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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0016, 1945-11-22.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0075

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 75 Date: 22 Nov 45


ITEM 1 Liberated Eye of the People - Tokyo Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kato.
Full translation:
In the past the government mistook the people's resentful silence for a co-operative attitude. There was no criticism of the government.
How can we expect a fair administration without true co-operation and criticism of the people? Now that the eyes of the people have been opened, They criticize the administration boldly and frankly.
Already an outline of the war Budget has been publicized, and it is now known that the members of the Parliament, supposedly the leaders of the people, passed such measures blindly. Though detailed information is not yet available, the military authorities admit some of the suspicions of the people about the government are justified.
The transfer of special war expenses to the Finance Ministry was decided because of the people's scrutinizing eye. The people are no longer stupid and blind. The existence of "legal brigands" in JAPAN is a most incomprehensible thing for the people who look upon reality with hold and straightforward eyes.
In MANCHURIA, Japanese officials under the service of that government were once called "legal brigands. We were made to believe that this existed, throughout the war. Not merely during the war, but now, when peace is restored, we still feel deeply regretful and are inclined to scorn it. The laws of their own making are closer than the meshes of a net, and they were expanded and joined one after another until the present shape was formed. Because of this, the "legal brigands" were bound fast by their own laws.
After the termination of the war some laws and regulations were abolished, but even the "legal brigands” are unaware of these puny efforts. We do not urge that all laws and regulations should be abolished, but we do mean that such a move is needed to remove the minutely involved laws. The true nature of the "legal [illegible]" was shown to the people by their incompetency and confusion in collecting and distributing sweet pot[illegible]toes among the people. Soon after making a statement that the sweet potato now is the chief staple food, they left lots of them to rot, thus discouraging the producer's delivery to the state. The result of which WPS confusion in collection and difficulties in distribution.
The Agriculture and Forestry authorities were reported to have sold sweet potatoes at over five yen per KAN which is more than five times the price which the agricultural association, as an official control organ, would have charged in the public market to save the city people's distress. The situation is that of the "legal brigands", are caught in their own net and are struggling. This is being done before the eyes of the public.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 16 (Continued)
ITTM 1 (Continued)
The people are neither blind nor stupid. The people will become aware of any unreasonable actions and will definitely criticize the error. More than this, the Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Powers removed all coverings so that action can be plainly seen. Therefore, when a directive is issued by the Allied General Headquarters, the people will wonder why the government did not take the step before that. And after a directive is issued, they become indignant at the government for not responding to it speedily. Now the people are free to be bold and frank. Has the government forgotten this?
By having misconstrued the resentful silence of the people under oppression as cooperation, the government is in no position to cope with the present situation. The authorities definitely will not be permitted, to maintain a self-conceited, attitude, when they are barely able to hold confidence in their competency against the people's criticism. The conduct of governmental policy before the public eyes can no longer be a desk plan or a desk theory. Self-reflection and determination on the part of the government authorities are earnestly desired.
ITEM 2 True Meaning of Democratic pollution - Asahi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: K. Isao.
Full Translation:
True Meaning of A Democratic Revolution
Dissolution of the Japanese military; freedom of speech, assembly, and association; and abolition of the special police are throe fundamental objectives toward a democratic revolution for which the people themselves must fight. These have suddenly been granted us in a directive to the Japanese government from the Supreme Allied Headquarters.
The prerequisites for democratic revolution have been given us, but it remains to be seen whether or not the nation is capable of carrying on boldly from that point. Allied newspapers have recognized that the nation is not aware of its new strength, and the statement is undeniably true.
The study of politics, economy, religion, science and education were systematically suppressed; but now it is up to the nation to remove the shackles.
Efforts toward achieving a. democratic revolution are substantially the achievement itself. The granting of basic human rights have opened to us new roads toward the consummation of democratic revelation.
However, there is no indication that the people are taking advantage of their new rights. The revolution is being imposed in the forms of directives and the execution of Supreme Headquarters instructions, but it is evident the people are not doing their utmost toward furthering the course of the democratic revolution.
