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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0230, 1946-01-30.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-1020

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 1020 Date: 30 Jan 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 230

ITEM 1 Formation Of Labor Unions - Interview with the Head of the HYOGO Federation Of Japanese Labor Unions - Provincial Newspaper Kobe Shimbun (Kobe) - 24 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
Summary:
The Labor Unions Law will be effective on and after February 1 and the arbitration Committee of HYOGO-Ken, including prominent industrialists of the prefecture, has been formed. In connection with this, NAGAE, Kazuo, the Prefectural head of the Federation of Japanese Labor Unions (NIPPON RODO SODOMEI) answered the following question asked by a reporter of KOBE SHIMBUN:
Question: Is a head of a factory entitled to be a member of a labor association?
Answer: Yes, he is, provided he is not a director. But the head of the factory very probably will not be inclined to be a member for the general idea is to classify him as an employer. In fact any one in a position above section-head is not deemed to be an employee.
Question: Should labor associations of workers and white collar workers be established separately?
Answer: Either will do. Every factory belonging to the KAWASAKI concern, for instance, has separate unions of factory workers and white collar workers, while the Central Rubber Company has a union consisting of factory workers and white collar workers combined, which is, the usual case with small plants. There is a tendency among factory workers to have unions of their own excluding white collar workers, but factory workers should be more generous.
Question: Are there labor unions which do not belong to any established union?
Answer: There may be, but associations of this kind will have to be content with remaining in positions subordinate to employers?
Question: How is a union formed?
Answer: First, a preparation committee will be established which undertakes drafting regulations. Then at the notice stating their willingness to be a member of the JAPAN Labor Union, negotiations between the Union and Company authorities follow.
Question: What action do the unions take with respect to participation in the managing side of business, when workers engage in sabotage?
Answer: The union strikes their names off the rolls. Then employer can fire them. For example, much material was stolen in KAWASAKI Dockyards, before a strict inspection was put into force by a decision of the union committee.

