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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0013, 1945-11-17.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0049

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 49 Date: 17 Nov 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 13

ITEM 1 The True Character of the Liberal Party (JIYO-TO) - Yomiuri Hochi - 11 Nov 45 Translator: S. Ota.
Full Translation:
Liberalism once existed, in Japan, but only as a fashinable word, and as such, unable to form a basis for an ideal cultural and civilized national system. Capitalism in Japan had not developed along normal lines.
The Nippon Liberal Party has succeeded in seducing some intellectuals who wish to modernize Japan, because they think Mr. MATOYAMA and his colleagues will assemble the self-styled liberals and enlighten the people with orthodox liberal ideas while advancing toward democratization.
Judging from the results of the party meeting of 9 November, we can only conclude that the party consists of politicians, grouped around a nucleus of bosses resurrected from the old Political Friends Party (SEIYU-KAI), using new political catchwords such as "freedom", but retaining feudal "leader and follower" relations. They aspire to a majority at the next session on their past prestige.
Most disappointing, however, was director HATOYAMA's speech, He discussed democratization, but the context of his speech gave rise doubts concerning the liberalism of his ideas. He spoke of the crisis affecting the lives of the people, and the necessity of establishing democratic policies acceptable to the Allied Command.
But precisely what democratic policies mean to Mr. HATOYAMA? We does not seem to comprehend the democratic revolution now in progress, or the development of the political consciousness of the masses, or their demands. The liberals do not seek issue with the rightist militaristic parties responsible for the war, or with their feudalistic supporters, or with the bureaucratic elements, or with the Japanese Political Party (NISSEI-KAI). They consume their energies fighting the Communist Party. Nor do they favor the establishment of a People's Congress, but rather support retention of the Emperor system.
The audience might well have mistaken the Nippon Liberal Party for a rightist fascist organization, or for a rebirth of the Group of Genuine Nationalists Party (KOKUSUI-TAISHU-TO) led "by Mr. SASAKAWA, Ryoichi.
It is imperative that we in Japan struggle against the absolutism, authoritarianism, and feudalism which was responsible for persecuting liberal thought. Only in that way can liberalism develop. We must fight for the political and economic emancipation of the people, for the extension of human rights, and for forming a new basis for cultural development.
If the Japan Liberal Party continues to the retain jingorstic and reactionary aspects of its character, denying the people's front or the Allied democratic front; or if it persists in its vague compromises feudal elements simply to attain political power, it is foredoomed to