Constitutional reform, reform of election laws, dissolution of the big financial houses, and discontinuance of Shinto as the national religion have been presented to us by the Supreme Headquarters because of our inability to understand the concepts of democratic revolution. Our concepts have not expanded beyond considering parliaimentarianrsm [illegible]the establishment of the democratic revolution. Most of us understand democracy to mean the formation of a democratic cabinet in next year's
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 16 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (continued)
general election which will then do something for us. That a general election and new parliament are the substance of democratic revolution is the prevailing view.
But defining democratic revolution within such limits is erroneous. It fails to consider that political suppression was part of a huge system whose principle it was to suppress politics, economy, religion, science and education; and thus dominated our very lives.
The error of defining the democratic revolution within narrow political concepts corresponds to stating that the activities of unions of farmers or laborers are merely struggles for the realization of better treatment.
In the case of unions, as well, it is often forgotten that the system was oppressing them, but they nevertheless consider it enough to struggle for employment, improvement of conditions, decrease in farm rents, and so forth.
True, these struggles are significant enough, but if unions fail to criticize or take practical measures against an oppressive system, the road to a new JAPAN by democratic revolution will be shut.
The old forces represented by bureaucrats, nobles, capitalists, and the landed gentry are steadily growing weaker under the onslaught of the forces of democratic revolution. But they still endeavor to retain the old system by relinquishing a few privileges, and by patching and yielding, rather dissolving the whole corrupt system.
We emphasize that a democratic revolution should be a complete revolution through every institution of politics, economy, religion, science and education. We earnestly wish the nation to extend its understanding of the real meaning of democratic revolution.
ITEM 3 Are the Government authorities really self-confident? - Asahi Shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator; Y. Hirate.
Full Translation;
Ten millions may starve during the winter and to July or August of next year, which is considered the most critical period in our food supply. During the greater EAST ASIA war, which lasted for three years and a half, the killed, wounded, and diseased in the Army and Navy totaled more than fifty thousands. When this is compared with the starvation of ten millions, we can easily imagine the wide-spread and terrible sights. Once this matter of anxiety about food becomes a reality, all our efforts for democratic reforms will become useless. All our efforts and plans for electorial reform, educational renovation and administrative reform will go up in smoke, Nobody can deny it.
Therefore, for the present, all efforts of the whole nation must bent to the solution of the most urgent and fundamental problem, but the truth of the matter is that the government authorities and the whole nation are at a loss as to how to cope with the approaching critical situation in food. Precious time is being idled away.
Our leaders, the instigators of war, drove our nation to its present miserable state. If they demand greater sacrifices of us because of their lack policy and their insincerity, we must, of course, dispel their illusions, but, never the less we must [illegible]trive to come through the critical period by our own efforts without relying on them. Before
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 16 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (continued)
we set about solving the problem of providing food for the people this winter, we must first examine the actions of the authorities in their endeavor to cope with the present crisis.
Hitherto the Government authorities announced many polities concerning the food problem and often expressed their confidence in their ability to cope with the impending crisis, and yet they have always been ignored by the people, for they have never yet made public satisfactory concrete plans. The government authorities must at once make [illegible]lear to the nation the following two points relating to the measures which they have taken or will take to meet the present situation.
First the government authorities must give us a full account of their negotiations with the Supreme Headquarters concerning the problem of importing food. The present shortage in food cannot be solved without any importation from abroad.
The present attitude of the Government toward the people seems in essence to be not far from the attitude taken by the TOJO government. Can we permit the people to be dependent solely upon the authorities? We, who supported without criticism national policies during the war and were thereby driven to the present crisis, car not now rely only upon a government which seems to be wasting time as usual without definite policies. It is natural that the whole nation is eager to know whether the importation of food from abroad will be permitted through the sympathy and understanding of the Allied Forces, and the quantity of food to be imported, since these are the most important factors which influence the solution of our food problem. But nothing has been made public except that our government petitioned the Allied Forces for permission to import three million tons of food and in spite of the fact that the authorities intimated they had been given permission to do so by the Allied Forces. It is doubtful according to American newspapers. Already three months have passed since our surrender, and one and a half months since the present government was formed, we can not feel easy in the chaos that exists, when we think of the starvation approaching. Under these circumstances at a time when all the nations of the world ere troubled with, the shortage of food how much and from what regions of the world is the Government intending to import?
