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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0006, 1945-11-11.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0028

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 28 Date: 11 Nov 45


ITEM 1 "What the dissolution of Zaihatsu suggests" "All officials ought to give up their ranks" - Mainichi shimbun - Nov 45. Translator: H Furukawa.
Full Translation:
Part 1. "What the Dissolution of ZAIBATSU suggests."
The dissolution of four big members of the ZAIBATSU has been decided. The plan for the dissolution has been approved by the Allied Headquarters, on the basis of a proposal by the Japanese government, so no criticism is permissable. But, there is something which suggests the methods of management of the whole economic system after the war, in connection with this problem. That is the Allied directive issued on the second, which prohibits the transfer of all the assets and liabilities owned by the 15 firms and their affiliates. To say the 15 big firms is the same as to the 15 big ZAIBATSU, and no transfer of their stocks, debentures and other securities, including that of the affiliates, can be made without the prior approval of the Allied Headquarters.
The management of post-war economy should be handled by blockading war-time accounts and by establishing new enterprises which will succeed the old. As we have proposed, this policy ought to be applied to the government as well as to private business enterprises. We have also insisted that, in accordance with the above-mentioned policy, the same treatment should be given to business accounts as to deposit accounts by substituting the new bank-notes of the Bank of JAPAN for the old and making them war-time accounts. In this matter, the most difficulty is in suspending the transfer of the assets and liabilities of the war-time accounts. However, the sudden order of the Allied Headquarters has prohibited this transfer to the 15 big ZAIBATSU firms and its affiliates.
The enterprises affected by this directive occupies a considerable part in the whole JAPAN's enterprises. Notwithstanding this fact, this order was resolutely issued. It we a lucky chance that the confused post-war economic system was consolidated by the application of this method. The confiscation of war-time profits of ZAIBATSU has already been directed and, as have pointed out, it must be applied to all the war earners. Thus the distinction between war-time accounts and post-war accounts may be shown clearly.
Thus, the measure which, without the order of the Allied Headquarters, would be denounced strongly, will be easily executed. This fact, we believe, shows the principle by which the post-war consolidation work must be carried out.
Part 2, All Officials Ought to Give Up Their Ranirs.
The system of rank ought to have been criticized before the today's democratic movement. It is clearly shown that rank is not a reward

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ITEM 1 (Continued)
for the officials' services, by the fact that the part of KOTO-KAN usually goes with its corresponding rank. Therefore, we are obliged to presume that this system is based on the official idea of contempt for the people, as it is not likely that it was set up as a guide for court precedence This system is a remnant of former times when the officials, who ought to be public servants, were considered superior to the people. Citizens may also be given rank in accordance with their merits, but there is another system of decoration for them
Although, the honor system of peerage, rank and decorator has a standard for the attainment of each rank in practice, these legal standards are used confusedly by the authorities and awards are made without reference to merit.
Generally in any backward country in the world, the officials desire some decoration, material or spiritual. They want to dignify themselves with some trifle, as in former days, the sailway staff wore the sword. The charm of the rank of senior or junior order also attracts the common people. The members of the Lower House, who are the representatives of the people, long for the court dress or rank of parliamentary ministers.
In such a. state, the corruption of the parliamentary government is shown. Furthermore, the people respect their representative in official posts, so a corrupt man can still hold his post. In this country, character, knowledge and ability have been regarded as of secondary importance to rank or other official orders. The idea of official superiority to the people can never be driven out under such a condition.
In the present situation, those who hold rank without any merit ought to give up their ranks, and the authorities should begin to study the abolition or reform of the rank system. Note the fact that this absurd system bars the way to accord between the government and the people. A new era must come, when every man may work according to his ability without any rank or decoration.
ITEM 2 Position of officials - Mainichi Shinbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: k. Hirata.
