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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0012, 1945-11-14.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0048

call-number: DS801 .S82



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 48 Date: 14 Nov 45

EDITORIAL SERIES: 12

ITEM 1 War Criminals and Our responsibility - Asahi Newspaper - 10 Nov 45 - Translator: K. Nagatami
Full Translation:
According to a MELBOURNE radio broadcast there are as many as over 300 Japanese in the list of war criminals to be presented to General MacARTHUR by the Chinese government. We feel that we are being confronted with a very serious situation. It may be recalled that by issuing the Imperial Rescript on August 15 His majesty succeeded in making the whole nation obey. It must be borne in mind that at the close of the war generalisssimo CHIANG KAI SHEK issued his statement that he was success in having the whole Chinese nation numbering four hundred millions obey his order. We never forget that in his broadcast to the Japanese expeditional forces in CHINA and other Japanese staying in CHINA, he declared that the Chinese would return courtesy for atrocity, return good for evil. These brief remarks were impressive enough to calm the Chinese resentment against the Japanese. All Japanese fell suddenly from the peak of triumphant to bottomless defeat when we heard his generous words. We were filled with deep emotion and at the same time we were urged to reflect on our deeds. We cannot admire his generosity and magnanimity too much. We must admit that there exists a great distance in moral character between the Chinese and our people. When we compare that admirable generosity of the Chinese with the bulky list of the Japanese war criminals, naturally we have to ponder on the circumstances which caused the present situation. In JAPAN, at least the Imperial family and the general masses are very anxious to apolo[illegible]ize for the past to CHINA and the Chinese headed by CHIANG KAI SEEK. This feeling of our people was well expressed before the world in the statement former premier Prince HIGASHIKUNI issued immediately after the war. We are very sorry that when that statement was issued we lost an opportunity of expressing frankly our feeling toward foreign nations as well as the Chinese because of the irresolution of our high policy makers, elder statesmen, and cabinet members. Lieutenant General ISHIHARA, Kanji revealed a few days ago in YOMIURI HŌCHI newspaper that we had missed two good chances to stop the conflict with CHINA because of irresolution of Japanese high policy makers. And Moreover these men made a grievous error in asking a certain power to become the intermediary in concluding a peace. What nonsence! They were barking the wrong tree. The Chinese are very proud of its good moral character. For example, no Chinese, except beggars, will take a cigarette or chocolate from a stranger, much less ask them. The Chinese are very careful lest drunkard should trouble others in the street or in a car, because a drunkard is considered a kind of sick man in CHINA.
A mere glance at such Chinese moral character is enough to make us feel that the present moral character of JAPAN is far below that of CHINA. At this juncture we should like to call attentions to the fact that in order to enjoy friendly relations with our neighboring powers the whole of our nation is strongly requested to establish a really admirable moral character.