What are the knotty points which retard the admission of the Allied Forces? Is there a shortage of shipping, a deficiency of [illegible]or a lack of suitable goods for exchanger [illegible]is it that [illegible]reforms still leave something to be desirel? If we can [illegible]where the difficulty lies, it is the whole nation and not the go[illegible]alone that should remove the diff[illegible].
The second point which we want clarified is how the gover[illegible]will cope with the critical situation when starvation approaches nearer and nearer. Under the present circumstances [illegible]peo[illegible]cannot even partially escape starvation. But who will be the victims of [illegible]? Those who are responsible for these who ass[illegible]to [illegible]of on-lookers toward war, those who suffered [illegible]caused by war or those who fattened themselves by war — these are all., In a wide sense, responsible for our defeat, Will they escape from starvation in the same way as they deceived the nation? Will all war-stffer[illegible]s be po[illegible]war sufferers again?
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 16 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Since it is obviously a dilemma, whet counter-measures will the authorities take? we are eager to do our utmost to solve the problem either alone or with the government. Therefore, we desire the authorities to assume a more serious attitude toward the solution of the problem in co-operation with the nation by expressing themselves clearly and promptly on the above two points.
ITEM 4 Events Allow No Optimism - Tokyo shimbun - 14 Nov 45. Translator: G. Kumayo.
Full translation:
Every private and monopolistic cartel in JAPAN is to be broken up. At first, the four major plutocracies are to be broken up thoroughly and their enterprises forced to suspend activities. The exclusive and ruthless capitalism in JAPAN which they headed, inflicted great evils upon our people. We regret that it was not checked at an earlier stage. But the fact was that every government, political party or leading financier, pleaded that the development of capitalism was indispensable for the prosperity of our country; and made its development a national policy only because the industrial development in the MEIJI Era owed much to the capitalism of the time. Anyone who denounced its evils was treated as a traitor. Indeed, it was inevitable that class struggles increased as time progressed.
The politicians tried to check this tide by conciliatory policies. They adopted as a very useful measure for it the NANIWABUSHI, or "story-telling" policy which inspired very conventional feudalism. They created the "Institute for the Adjustment of Labor problems", which was nothing but an organization for the sole benefit of capitalists. They were forced, as a result, to open many jails and enact laws for the preservation of public peace. Actually, the matter was too critical and urgent to be solved by a "story-telling" policy. The result was that police and. prison records outnumbered even those of ANSEI's Great Execution.
In this war, which was a scientific war, or a war by laborers, the military cabinet that stood for total war and aimed at the reformation of the SHOWA Era, allowed the greedy capitalists to amass profits by sacrificing laborers. Thus, compulsory labor service in wartime produced not as much ammunition as profits for the above-mentioned traitors, the capitalists. Finally, the war ended with the loss of millions of soldiers and the starvation of the whole nation.
Now plutocracies are broken up, and a road to economic liberty is opined to our people. But that does not mean economic liberty has been achieved. Neither can we expect it in the near future, for if the Allied Powers had not ordered it, the Japanese government would no doubt have avoided this problem. It alone suffices that we realize the lack of courage we had by recognizing the many other social injustices before and during the war.
We fear similar situations will greatly arouse social unrest end will be exploited as a pretence for violent action.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 16 (Continued)
ITEM 5 On The Japan Communist Party - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 14 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kato.
Full Translation;
Indeed, a great change has come about when, in our country, the communist Party or its movements appear openly. It may, however, be difficult for the people to approach communism open-mindedly. People have until now deemed a communist quite a different kind, of person, rather a member of another race. Nevertheless we should deal with, and criticize the Communist Party or its principles sanely, not blindly following others nor with biased minds. Some of our countrymen have abhorred and others resented communism blindly, which they said had a cloak of mysticism about it, a mysticism as deep as the Emperor system which Communists want to overthrow. The change of age, however, stripped Communism of such mysticism, subjecting it to criticism by the people.
Now, communism is placed under open criticism exposing its real character and principles not as in former times of illegal movements when communists attracted the people's mind by grumbling in secret. The people of JAPAN must now find a correct, but not radical path to tread through political and ideological principles touching various principles and ideologies.