Full Translation
For the renovation of the system of officialdom, the Government is said to have projected the simplification of the rank and status of officials. But the writer goes one step further and urges the elimination of such a title as KOTOMAN (senior official). At present we find in government offices dinning-rooms and water-closets designate for KOTONKAN's use only, which serves only to make young officials overly conscious of their position.
In KOTOKAN there are two categories, namely CHOKUNINKAN and SONINKAN, and further CHOKUNINKAN is divided into two more categories, namely SHINNINKAN and CHOKUNINKAN. But as to HANNINKAN (or Junior official) there is only one HANNINKAN. In the writer's opinion, the name of KOTOKAN ought to be changed to a more appropriate one. Only two categories would suffice. Even better would be to cancel out such an intricate discrimination.
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ITEM 2 (continued)
Although the KOTOBUNKAN examination has been suspended since the time of the TOJO Cabinet, the examination for the judicial department has already been conducted and the examination for the administrative department is also to be revived and its subjects revised. The Government authorities seem to be sticking to an examination system. In so far as judicial officials are concerned, an examination system is generally thought to be necessary, but up to the tenth year of the TAISHO Era no examination was required of graduates of the Imperial colleges of law. It seems that the abolition of this privilege of college graduates was caused by a rapid increase in the number of government and private college graduates under the College and University Ordinance. So far as judicial officials are concerned, people seem to support the principle of laying stress on laws, but there is no reason why there cannot be able judicial officials without their having to have a good memory of laws. Rather broader cultural discipline or education will be more necessary for them in the future, and this is even truer in the case of administrative officials. If they are well versed in law, we can make law technicians of them.
Since the examination system is adopted as it is in principle, those officials picked from among private circles will be neglected by the others and will not be able to remain long in office even if they are able men.
When the civil service examination system for the first time created in the twentieth year of the MEIJI Era, it was aimed to do away with the prevailing favoritism of officialdom in those days when nobody outside of certain clans had any chance of advancing in rank. When a student of the Law School founded by the Ministry of Justice, HARA[illegible], who hailed from the MORIOKA district, wished to become a diplomat. It was because among the diplomatic circles there was little clanish leaning, since a knowledge of foreign languages was required of diplomats.
There is no comparison though, between the early days of the MEIJI Era and the present time when there is a flood of university graduates owing to wide spread education and especially there will be less and less chance of favoritism in these democratic days.
The Legislation Board is to create a new System of Inspection of Officials, whereby the authorities hope to check the manner in which the law is applied by the officials and thus let the nation keep in touch with the law.
But under the representative government system there is no necessity for this, we can check the arbitrary conduct of officials as we please under parliamentary control. We read such phrases as "the officials of the Emperor" in the "Commandments for Officials" of the TOJO Cabinet and also the expression, "The Officials are the back bone of the nation" in the "Commandments for Officials" of the KOISO Cabinet. How the Present Government is intending to make officials realize that they are the public servants of the nation.
ITEM 3 Communists' movement (Editorial) - Tokyo Shimbun _ 6 Nov 45. Translator K. Nagatani.
Full Translation
The future direction of the Japanese communist movement cannot be forecast because of the present lack of formal political organization.
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ITEM 3 (Continued)
However in view of the recent movement of the communistic group, we cannot but feel that something is amiss in the current situation, for they are now moving in quite the same direction as they did ten years ago when the Japanese communist party flourished. According to our recollections of former communistic activities, methods of propaganda and enlightenment were emphazied at the expence of communistic organization.
Such a tencency must be accented in some cases, especially at the beginning of a period of social movements and to some extent may necessary. The condition of the country at that time was that of the general masses toiling under oppressive conditions imposed by the huge financial combines and capitalistic groups, already corrupt to the core and by the political parties gathering around these groups for financial backing.
Accordingly the destructive tendencies of the communists in those days secured the sympathies of many who will eager for the realization of social justice. The present situation is quite different from those days, when in order to satisfy their greed the capitalists were allowed to exploit the laboring classes through the effective mobilization of the Government and increasing the powers of the police, who were mare watchdogs for the capitalist interests.