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EDITORIAL SERIES: 12 (Continued)
ITEM 2 National Self confidence and Respect - The Tokyo Shimbun - 10 Nov 45 - Translator: K. Nobunaga
Full Translation:
The Japanese conception of their country and themselves has in general undergone a remarkable change since the end of the war. It is an important fact that cannot be lightly passed over that the Japanese themselves are inclined to despise the essential elements of the present day Japan, for without respect for country or even themselves, there can be no maintenance or development in society or government, and certainly no honesty in international commitments.
Japanese conduct during the past half centery did not represent the true Japan or the Japanese, but included many things that were in fact opposed to the basic national character. This is borne out by the history of Japan which demonstrates that essentially the Japanese do not believe they are a suporior race, but on the other hand neither does that history demonstrate any reason for believing that the Japanese are inferior.
Unfortunately our country fought and was defeated. However, it is a mistake to believe that the substance of our country and our race necessarily brought about this defeat. Indeed, a fanatastically falacious conception of the Japanese as a chosen people led our shallow-brained leaders to complete militaristically and imperialistically with other countries. This transitional phenomenon of un-perialism was a great mistake for our country and race and was brought on by the limited area. The scarcity of materials, and overpopulation of the homeland. Internationally at the time of opening of our country under the theory of the weak being victims of the strong, our country was in the category of the weak. It is no wonder that to-day the army of occupation has found a difference between their conception of what the Japanese were and their actual observations particularly in respect to their warlike attitudes.
No person, race, or country has gone through the ages without making a mistake. For example, HATOYAMA, Ichiro who seems to be a liberal in the politics at present, once was not only central figure of the SBIYUKAI, the ZAIBATSU political party, but was Minister of the Education at the time of the most strict conservatism in KYATO Imperial University.
General UGAKI, Kazunari who is known as a non-militalistic general and a man who believed in harmonious development in CHINA, was also a central figure in the increase of the KOREA garrison by 2 divisions at the time he was head of the military affairs bureau and charged with management and conduct. He was also involved in the 21 Demands problem at the time he was head of the 1st Section of the General Staff Administration branch.
We have mentioned above, this war was a great mistake of our country and race, but we have no intention of relazing effort and making light of responsibility of our people.
We cannot help being indignant at some people, particularly learned men misguide, saying that the substance of our country and race necessarily brought the mistake of the war, consequently they make
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 12 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
our nation dispisable. How can we discharge our duties to the Allied countries if they lead many of our people to lose respect for our country and belief in our brothers and sisters. How will 80 million of our people stand up again? We must correct our weak points, make our strong points better and adopt the strong points of other countries.
ITEM 3 The Issue of the New Currencies - Yomiuri Hochi - 10 Nov 45 - S. Inoue
Full Translation:
The problem of the governments issue of the new currencies as a means to tide over the inflation crisis is meeting with general local concern while some foreign pressess also indicate a similar attitude. This is truly a great meance both to the war profiteer and the war parvenu.
When OUCHI, Neisuke ex-professor at the Imperial University of TOKYO, come days ago in his broadcast speech persuaded the government to abolish the governmental guarantees for the munitions industries and others concerned, the public did not show a great concern for it. This was because the public regarded such a proposal as a matter of course, feeling that the opinion he was delivering was insipid under the circumstances.
He, himself may be thinking that as one of the brain trusters of Finance Minister SHIBUSAWA, or as one of the financial authorities he was enunciating a drastic opinion.
The crisis of the food problem lies in the shortage of the necessary amount of food-stuff, and net fundamentally in the partial accumulation of it. Accordingly the basic solution lies in increased production or the importation of foods. The inflationary trend is due mainly to an excess of purchasing power and partly to the piling up of currency. Consequently, the solution f the inflation problem will be mush easier than that of the food problem if the excessive purchasing power be reduced and the currency revised.
Why then, is such an easy counter-proposal not practicable? The answer is that the properties of the war profiteers and black market dealers are unreasonably protected by the doctrine which advocates the right of ownership. We cannot deny the right of private property, but we are justified in repudiating protection of profiteering which arose during the war by advantage of the fear of general starvation.
Therefore, it is most pertment plan to issue new currencies which displace old ones for the purpose of establishing a fair share on the burden f the war and the just distribution of this burden after the end of the war. Thus we can obviate economic difficulties and establish social justic.
ITEM 4 Reconstruction of the Police - Yomiuri Hochi - 10 Nov 45 - Translator: M. Kato
Full Translation:
Why were government officials, especially the police officials, isolated and hated by the people? The reason for it lay not only their
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 12 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
arrogance, unkindness, or vainglory. Those defects night have been tolerated if they had been trusted by the people as government officials. The chief reason is that the government officials had completely failed to inspire trust in the people because of their general moral corruption, which reduced their trustworthiness to nothing. The people's utter lack of faith in their ability to control the black market proved fatal to the government officials. Lack of faith in economic police whose bad organization exceded even the disorganization of the secret police had come to such a pass as to shake the very foundations of the police system. The cardinal problem therefore in reconstructing the police is how to recover this lost confidence.
The way recover trust in the government officials is, of course, to improve their qualities. With the progress of the war, in respect to their duties emphasis was laid on economics rather than peace preservation on direction rather than supervision. Thus their duty became not only extensive but quite important as the situation grew. In contrast to this tendency to increase the extension and importance of their duties, their qualities grew remarkably low. This fact led to failure of the police system. Viewing this present situation the improvement of their qualities should begin with their re-education and sedescipline. This should aim at the development of fair minded public servants with a thorough understanding of justice and having commonsense, friends of the general public, net as they were aiming only at cramming rules of law penal regulations.
Together with re-education of the present staff, new employees should be considered with special care. In this connection school grades of the applicants should be raised to higher standards from a practical point of view rather than a formal one. Furthermore, scientific tests [illegible]s to their intellect end character should be given full and practical use.
An essential promise in improving qualities of the police is an increase in pay. The frequent scandals of late are due net only to lowered quality but also, in reality, to difficulty in supporting themselves, Taking a percentage from black market dealers involves such ill-treatment, that buying at the black market is denied them. Though the police officials have important duties and bear too great a burden, their social standing is low and their salary is too little. A material improvement in their treatment has long been a pending question. This is a most fundamental step in the reconstruction of the police, it should be remembered. The police have recovered their natural function of peace preservation through the abolition of secret work and economics. Peace preservation should be their general public duty. Their duties and responsibilities have not diminished rather have increased in importance. Restoration of the police to their just duties is an urgent need of the times.
ITEM 5 Voice of the farmers - Tokyo Shimbun - 10 Nov 45 - Translator: B. Ishibashi
Summary:
For several days I have visited the farm-villages and observed the harvesting of rice and the sowing of wheat. The farmers were deeply concerned with the question of turning rice over to the government as has been decided recently. The officers of the District Office and the leaders of Agricultural Association (NOGYO KAI) made the
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 12 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
following statement: "We are in a very hard plight. It is because they (the authorities) had deceived the farmers throughout the wartime."
They then attacked vehemently the bureaucrats. The inefficiency of government and its lack of common sense.
In fact, the farmer has not yet received payment for several products turned over to the government. For instance, the amount they have not yet been paid for their charcoal is larger than the entire annual expenditures of the village. Government plans are ridiculous.
For instance, the government suggests that the farmers plant sweet potatoes on the tops of mountains where it is high and cold. "It follows that an honest farmer must crack ice and plant there." complained one. "We wont be deceived any longer." said another, "If their orders are obeyed the economy of the village will be ruined. We villagers know our native land-well. We would like to form a plan of annual production without government interference. For all that, we do not intend to defy the wishes of the nation. We know well that 80 million people depend on us.
"Therefore, a system of planning for year round production should be established." In other words, circumstances have come to such a pass that the farmers will not obey official orders, for fear that they may again be deceived. To say "we appeal frankly" or stress "fellow feeling", as did the former Agricultural Minister, SENGOKU, is not a bad policy, we must first acknowledge the fact that the farmers will no longer be moved by mere words or gestures.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0012, 1945-11-14.
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