Communists who have hitherto been compelled to start secret movements, are now able to make public their principles and policies. Hereafter, they should show them openly in order to subject them to public criticism. The JAPAN Communist Party has made public their platform for movements involving overthrow of [illegible]enno system. The fundamental principles of conflict, which is not similar to former times when most of us considered that the communists' principles involved national constitutional reform, denial of private property and the like. Despite the communist's emphasis on the overthrow of the Emperor system, and private property system, they give only a partial reference to such items as confiscation of land owned by parasite-like persons control by labor of important industries and the like. This gives us no distinct idea as to whether they admit, in principle, the private property system.
Further, they never refer to a denial of capitalism which, we doubt, is for the sake of convenience, to permit them to cope with the present situation.
It is absolutely necessary for communists who hate affectation, cheating, or compromise to clarify these points for the people. If the lack of emphasis for the overthrow of the Emperor system and ambiguity about private property is due to timidness or conciliation for the Americans, then the communists should be blamed for cheating the public. Disguise is no longer necessary.
Leaders of Nippon Communist party state that they have no intention of revolution by violence which is quite right. Now that communists are able to realize their principles and policies by freedom of political movement, and oppression by the government have been removed through freedom of speech and association, violent measures are unnecessary, If there are occasions of violence the forcing of their will upon the people must be avoided, because the fundamental principle of liberalism is a respect for individual rights.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: l6 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
Hitherto, some people were so prejudiced end deemed communism as violent. This misconception may have arisen from the violent resistance of communists against violent oppression by the government, but if communism is akin to ultra-nationalism, it must necessarily become anti-democratic like fascism.
What relation the Nippon Communist Party has with the International Communist Movement is not clear. Radical nationalism, which ignores the people's will, will be sure to be rejected by the people before directives of Supreme Headquarters issued. Now, the Japanese people, in a post-war chaos, should find a right way to advance to a peaceful democratic JAPAN through the adoption and rejection of various thoughts and ideas and principles such as communism and others.
ITEM 6 we must welcome the return of the Japanese war prisoners - Yomiuri Hochi - 15 Nov 45. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Full Translation:
People seem to have been surprised at the report of the number of Japanese prisoners of war in ANERICA being 5,000. They would be more surprised to hear that 12,000 Japanese soldiers were captured by the UNITED STATES troops at the decisive battle in the OKINAWA Islands. This is the stern fact facing our nations.
From older times, our people have regarded it as a disgrace to "show their backs" to the enemy. The soldiers of modern JAPAN, too, were not permitted to be captured by the enemy even if they were defeated. Naturally this traditional [illegible]pirit will never permit their capture. It is reported that mental afflictions of those Japanese war prisoners are all the more severe due solely to this traditional spirit. But it may be questioned whether our people will accuse them for their being war prisoners and whether they will be so heartless as to leave them suffering from afflictions.
In this connection It must be recalled today that annihilation of the Japanese at ATTU Island met with general admiration, but that the succession of annihilations after ATTU Incident gradually plunged the nation into grief. And at last when the authorities concerned revealed the news of annihilation proudly, the people entertained resentment towards them, This is the very reason why the expression of "annihilation of the gallant Japanese" disappeared in the governmental statements thereafter.
We lost the war and many millions of our soldiers on the fronts surrendered unconditionally. Moreover, the whole nation has virtually become prisoners of war. Our officers and men or the fronts should not be responsible at all for surrender. The leading class, who indulged in luxurious living during the war, should be held accountable for their errors which caused surrender.
Is there any reason for us to accuse those prisoners or to scoff at them when we reflect on these things? All of them were so brave as to fight on with broken swords and without ammunition until they were deprived of all means of fighting. Under these circumstances they were captured. Because of this they are reported to be worrying.
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 16 (Continued)
ITEM 6 (Continued)
The writer cannot imagine any Japanese scoffing at them, for we should thank them, instead of looking at then with indifference.
Should we not take every possible measure to liberate them from their afflictions as soon as possible and to enable them to return home willingly? For this purpose we should resort to any effective means, for example, promulgation of the Imperial Rescript, extending a national movement, and the like.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0016, 1945-11-22.
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