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Press translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0005, 1945-11-12.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: editorial-0024

call-number: DS801 .S82

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No. 24 Date: 12 Nov 45


ITEM 1 Enthusiasm and Boldness is needed in Government (Sub-editorial) - Mainichi Shimbun - 7 Nov Translator: M. Kato.
Full Translation:
Studies reveal that there will be no rice or barley available to the people for five months, from March or April till August or September of next year, if the present situation continues. The mayors of five big cities will soon meet in OSAKA for the first time since the end of the war. However, generally speaking, government officials are now in a state of non-activity since it appears that their number will be reduced by fifty per cent. Consequently, we can not depend solely upon the government to solve the food problem today. Some people are insisting that a measure be presented to the Allied Headquarters to solve the situation, for all consumers in cities and towns.
We are now, as it were, in a state of anarchy, such being the degree of distrust of the people for the government. If the government has no confidence in its ability to get through this easily foreseen crisis we believe that it should resign at once.
Another serious problem, though not so grave as that of food, is inflation of the currency which is driving the people step by step to hell. This problem is no doubt closely connected with that of food.
Inflation in GERMANY after World War I was not the result of incompetence on the part of the government, but was merely choosing the easy way out after a desperate struggle with the situation. Every measure possible was tried but the blunder lay in the issuance of paper money without limit in order to cope with the inflated financial situation. This resulted in an almost legendary inflation of currency for five years after the war. The Situation in JAPAN today in some ways resembles that in GERMANY at that time, except for food and other problems.
In GERMANY the people were supplied with almost nothing to eat at the close of the war, but after peace was restored they were allowed to get food and other necessities from abroad. The apparently unavoidable result was to increase inflation. At that time the germans imported necessarities, paying the cost in marks, which added to inflation.
In JAPAN we can not resort to the sane method. Without the approval of Allied Headquarters, regarding our capacity to pay for imported articles, we believe that nothing can be imported. This means the more we import the more we must export, which will again accelerate inflation.
The situation becomes increasingly serious. Therefore, it is necessary at the earliest possible date to establish a financial end economic policy whereby a surely of food from abroad is possible and thus stabilize the people's life.
It is reported that the government, in the Cabinet meeting of 5 November discussed in general the establishment of nation economy after the war.

