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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0255, 1946-02-04.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-1116

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
NO. 1116 Date: 4 Feb 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 255

ITEM 1 Party Measures on Food Crisis - Asahi Shimbun - 2 Feb 46. Translator: H. Sato.
Summary:
Setting up a Special Emergency Committee, the Progressive Party has been considering concrete counter measures for the food problem, A definite plan was drawn up and influential leaders of the party called on Mr. S[illegible]JIMA, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry and asked him to put the plan into immediate effect.
The Progressive Party pointed out the following objects of the plan.
The government, people and political parties must realize the serious food crisis so that drastic measures shall be taken on the basis of high public spirit and responsibility and unity.
Solution of the food problem by the management of the people which is stressed by the Communist Party and some others, can hardly be approved if it is meant to be done by such sectional operations as management by farmers' unions or direct combination a between farmers' unions and labor unions, because the food problem is a problem of the whole nation.
Keynoting these two points the following plans were set up.
In order to secure food delivery, necessary articles for food production shall be rationed through the Farm Association by special ration tickets.
In order to speed up the purchase of food, immediate payment shall be made by crossed check.
The Social Democratic Party has advocated the raise of the purchase price of rice to 500 yen per koku. It would be, however, reasonable to raise it more than that.
Rationing of rice for the use of the farmers shall be made without fail and in case of non-fulfilment, the responsible person will be subjec to legal action.
The existing mechanism of delivery and distribution shall undergo improvement.
As to control of food after 1946, effort shall be made to increase foe production by setting up well-balanced allotments of delivery in accordance with the real condition of farmland and its productive power. The Co-operative Party Supports the Policy Of The Social Democratic Party.
In support of the police of the Social Democratic Party an announcement was made on the 1st by the Co-operative Party as follows. We agree with the policy of the Social Democratic Party which does not aim to abolish the existing mechanism of rice delivery such as the agricultural associations but aims to improve them. The so-called "management by the people based on farmers' committees or delivery management by farmers' unions is, without doubt, not in the national interest, though there may be some local successes.
We are by no means in favor of the attitude of those who make it a prerequisite to do away with the present Cabinet and neglect to take any stops against the food crisis. And yet we are strongly opposed

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 225 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
to the high-handed policy of the present government, and we would demand its resignation.
The Co-operative Party also announced the following points as essential measures against current inflation.
Revoking of huge war-time interest from industrial capitalists.
Thorough enquiries as to how the extraordinary war expenditure was spent at the end of the war.
Drastic reduction of the government budget.
Establishment of a fair price system at the earliest possible moment.
Earliest reopening of industries of necessities of life and collateral materials.
Rapid restoration of the coal and fertilizer industries which will be a funcamental prerequisite for reopening other industries.
Those six items could be effectively carried out through the following measures.
Fair revision shall be made in the official price of such basic materials as rice and coal, and at the same time, the principal necessities of life shall be put under the strict control of a sound distribution mechanism such as co-operatives.
Concealed material and hoarded materials shall be searched out thoroughly and shall be put under state management.
New currency shall be issued and the old yen currency shall be deposited as a general rule, and the deposit shall be frozen, excepting living expenses and necessary production funds, thus sweeping away floating purchasing power.
In order to prevent the confusion of the general public resulting from the issue of new currency, the following steps shall be taken.
Excepting small currency, the existing currency shall be deposited within a certain period of time, and that currency not deposited within the fixed period shall be invalid.
Account of each person shall be collated with the rice ration pass-book.
Withdrawal of deposit shall be permitted up to a fixed amount per month per capita for living expenses, but further withdrawal shall be prohibited, excepting production funds or necessary emergency expenses.
ITEM 2 Wages Viewed From The Standpoint of Nutrition - Asahi Shimbun 2 Feb 46. Translator: K. Sato.
Full Translation:
The unions which have been organized recently amount to a great number and they are unanimously making claims on their employers for better treatment. Their demands are for a drastic raise in wages, to three or five times the present wages, and the demands include also the increase of family allowances. Their claims are said to be based upon the minimum standard of living necessary to break through the present food crisis. We want to discuss whether these claims are legitimate or founded upon any scientific basis.
INOUE, Kaneo, engineer of the Physical and Chemical Research Institute, has been making a study from the standpoint of dietetics, mobilizing the students of the Food Measures Research Association. He has reached the conclusion recently that under the present food situation people will suffer from; malnutrition unless they buy expensive food on the black market, whether they like it or not. A hundred yen for a family allowance is not unreasonable, for the people have to spend 120 yen on black market food in order to live. The amount of calories obtained from
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 255 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
the ration of 2[illegible]1 go of rice is 1,050; from beau-paste and soy-sauce it is 50. So the average amount is under 1,200 calories per person per day. This is only sufficient for a man weighing 50 kilograms who does nothing but sleep. It is necessary to supplement 300 calories, at least for a person to be up and engage in office work. The protein obtained from the ration is under 30 grams as against the minimum necessity of 70. Therefore, in order to prevent a person from suffering from malnutrition, the minimum amount of 12 grams of animal protein must be supplemented.
As for vegetables, 3000 units of vitamin A and 30 miligrams of vitamine C must be supplemented. People must depend entirely upon the black market in order to make up for the shortage of nourishment. The black market price of all these supplementary foods per person per day will amount to an astonishing sum. Suppose we choose the cheapest foods and supplement the necessary amount of celories, protein, and vitamins which cannot be supplied by the ration of food, the following figures will result for one day: Sweet potatoes 2.55 yen; sardines,.89 yen; spinach,.53 yen; the total is 3.97 yen, amounting to 119.10 yen per month. Replacing all the above foods by rice and meet, the cost will amount to 25.47 per person per day, and it will be 784.10 yen per month. In view of these facts, it is not unreasonable to claim a special allowance of over 100 yen for each member of the family.
Inflation is threatening the daily lives of workers. They have survived the end of the year, and have some how managed to get through the cold month of January. Now what sort of a fortune awaits them in February? Let us see the actual condition of the working class by making a survey of the People's Cash Office. Last August, the month of defeat, the numb[illegible]of applicants for loans was 162, and the amount of money loaned was 257,000 yen; in September 111 sought loans and the money loaned was 155,000 yen. These figures show nothing extraordinary, but in October a sudden jump upward can be noticed. And it has kept on increasing ever since. In October 435 sought loans for 797,000 yen; in November 1021 cases for 2,384,000 yen; and in December 1400 cases for 3,198,000 yen mere handled by the People's Cash Office, The amount in January has not been figured yet, but it is expected to be about the same as December. The majority of the borrowers are salaried men, although in September they were industrialists. These salaried men, being unable to wait for the rise of salaries at their companies, sought loans at the Cash Office. This money is mainly used for supplementing the necessary expenses of daily life, but some is used for the recovery of small merchants.
The following is a statement by OKADA, Chief of the Loan Section of the Cash Office: "I did not think that we would be so busy," he said. "Present inflation is in a dreadful condition. Some people borrow money in order to buy bedding or to bring back their families from the country where they took refuge, and others to buy the necessary articles in order to carry on their business. Thus, the purposes are different according to the nature of their employment. But there is no doubt that all the money loaned is absolutely necessary to their livelihood. I cannot help thinking that this situation has been getting more and more serious through the months of December and January."
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