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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0237, 1946-01-31.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-1045

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1045 Date: 31 Jan 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 237

ITEM 1 Policies on Labor Unions - Yomiuri Hochi - 29 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
Summary:
Article I, paragraph 1 of The Labor Union Law is highly important in the sense that it gives the basic idea for the interpretation and application of the Law. Supposing a case arises in which workers claim that what they have organized is a Labor Union, but the officials deny this. The Committee is in a position to give a decision according to Article I.
Article II defines what a Labor Union is, but it does not serve the purpose because of its vagueness. Articles II and III are important for they explain the character of a Union. The Committee which has very extensive legal powers, consists of five representatives from enterprisers, "workers and a third party respectively. The first two classes of representatives will be elected by their own class, while the governor will appoint a candidate to be a third party representative and will report his decision to the representatives of the other two parties for approval. Utmost care should be taken in selecting representatives from the workers, who should be united firmly and should not be influenced by enterprisers. Up to date, the representatives of laborers have not been well selected, but, concerning themselves with spectacular activities only in case of strikes, are not interested in such a sober job as setting the Committee on a firm footing. As soon as the Committees are elected workers begin to complain about them.
The establishment of the Committee is for a term of a year at the expiration of which workers will be able to elect more suitable representatives. By then there will have been ample time to make the Union well founded. Workers should co-operate with their representatives for the term of a year once they have selected them, to whatever political parties they belong. Otherwise they will be taken advantage of by their employers.
The Committee, as before mentioned, is equipped with extensive powers. It can decide whether or not an organization is a labor union. Article XV provides that a court is authorized to order the dissolution of a union when it deems the public peace has been disturbed. Formerly, a legal proceeding against the Union taken by a procurator was followed by the Governor's dismissing the union. But from now on, until application by the Committee is submitted to a court, it will not be able to dismiss the union. Article XXIX, moreover, states that whenever the Committee deems it necessary, in pursuance of its business, it may order the employer or deputy of the body of employers to present themselves. It can also order the employer to present reports, or can inspect books, with a maximum fine of 500 yen if the request is rejected. This holds good

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 237 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
in the ease of official institution as well as non official ones. It goes without saying that this power should be employed with great discretion. But the healthy development of the Committee will not be encouraged by consulting only the workers' interests. Justice and impartiality in conformity with Article I are essential to its well being.
ITEM 2 Big Political Parties' Policies to the Present Inflation - Asahi Shimbun - 30 Jan 46. Translator: T. Mitsuhashi.
Summary:
The policies of the big political parties toward the inflation, which has now become a basic problem in our national life, are submitted here.
Progressive Party of JAPAN:
The inflation policy worked out by the Emergency Counter-Measure Committee (KINKYU TAISAKU IINKAI) of this party has two of parts; one consists of financial measures, and the other of currency measures. The financial measures include the curtailment of national expenditures such as administrative expenses, subsidies and bond expenses.
The party admits property taxes as inevitable, but opposes the draft projected by the finance authorities for the reason that it will greatly hamper the rehabilitation of industries. It is also demanded that insurance enterprises be run by the Government rather than the railways, which produce little profit. As for the currency measures, the party insists that a Special Deposit System (TOKUBETSU YOKIN SEIDO) be established in order to check surplus purchasing power. To make this scheme effective, a drastic step for increasing production must be taken by the Government. In conclusion, the party states that the only way in which the present inflation can be checked is to rebuild the national industries.
Liberal Party of JAPAN:
The policy of this party, which is to be determined finally at the 4 February general meeting, is believed to be a return to a free economy similar to that of the Progressive Party. The party admits the necessity of a planned economy in the present situation, but hopes that various controls will be removed by and by, so that there may be free production as well as sales. Today's problem, the party says, is finding what policy must be taken toward achieving a free economy. They also stand opposed to Property Taxes for the same reasons as the Progressive Party.
Social Democratic Party of JAPAN:
The invariable attitude assumed by this Party is that all wartime profits should be taken up by the Government in order to check inflation. Its concrete policies are: the abolition of compensations to munition companies; stopping payments of interest on war-bonds, and the disposal of war-bonds; the halting of deposits; improvements in bond issues; high taxes on war-profiteers; the establishment of a five year financial plan and a curtailment of the 1946 budget; also, increased production in agriculture and industries. In addition, the party claims that a moratorium is absolutely necessary to meet the inflation problem and that the nationalization of all financial agencies
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 237 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
must be considered for this purpose.
Communist Party of JAPAN:
Mr. TOKUDA Kyuichi has revealed the views of his party as follows: The capitalists, landlords and bureaucrats state that the increase in the price of farm-products and in wages is a cause of inflation, but they sabotage their production, conceal their products, and hoard commodities from the market for their own benefit. Their conduct is responsible for this inflation. Therefore, the funds used by capitalists and landlords in black-marketing must be blocked, leaving them only minimum living expenses. Bureaucrats must be deprived of their power which causes the diverting of goods from their proper channels. The control of food as well as of these essential commodities must be managed by the people, so that goods may move smoothly and commodity prices be stabilized. If a People's Republican Government (JINMIN KYOWA SEIFU) is established, all banks as well as all financial agencies would be absorbed into one national bank, and the bank would be managed by the people. This will solve the basic problems of inflation.
ITEM 3 License System for Enterprises to be abolished - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 30 Jan 46. Translator: T.Kitagavra.
Summary:
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry which has been studying since December last year the abolition of the law regulating enterprises reached the conclusion that the production and sale of necessities which do not consume nationally deficient materials will be placed outside the jurisdiction of this law. The official announcement will be made by the end of the week at the latest. The reason for the abolition of the law is to reduce the disproportion between population and enterprises resulting from the air-raids, evacuations and so forth.
ITEM 4 Retail Price of Mercury Raised. To 160 yen Per Kilo-gram - Sangyo Keizai - 30 Jan 46. Translator: S. Iwata.
Full Translation:
The Ministry of Industry and Commerce announced the price of mercury at 160 yen per kilogram in Bureau of Mines Report No. 20-736, dated 29 January 1946. The price of mercury at the Metal Distribution Company was 2,500 yen per iron tube of 34.5 kilograms, 72.46 yen per kilogram. The producers' price was 3,000 yen per iron tube.
According to this revised price, the price of the metal distribution company is 160 yen per kilogram, and the revised price of the producers is 500 yon per iron tube.
The revised price is effective from 1 January 1946.
ITEM 5 Enactment of Perishable Goods Control program To Be Postponed - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 30 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
Summary:
Although the Government announced sometime ago that it would control price and delivery of perishable goods, following the enactment of stricter control over staple food, this control
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 237 (Continued)
ITEM 5 (Continued)
will not be put into effect for some time. Agricultural and Forestry authorities are postponing the enactment until fresh supplies of perishable goods have been secured for the following reasons:
Prices of perishable goods are not especially high compared with general prices. It is not reasonable, therefore, to regulate the price of perishables alone leaving other prices as they are.
Shipment of fruits to the market hinges solely on prices. I f these are meddled with, farmers will prefer to consume the fruit themselves.
Consumers prefer "better than nothing", for if the prices of perishables do not allow people's frequent purchase, they can still buy them after longer intervals.

The quantity of perishables coming to the TOKYO markets daily is about 40,000 kan which is within the purchasing power of all restaurants combined in the TOKYO-YOKOHAMA, district. If their price is controlled, it will be probable that those restaurants will, monopolize the purchase of perishables. Unless extreme inflation sets in, the price and quantity of perishable goods will remain about what they are now if no control on then is enacted.
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0237, 1946-01-31.
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