequently, the authority of judicial officials must always be held at a maximum. This requires the maintenance of a moral spirit and the independence of the judicial officials. Though it might be said that the judicial official is also a mere human being who can be influenced by personal feelings and be restricted by laws, yet he must still hold his position firmly independent of political influences and has the responsibility of executing his duties with sincerity.
When the judiciary is influenced by the government, it cannot be sure of preventing the invasion of party influence into its circles. While in the case of bureaucratic governments, party influences may try to invade the judiciary. It must restore its own independence with the fall of bureaucratic government. But if the system of party government continues, party pressure on the judiciary must be strictly prohibited.
The office of public Prosecutor has in the past been organized administratively under the control of the public prosecutor-general, and often, in practice, was controlled by the Minister of Justice. In

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 22 (Continued)
ITEM l (Continued)
such a state, the independence of judicial power is a mere sham.
With the revision of state organization, we think it would be better to deprive the Minister of Justice of all his powers and transfer them to the judiciary, and as the first step, we propose that all judicial appointments be made by the President of the Supreme Court or the Public Irosecutor-General. Only by such a plan, can the confusion of powers, as was seen in the drafting of the Thought Offense Law, be avoided. At the same time, establishment of the system of judicial police, which we have already mentioned, is also to be studied.
In view of the prevailing conditions, the future of the Japanese economy and thought seams to be in great confusion. Politics will continue in a similar manner. Therefore, only the strict impartiality of the judicial authorities can secure the permanent respect of the people.
The judiciary must be stirred to strengthen its independence and perform its mission. In the eyes of the public many crimes have been committed by felons who ought to be cut to pieces by the people. Despite this fact, the current exposure of such criminals appears to stop with just that. Punishment should not be forgotten. If it is, everything is lost forever.
ITEM 2 Carelessness of Parents - Tokyo Shimbun - 14- Nov 45. Translator: G. Kumayo.
Full translation:
Proper authorities report that juvenile crime has recently increased greatly. In view of recent events we can easily perceive this even without that report. We see primary school children gather in the street around a jeep to clamor for food, when they should be present at school. We see also young women following American soldiers. These, of course, are not crimes in themselves, but are capable of developing into crimes. Many crimes are reported which are considered the result of these acts. Above all, the immodesty of young women has been increasing.
It is said that some girls don't know what their actions mean, but act so merely to obtain money or some article. Meanwhile, their parents believed they were at school, or were late in getting out. "At least, our daughter deserves our full confidence," is a common opinion that parents have. And, again, "Our daughter is only a child, though she is physically mature," is another common opinion. However, parents are quite mistaken in these ideas. It is the parents alone who can stop these loose tendencies of the girls.
We earnestly hope they will endeavor to curb these tendencies, but, if they suggest or encourage them, that is quite another matter.
ITEM 1 The Reform of the System of Government Officials - Tokyo Shimbun - l6 Nov 45. Translator: S. Inoue.
Full translation:
A plan of reform of the system of government officials has been proposed. Its contents represent nothing more than collections of opinions expressed, in various circles, and are not at all original.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 22 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
It is not sufficient merely to make changes in the classification of officials with respect to the importance of their positions. And this is about all the new plan proposes to accomplish. The adoption of a new classification of the first, second, and third grade in place of CHIOKUNIN, SONIMKAN, and HANNINKAN, simply effects a nominal change.
Changes in names alone cannot he expected to change the character of an institution, just as a man does not change because he wears a new suit. Unfortunately, however, the changes have done nothing more than to change a few names.
The first thing we must do in rectifying the system of officialdom is to correct the attitude of government officials who think that then are superior to the common people and that they are indispensable to the country. This is untrue because everyone, in his own type of work, is useful to his country. It is therefore unreasonable to treat the officials differently from other government employees. The conferring of rank and grade on officials at the time of their appointment is as unwise as the privilege which entitles them to a pension. So long as the government official pension system lasts, their, "peace-at-any-price principle" will never be rectified, and their desire for privileges will also not be changed even though they are persuaded to consider themselves as public servants.
ITEM 4 Reorganization of the Sumitomo Chemical Industry Co. - Nihon-Sangyo-Keizai - l6 Nov 45. Translator: T. Mitsuhashi.
Full translation:
The SUMITOMO Chemical Industry Company plans to change its name, reform its organization, and shift its personnel at the time of the dissolution of the SUMITOMO ZAIBATSU. In conjunction with this, a restoration committee will be set up in its head office for postwar business and for handling reconstruction of war-damaged works.
Factory Mana[illegible]er and chiefs of each division in the head office will become members. President KOB[illegible]YASHI will take the post of chief of the committee. The committee also plans to curtail production in the aluminum division, to enlarge the fertilizer division, to replace and enlarge on the store of materials, to make good in process suitable for civilian use.
ITEM 5 Problem of the Japanese Language - Asahi Shimbun - l6 Nov 45. Translator: T. Unayama.
Full translation:
How should we deal with the problem of our national language? Some claim that we should take a bold stride forward and use Romaji extensively, thereby reconstructing a peaceful, international JAPAN. But, "Haste makes waste."
In the editorial of 14 October, "Popularize the Japanese Language," we stated that this is a necessity.
To restrain one's individuality will not further one's friendship with his neighbors. True friendship can be brought about between perfectly independent human beings; and in the same way, confidence and friendship between nations or races which ere really self-reliant. True
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 22 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
love cannot exist between man and animal, nor can true friendship be brought about between a man and his slave. A really independent nation can more properly express its nationalism and can more easily contribute to international culture by evolving a truly adequate national language.
We anxiously await the selection and the popularization of a new national language suitable to the new era, which will adequately express our thoughts and in addition contain changes which will render it smooth to speak, pleasant to hear, easy to write, and convenient to read. We also hope that such changes will limit the use of Chinese characters and words written in 'kana' or Japanese syllabary and Chinese ideographs. A command of technical terms of foreign origin is eagerly anticipated. We regret that writings in 'katakana,' full of mistakes were thrust on the peoples of East Asia.
The simple and correct national language ought to be popularized, and, at the same time, the chance of learning Chinese and English should be given to the young men of the Few Age. Now is the time when the Investigation Committee of the National Language ought to wake up from its long hibernation.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0022, 1945-11-27.
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