Today, however, they have already realized that they can no longer carry on such exploitation nor expect aid from any military clique though they are hoping this way happen, and that the state will compensate them for their losses. Since the people today are watching their future activities they will undoubtedly think twice before venturing into any unscruplous profit making schemes.
Capitalists generally look for an opportunity to retire from business early. Under such circumstances the dated fighting methods of the communists give the capitalists pretence for going out of business. This means that the working class would be deprived of their lively-hood and that the subsequent decrease in production would cause considerable hardships among the people in general.
Should the communists at present have any intentions of throwing the working class into such a predicament for the sake of continuing the coming struggle against the ruling classes, their methods would be condemned as unsuitable to the present situation.
The people today would never welcome such activity. Now that the communist party is no longer illegal, the communists no longer have need to resort to underground, activity..
The people of JAPAN would consider the communists an annoyance if they should extend their program throughout the country in such an unscientific and uncontrolled, manner as their seniors did in the past, because at this stage we have no enemies against whom the communists need to apply such a tactics,
Now is the time when the Japanese communists should boldly extend the popular front, do away with all wrongs and evils, and fight other parties in the presence of the whole nation. It is needless to say that the main objective of the communists must be to relieve the suffering of the masses and keep them from starvation.
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ITEM 4 Fresh Start for Japanese people and courage of leaders. (Ed) - Tokyo Shimbun - 8 Nov 45. Translator: M. Kato.
Full Translations:
The prospects facing the Japanese, driven by hunger, are dark indeed, but we will not starve. We must first of all be supplied with food before setting forth to the task of reconstruction since it is not possible to work on empty stomachs. We must utilize every means to secure food.
It is all very well to talk of democracy, a liberated national economy, and woman suffrage, but with no increase in the food ration, such, nations seem absurd. At the present time we're only wondering how to secure food and forestall starvation. The people would be quite satisfied now at being supplied only the required amount to keep alive.
Travelling on the over-crowded trains is the only means of obtaining provisions from the country in order to keep alive. To gratify their hunger, the people will pay thousands of yen.
The present situation is extremely critical and fought with longer, and it influences the trend of public thought. It is evident that such a condition can not last long, and will sooner or later have to be solved. The Japanese have no means to dam this overwhelming force, nor has the government displayed a firm enough position to survive the crisis.
This is a matter of great concern to the Japanese, causing them to speculate about the future, if this condition should persist. But despite the difficulties, we must manage or get through the crisis.
In a recent statement, Professor DUCHI demanded that Viscount SHIBUZAWA take drastic measures to stop inflation, to which demand the latter answered in obstructions. The government is reported to be discussing general problems of finance and the economy of the state. The Financial Minister, the leading figure of the council, has announced that a concrete plan will be pursued, by the government immediately upon its adoption. Whatever step is taken must be taken firmly.
The late Mr. ROOSEVELT, when elected president for the first time, was faced with the enormous difficulties in which AMERICA found themselves in a state of chaos. When asked what measures he would take, it is reported the president asserted that as a last resort he would drive the people like a cowboy herding cattle. It meant, in effect, that he would face the situation boldly.
Japan's problem at present is not comparable to America's at that time, nor are the circumstances similar. Yet we may find inspiration in his having assumed his responsibilities with such courage.
It cannot be denied that a "New Deal" is in great need now in Japan's crisis. With respect to the position in which she has been placed, the government seems to be directing its efforts toward a new deal. But it must be borne in mind that a new deal can be the result of bold, not timid measures.
JAPAN has already been described as a nation in a chaotic condition, not only because of the pressing food problems but because we are being overwhelmed by contemporary forces. We acknowledge the necessity
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EDITORIAL SERIES: 6 (continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
of a new deal, but it must be remembered that a wrong start will end in disaster.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0006, 1945-11-11.
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