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
bankruptcy since those tactics will not be acceptable to the masses.
The policies of the Party are self contradictory, inconsistent. They employ the term "Socialist", but in reality their policies bely the word. Most ridiculous is their attempt to deceive the masses with promises of economic emancipation.
The nation faces an economic crisis to which no solution is practicable with a master plan for reconstruction. Foreign trade is under the supervision of the Allied Command. We must get on with a solution if we are, within necessary limits, to stand on our own feet. We can advance only by uniting democratic organizations, and with a positive Socialistic Platform, establish a government of the people.
Unnecessary wartime restrictions must be abolished at once, even though they are slowly collapsing by themselves. The development of stable political group to pursue policies based upon the direct demands of the people are urgently needed. These groups must endeavor to give the people security.
No liberal measures are possible with a socialistic freedom for the people. A party of capitalists might have devised more progressive measures had they been fully aware of existing conditions and the matured political consciousness of the masses.. Such indolence am' political ineptitude has made us appear ludicrous before the Allied countries. The Liberal Party doesn't seem too concerned.
ITEM 2 We strongly wish economic bodies to resume activities - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 11 Nov 45. Translator: K. Nagatani.
Full Translation:
Nearly three months have passed since the end of the war, and the economic world is still paralyzed. It is a fact that there exist various causes hindering the speedy resumption of economic activities such as the reparation problem, the problem of indemnity for the loss of war industries, the impossibility of forecasting the material supply, the price problem and so on. However we must admit that because of their having long been under bureaucratic economic control, Japanese business men have lost their natural initiative in business and are now entirely passive. They should waste no time in resuming their energetic activities. We cannot neglect the important role of various economic organizations especially during the present period of transition in which business is resuming its activities, liberating itself from wartime bureaucratic control. In order to cope with the new situation following the close of war, the Federal Committee Meeting of Economic Organizations (KEIZAI DANTAI RENGO IINKAI) has been established by the Economic Union (KEIZAI RENMEI), the Important Industries Conference (JYUYOSANGYO KYOGIKAI), the Chambers of Commerce and Industries (SHOKO KEIZAIKAI) and the Central Meeting of the Commerce and Industry Guilds (SHOKOKUMIAI CHUOKAI).
The new Federal Committee Meeting investigated various pressing problems including the problem of the abolition of control restrictions, the indemnity problem for munitions factories, the food problem and the transportation problem, and made proposals to the government. On the other hand the Important Industries Conference (JYUYO SANGYO KYOGIKAI) has attempted to plan the supply of necessary materials. In spite of
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
all their efforts, what impresses us is that these bodies still remain no more than sub-organizations under the leadership of the government. In the present upheaval of Japanese economy, there are some economic organizations which are obliged to reform their systems and whose activities are somewhat conditioned, as the Control Associations (TOSEI KAI) under the leadership of the Important Industries Conference (JYUYOSAN GYOKYOGIKAI). But this fact can not justify the present stagnation in economic activity. Business must neutralize the various causes hampering active economic activities as soon as possible. In addition to the dissolution of those urgent matters, we eagerly expect business to take up a part of the government's business as to private enterprisers in lieu of the past official control. Future economic activities should depend upon positive activities of non-official enterprisers. But the laissey faire capitalistic period is not permissible today and economic activities ought to be under unofficial economic bodies. Future regression of bureaucracy will conceivably accelerate unofficial control of business. In addition to the significant problem of deciding the best economic mechanism for a new JAPAN, whose scale of living will be considerably lowered, there are a number of items requiring immediate investigation. It is recalled now that the Federal Committee Meeting of Economic Associations (KEIZAI DANTAI RENGO IINKAI) recently decided to establish a sub-committee on the reconstruction of private business which is to study the problems, including the measures for indemnification of loss due to the conversion of war industries. In this connection the Federal Committee should study the formation and strengthening of an investigation organization. Ogasawara, Minister of Commerce and Industry, has thus far repeatedly stated that the birth of a comprehensive economic body was under study. Although non-official quarters have been silent, with the exception of JAPAN Chamber of Commerce and Industry (NIPPON SHOKO KEIZAIKAI), which in the recent general meeting decided to establish a comprehensive economic body. The necessity of establishing a comprehensive economic body is keenly felt also by business as is demonstrated by the formation of the Federal Committee on Economic Associations (KEIZAI DANTAI RENGO IINKAI) the establishment of a new comprehensive economic body should naturally he urged by non-official quarters. Existing business should decide to establish a powerful body to be the pivotal power in the reconstruction of our economy.
ITEM 3 Prospects of Achieving Reclamation - Asahi Shimbun - 11 Nov 45 Translator: M. Kato.
Full translation:
The concern of the Japanese people in the success of the scheme for the reclamation of waste land; is natural, for it forms the core of the food production problem of increasing in view of the order to provide 80,000,000 people with food from the limited land if HONSHU, SRIKOKU, KYUSHU, and HOKKAIDO.
A big project was decided upon at the Cabinet Council 9 November 1945 which included the draining of marshland, and the improvement of it. Although it was decided to reclaim some land, the speed with which the government arrived at their decision cannot be termed satisfactory for three months have passed since the close of the war. The government's project if it is effected immediately will contribute the disappointing total of only 17,000 koku of rice in 1946. When the food crisis will be severe, and the people face to face with starvation. It is the duty and responsibility of the government to do its utmost for the people and to solve at any cost this food problem which admits
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
of no delay. We urge the government to take serious consideration for their plans. The project announced by the government for reclamation of waste lends shows that in five years time 1,550,000 chobu of land will he cultivated and will yield l4,000,000 koku of rice. The expense of this project including the draining and improvement of lands will amount to 6,700,000,000 yen in five years, will take 1,960,000,000 man days of work and will yield an estimated increase in production of 20,000,000 koku. Such a massive project has never been known in Japan. But as our very existence depends upon the success of this project, our nation should strive to complete this object.
During the seventy years from the beginning of MEIJI about 1,500,000 chobu of land was reclaimed; almost the same area of waste land, left untouched, is going to be cultivated in five years. Therefore unless we set to work with full determination and preparation, it will be too late, to solve the food problem. We suggest the government, should consider sharing this work of cultivating lend on a grand scale under unfavorable natural conditions with pioneer-group or with individuals.
Men clearing forests and cultivating highlands must resort to machinery such as tractors or tanks, and must obtain them the aid of the government. Another reason why we prefer to have the government direct this project is that for several years after reclamation is begun the farmers will not be able to make both ends meet. And will need government subsidies.
Second the competancy of the farmers who will engage in reclamation should be ascertained. There have been many instances of failure because in a few years funds have been exhausted, spirits broken, and then their fields covered with grass. In this present situation, there will be much difficulty about their provisions, construction of their dwelling houses, so the choice of them should be most strict. Once allowed, however, the government should not begrudge full support to them in funds, materials, and labor. Half hearted help would be worse than nothing.
Third, machinery should be used in cultivation to large extent. With spades and saws, as in former times, the work will never come to an end. The government is reported to have prepared for the project with 2,100 tractors, 32,600 rooting machines, 36,000 animal drawn cultivating tools and 6,440 vehicles. These tools will be distributed among the 1,500,000 chobu, traotors, for instnace, will be allocated on the basis of one for 500 chobu which is as good as nothing. We cannot understand why more thorough planning cannot be done by the government.
Our suggestion to the government is to make use of war provision companies now idle for the purpose of filling the shortage of tractors. Steel materials needed for this should be given priority in the "Material Mobilization". The cultivation plan is not made to solve the unemployment problem and therefore the mobilization of non-power is not sufficient.
Fourth, hinderances to reclamation have been private ownership of land. The government is planning to stretch the laws to give the pioneers the right of expropriation in the use of the land, but the question is not laws but the practical use of laws. Moreover, not only the forest owned by the Imperial family or the government should be reclaimed, but landowners who are not willing to part with their land, which promises to be rise in price, should be made to part with it.
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EDITORIAL SERIES 13 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
In conclusion, this plan to cultivate 1,500,000 CHO of wasteland has rather an important meaning in forming a second country laud when its area is compared with that of 6,000,000 CHO of presently cultivated land. The cultivation Bureau in the Agriculture and Forestry Ministry is, far too small an administrative organization to carry out this plan and its Jurisdiction over various Ministries is too complicated. For instance, regarding to the reclamation of HOKKAIDO which is a most important part of this plan, the rights of jurisdiction of the Home Office and the Agriculture and Forestry Ministry are contradicting and actually the relations between the two offices are not smooth.
The connection between the Ministries of Communications and Public Welfare which are deeply interested to the prosecution of the plan and the Agriculture and Forestry Ministry is also inadequate. It seems that, on this occasion, the government should study the organization of colonization, and give it to an organization directly attached to the government, the Cabinet, if we cannot expect it to be a ministry.
Thus we require prudence on the part of the government not disappointment of the people who are deeply concerned with food supply.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0013, 1945-11-17.
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