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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0245, 1946-02-02.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-1077

call-number: DS801 .S81

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No. 1077 Date: 2 Feb 46


ITEM 1 Farmland Problems and Their Stirs Provincial Newspaper, Tokushima Shimbun (Tokushima) 27 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
During the war, a revision of the tenant fee system or a division of farmlands was urged by agricultural associations in order to encourage the farmers' delivery of their crops. Such movements of associations, suppressed by the authorities concerned as being injurious to farmers' morale, have become vigorous since the end of the war. Spurred on by the cry for democracy and government encouragement in creating more independent farmers, many associations which have sprung up in and around NAKA-gun have taken landowners' pledges that they would receive tenant fees in cash instead of produce, or that tenants would be financed with low-rate loans. Farmers stimulated by the situation are clamoring for the landlords to surrender their lands, to which absented landowners, realizing the unfavourable turn of events, succumbed and are disposing of their lands.
Smaller landowners, who cultivate their own farms, have little interest in whether tenant fees are paid by produce or money, but they seem determined not to sell their patrimonial estates.
There are other groups of landowners, in HANOMACHI, consisting mainly of merchants, officials, a teachers who are ready to give up present occupations and become farmers in order to relieve their food difficulties. They request their lands back from tenants who, however, have saved up some money and insist on procuring the land for themselves.
Tenants interpret their situation as follows: If the tenants are given the lands they are now cultivating, they would attend to the job more intensively. The tenants have lived on the land for many years and contributed partly to what the district is today. Tenants have showed their determination to be landowners and not return the land.
Landlords explain their situation as follows: If tenant fees are not paid in produce, small landowners would rather have their land back and cultivate it themselves. Land now in their possession was acquired by hardship and toil, while now a bale of rice costs more than 1,200 yen, which is enough to buy one tan of land. Tenants, taking advantage of inflation, are insisting on getting land cheaply. The tenants who secured land the easy way will not produce the desired output. Small landlords are reported as firmly determined not to sell the land.
The agricultural associations have received much written advise from both landowners and tenant which has thus for been shelved as they wish them to reach a perfect solution by themselves.

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 245 (Continued)
ITEM 2 NAGANO Farmers Petition for Lower Standard in Agrarian Release - Nippon Sangyo Keizai 31 Jan 46. Translator: R. Shibata.
Full Translation:
A movement has risen in NAGANO Ken, demanding the lowering of the legal standard of agricultural land which is to be released for tenant farmers based on the revised Agrarian Adjustment Law. At the same time it opposes the landowners' demand for the return of tenant lands. This time, the Small Holder Establishing Association (ZISAKUNO SOSETSU KUMIAI) and the United Preliminary Association of the Prefecture (KENRENGO JUMBI KAI) have initiated a movement to lower the legal standard of five chobu to two chobu, making a plea to the prefactual authorities.
The gist of their appeal is as follows: "We request the lowering of the legal standard of five chobu (4.6 chobu in NAGANO Ken) by which it is almost impossible to attain the object of agrarian release for all farmers At the same time, we firmly oppose the landowners' demand for the return of tenant lands, which threatens the living rights of tenant farmers."
The whole area of ploughed land amounts to 167,678.1 chobu and farm houses number 206,749. The average area of ploughed laid per farm house is 0.82 chobu altogether, 0.37 of rice fields and 0.45 fields. With such small land in unfavorable conditions on the table lend of SHINANO, farmers cannot but depend upon highly intensive agriculture, raising silkworms etc. on the side. Of the total farm homes, 50,000 odd belong to landowners, 48,000 to farmers who have tenant lands as well as their own land, 44,000 to farmers who have some area of their own but depend mainly upon tenant land, and 70,000 to tenant farmers.
Of the whole area of ploughed land, 100,000.5 chobu are cultivated by owners of the land and 67,725.5 chobu by tenant farmers. Therefore, between landed farmers and tenant farmers, there is not a large difference in the area of ploughed land per farm. It is a special feature in mountainous country that the land is divided among all farmers, permitting the existence of few large landowners, but considerable small ones. Of all the landed farmers, those who own more than one chobu number 8,300, those who own more than three chobu number 3,999, and those who own more than 4.6 chobu, the prefectural standard, number only 1,526.
The area of the tenant land which is to become the object of agrarian release is only about 20,000 chobu, one third of the whole area of tenant land of 67,725 chobu, including the land of absentees such as large merchants and moneyed men in cities. This land would enable establishment of only 30,000 farms of small holders, even if it were planned to make 100,000 tenant farmers owners of one chobu each. It must be said that the revised Agrarian Law is largely fruitless to the farmers in this prefecture.
ITEM 3 Frank Opinion Revealed By Chief of Food Management Bureau On Rice Delivery - Tokyo Shimbun - 31 Jan 46. Translator: S. Kinoshita.
The Government's compulsory emergency measure to force rice delivery which is to be put into effect shortly has given rise to a big sensation among people. It is now under a volley of harsh criticisms by political parties and other groups. The critics unanimously oppose the Government in its intention to resort to coercive actions. Has the Government no alternatives but to do so? In this connection, we had interview with Mr. KUSUMI, chief of the Food Management Bureau. The following are excerpts:
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 245 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Question: The present system of allotment based on farming acreage benefits rich farmers, but is a disadvantage to poor farmers. We demand to have the existing allotment revised to a reasonable one.
Answer: The Government recognized that the present allotment is not satisfactory and is now studying how to revise it to be fair and equal to all classes of farmers. For the present, the Government wants every town and village to complete delivery allotted to them as a whole and to adjust within themselves allotment for farmers according to their conditions.
Question: Tenant farmers demand permission to reserve a supply of rice for their own consumption just as land-holding farmers do.
Answer: If there is any undue inequality between tenant farmers and land holding farmers in relation to allotment and resere, that might be due to ill-operated management of allotment. Such questions may be solved within the town or village itself.
Question: If farmers fulfil heavy allotments, they ought to be supplied with return distribution. Can the Government promise to execute return distribution without fail?
Answer: The Government will make every effort to carry out a return distribution. The Government is contemplating on doing this when new supplies of barley and potatoes begin to arrive.
Question: Why has the Government been neglecting to hunt up concealed or hoarded food?
Answer: Hoarded food can be classified in 1) that having belonged to army or navy and 2) that having belonged to any other than army or navy. Those coming under the first category ore to be transferred to Allied Headquarters and to be superintended by the Home Ministry with directives of Allied Headquarters, Those coming under the second category are to be confiscated as illegal, However, there is some which, though having been held by lawful means, is left undisposed of due to a sudden change of circumstances resulting from the ending of the war. For instance, munition factories generally held food reserves sufficient enough to feed their workers for ten or twenty days. With the ending of the war, a large number of workers retired suddenly and a considerable amount of stored food was left undisposed of. Such hoarded goods should also be put into legal channels of distribution. However, under the present legal system, the Government is not entitled to dispatch any order for disposing of such hoarded goods. The emergency measure to be enforced shortly will solve the question.
Question: Can the Government promise farmers to provide without fail a preferential supply of agricultural implements, materials and other necessities of life in exchange of rice delivery?
Answer: Fertilizer, agricultural implements and materials, and other necessities will surely be linked with rice delivery. The Government is making every effort to carry out the supply.
Question: Is the Government ready to reform the existing food management system?
Answer: The Government recognizes that the existing food management must be reformed, and is anxious to hear from all circles concerned as to the best way to effect just and fair food management. The Government is very desirous of establishing a better system as early as possible.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0245, 1946-02-02.
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