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ITEM 1 (Continued)
The ministers expressed frank opinions chiefly on finance, but their opinions can not have been anything extra-ordinary, we believe. Enthusiasm and boldness to carry out a simple plan is the urgent need now.
ITEM 2 The plus and the minus (Sub-editorial) - Asahi Shimbun -7 Nov 45 Translator: B. Ishibashi.
Full Translation:
Mr. OUCHI, former professor of TOKYO Imperial University, and six others, have been reinstated, and Professor HASHIZUME and four others, have retired from their positions.
This is one of the cases, which are found everywhere in our country of late. This may be compared to a game of cards in which, one player trumps his partner's aces.
In these cases, it is particularly noticeable that, no successful group has become successful by itself while those who have erred must take the consequences of their own mistakes. The successful group should, not be too proud, and the erring group should not be allowed to have any opportunity of starting afresh, unless they sincerely repent their faults.
It is needless to say that the number of those who have followed a mistaken ideal in Japan is far greater than those who haven't. In order to correct this it will be necessary for that small group which has not been misled to help the other educate itself so that it will see its mistakes and correct them.
The official list of wrestlers for this autmn has been published. This competition between two individuals, which is one of the sports of our country, should not be thought of as a measure to encourage militarism, Wrestling is absolutely a game of ability. Every wrestler is ranked according to his ability and either lowers or raises his rank by his ability to throw his opponent. From the American view point, this is the way a man should be judged. This is a striking contrast to the ordinary course of Japanese military life, in which a man is judged during his entire career solely on his school record.
Anyhow, both, the wrestlers and the spectators in general should feel easier mow that those imposing militarists have disappeared from the ringside.
ITEM 3 Cowardly act of Government official (Sub-Editorial) - Tokyo Shimbun - 7 Nov 45 Translator: K. Hirata.
Full Translations:
Up to quite recent times the so-called radical militarists often would take cover behind the Imperial Household. With the termination of the war, this disappeared, but in its place appeared a new shiboleth, "MacARTHUR's General Headquarters". Needless to say, they attempt to hide- behind the General Headquarters' authority.
Generally speaking, it is the most cowardly and least democratic behavior to try to justify our action by hiding behind such authority.
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ITEM 3 (Continued)
For instance, a weak-minded boy, when bullied, by others, will not fail to hide behind his teacher, saying "You bully me, I will tell my teacher."
Needless to say, the democratization of JAPAN was introduced by the Allied Forces, Figuratively the window of democracy has just been opened. But is it on our initiative, but not forced by the direction of the Allied Forces that we breathe deeply the morning's fresh air from the window.
So it is not good to defend ourselves with such commonplace words as, "This is the direction of the Allied Powers." It can not justify our action. It abuses the Allied Powers' authority and is indeed the same attitude which our militalists and others once employed for the justification of their action, hiding themselves behind the Imperial Household.
This attempt to please the Allied authorities uncritically, ignoring whatever other Japanese may say, will tend to have an undesirable result when the Japanese people want to ask for help from MacARTHUR's General Headquarters.
A recent tendency shows that Japanese upper-class personages very often refuse to give interviews to Japanese newspapermen and yet they are always willing to see foreign correspondents and talk with them on any topic. We are not sure whether their intention is to better their status as war criminals or not.
Whatever the case, they are crooked in mind. Of course, Japanese newspapermen must make a greater effort. But on the other hand it seems quite natural that JAPAN should have fallen down to the fourth-rank of the nations of the world under the poor leadership of those who curry favor with foreigners, but ignore Japanese themselves.
ITEM 4 "Increase Shipping Urgently" (Editorial) - Tokyo Shimbun - 7 Nov 45. Translator: I. Kuniko.
Full translation:
Post-war general disorder is gradually abating, but the industrial world is greatly disorganized. The principal cause of disorganization is the shortage of shipping.
Before the war, coal, cereal, iron, cotton, salt and sugar were imported but we are now very short of shipping, and this in itself has adversely affected the industrial world.
The pre-war total tonnage of shipping as about 6,500,000 tons; 3,000,000 tons of which was used in short hauls for the importation of vital goods. This total of 3,000,000 tons of shipping are absolutely essential, although according to the latest estimates, we have available only 680,000 tons and moreover most of this tonnage is in standard warships and is not suitable for peacetime use.
The Government has decided to repair disabled ships and to build new ships, but the projected increase in tonnage will not be more than 500,000 tons. What must be done? We must done of two things; charter or buy ships abroad. But as the Allied Powers are of the opinion that war ships of over 100 tons should be taken for reparations, we cannot expect to charter or buy. However, if we would
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ITEM 4 (Continued)
ask the Allied Supreme Headquarters, stating the whole circumstances, we might yet be permitted the necessary tonnage.
According to our information, foreign countries do not necessarily have a great reserve of ships, but the shipping shortage may have passed with the end of the war. According to telegraphic reports, shipping circles in New York anticipate a surplus of shipping. The Government should state all the circumstances and ask permission of the Allied Supreme Headquarters for the chartering and buying of foreign ships.
If several basic raw materials could be imported, our industrial condition would be improved, As long as our shipping is at a standstill, it will be impossible for us to conform to the [illegible]TSDAM Declaration. So, we say again, the Government should ask permission to charter and buy foreign ships.
ITEM 5 The Dissolution of the Zaibatsu and Japan Economy - Sangyo Keizai - 8 Nov 45 Translator; J. Wada.
Full translations:
The dissolution of the four big ZAIBATSTU, MITSUI, MITSUBISHI, SUMITOMO and YASUDA is being carried out in order to "encourage the development within JAPAN of economic ways and institutions of a type that will contribute to the growth of peaceful and democratic forces." We need not discuss here the past merits of the ZAIBATSU, especially the old ZAIBATSU. The reconstruction of Japanese economy by keeping pace with the development of the world economy is more difficult and significant than the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU itself. The various conditions under which the utilization of financial cliques has been necessary since the MEIJI Era are still in effect since our defeat. The revival of JAPAN's economy is not warranted by democratization only. The future will decide whether the dissolution of the ZAIBAT'SU has been worthwhile or not.
By the dissolution, each individual firm under the control of the ZAIBATSU will be separated from the ZAIBATSU from the standpoint of capital only. The shares of a firm will be dispersed among many holders, but a big firm will still be big. The object of the ZAIBATSU dissolution is to effect a "wider distribution of income and ownership of the means of production and trade" and not to prevent the bigness of an industrial company. The dissolution aims at the prevention of monopolistic control by a few share-holders and not the prevention of the bigness of what is called the "technical economic organization." The merits of the ZAIBATSU lie in this "technical economic organization," and their crimes in the "social economic function" of the monopoly of enterprises. But it is very difficult to separate "technical" from "social" in practice.
We must see that big enterprises are not ruined by preventing the social function of the ZAIBATSU. In the future when JAPAN is given her proper place in world economy and is in competition with other countries, large scale enterprises, as well as small and medium ones peculiar to JAPAN, will be necessary. If the dissolution "of the ZAIBATSU weakens the "technical systems," it will bring about the disintegration, or at least the weakening, of Japanese economy itself.
The shares owned by the ZAIBATSU will be put under the control and at the disposition of the Holding Company Liquidation Committee, and will be offered for sale at a proper time in order to "distribute income and ownership of the means of production and trade." In the case of
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ITEM 5 (Continued)
sale, preference of purchase will be given to employees of companies involved, since ownership of shares by employees is very desirable.
A company which has many share-holders has often put its actual business second to the struggle for power among the share-holders or among the directors representing share-holders. Many companies which have lost control of management have fallen into a depression. If the dispersion of the shapes of a company showed result in such backwardness in business, it would be not only a loss to the share-holders and employees involved but a great misfortune to the economy of JAPAN at large.
As the directive from Allied Headquarters says, the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU is "only the first step" toward "encouraging the development within JAPAN of economic ways and institutions of a type that will contribute to the growth of peaceful, and democratic forces." We must impress on our minds that the right development of democratic economy within JAPAN is one of the most important missions imposed upon us.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Editorial Series 0005, 1945-11-12.
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