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 230 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
Question: What measures are taken by the union to countered unemployment?
Answer: Unions formed within plants all over the country Will be classified according to industries. In case an industry has more workers than it desires, they will he switched over to some other industry which is in need of workers.
Question: How about small scale firms with few employes?
Answer: Enterprises with less than 200 employes are not supposed to establish an independent union, but employees of several plants will unite together into a union with more than 200 workers.
Question: Do you think the fact that labor unions are economic organizations and not political is realized by the mass of people?
Answer: Economic protection of workers' welfare is the sole object of the unions, They are not political organizations. Therefore, members may belong to any political party.
ITEM 2 Revival of Industrial World-Production of Lime and Fertilizer Emphasized-State Control of Industry Also Considered - Asahi Shimbun - 28 Jan 46. Translator: T. Ukai.
Summary:
The black market, growing everyday, in size and structure, means nothing but nihilism, which leads the people to destruction. It is clear sign, as well, that the administration is void of policy for meeting and mastering the problems of foodstuffs, coal, fertilizer, inflation, restorations of industrial activity, etc. A real and democratic economy, leased firmly on the grand principle of co-operation, with the welfare of the people in mind, is the demand of the times. The administration had at first refused to remove control over production, and distribution, and the prices of daily necessities. It had come to the conclusion that it had committed a blunder by inviting the confusion resulting from the free market of perishable goods, etc., with the abolition of price control. The administration appears now to have come to a change in policy. It has decided to restore the control program again, to solve the current difficulties. Thus it bases itself on both capitalists and democratic principles, at the some time.
The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is planning to resume control over the major foodstuffs, perishable goods, etc. The Ministry of Industry and Commerce is also to have control again over production, distribution, and prices, of coal, chemical fertilizers, and products whose production depends on these items, When we consider the stern reality that the Allies have won the war, our economic system looks peculiar. When, the detailed items of reparations are revealed, it will be inevitably and absolutely necessary for us to apply strong measures of control over economic activities. Of course, our present administration knows its own limits. Nevertheless, it is noticeable that it has undergone a change, in its policies and in its methods of meeting economic problems in general.
The plan which the Ministry of Commerce and Industry is studying, is of a wide range. Though its policies must have the approval of GHQ, it intends to increase production of coal and chemical fertilizers. That should result in more food production, along with the resulting increase in collaterals for importing food. The plan, would transfer some important industries to the state, commit coal and fertilizer plants and factories to the control and administrative management of the state, giving opportunities for the laborers to participate in plant management. In order to meet the demands that compensation to the war commodities firms be instantly cancelled, the plan would es-
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 230 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
tablish new peacetime goods production companies in the former munitions factories. Practical measures for carrying this plan into effect are outlined as follows:
A committee is to be formed which includes, among others, civil industrialists, scholars, and experts in an executive body. A plant committee (KOJO IINKAI) composed of representatives of labor and capital is to be organized. Besides, important chemical plants and factories producing such fertilizers as lime nitrogen and ammonium sulphate, together with all the coal mines, are especially appointed by the administration. Commodity prices, are controlled after being adjusted and systematized with the adjusted price of food as a base. All the steel, rubber and textile products, both finished and unfinished are bought up at adequate prices (not at prices for black-market), through intermediate organs, and distributed throughout the country. Those commodities that are insufficient in quantity to meet the demand, whether produced within the country or imported from abroad, are to be produced or imported by producers or importers concerned. Their quantity is assigned by the administration. As for collaterals used for imports, goods manufactured therefrom, their production, distribution, utilization, and consumption are partially restricted or wholly prohibited. For this end, necessary regulations, including rules of punishment, are to be promulgated by an urgent imperial ordinance.
ITEM 3 A Survey of Wheat Planting in JAPAN Conducted by the NIPPON SANGYO KEIZAI - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 28 Jan 46. Translator: J. Okamura.
Summary:
The wheat crop for the current harvest year throughout the country will be of average size, provided the present favorable growth, blessed by favorable weather, continues. This is the conclusion reached through the investigations conducted by this paper, throughout the country, up to 27 January. According to the investigations, wheat was planted in more than 80 per cent of the government assigned wheat cultivation area measuring 2,060,000 chobu. When the 40,000 chobu area in HOKKAIDO, where planting is made in spring, is calculated, the cultivated area will reach 85 per cent of the total allotted area.
The most difficult problem, at present, will be the short supplies of fertilizer. A ration of one kan of chemical fertilizer per tan will be of no use. The laber problem in agrarian territories has been salved, and the zeal of farmers for the production of wheat, contrary to that in rice production, has been great. The following is an outline of the Wheat planting and growing conditions in each prefecture.
HOKKAIDO: Over 80 per cent of the autumnal plantations have been completed in the assigned 17,500 chobu to produce 1,400,000 koku. The wheat shows a favorable growth. The only fear is, that since there has already been too much snowfall this year, more snow will be a severe blow to the harvest.
TOHHOKU District: In AO[illegible]ORI-Ken, the assigned plantation area increase this year be 25 per cent. The planting was delayed about 10 days, and, coupled with an insufficient supply of fertilizer and a labor shortage, the wheat production for the year does not permit optimistic expectations.
IWATE-Ken also saw an increase of 3.5 per cent in plantation area over last year. Though chemical fertilizer is very scarce, home made fertilizer is being prepared to some extent. Since the growth is steady, and ample labor is afforded, the wheat production will be good, provided there is little snowfall.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 230 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
Due to bad weather, the sowing in MIYAGI-Ken was delayed between 10 days and two weeks, resulting in the decrease of plantation areas by five per cent. Though both chemical and human manure fertilizer was given, the fertilizer is still insufficient. The growth after planting has recovered somewhat, but it is not easy to regain time lost in sowing.
Conspicuous delay in the rice - harvest last autumn caused AKITA-Ken a sharp decline of 50 per cent in plantation areas. However since fertilizer in this prefecture is quite satisfactory, and ample labor has been offered by repatriated ex-service men, the wheat is growing well. The snowfall in the cold zone is comparatively little, fortunately for the crops.
YAMAGATA-Ken saw an increase of 15 per cent in the plantation areas which measure 6,731 chobu. The growth there is not so satisfactory this year, presumably because of a short supply of fertilizer and labor, A favorable harvest depends largely upon the future weather conditions. Against the assigned plantation area of 37,000 chobu, some 71 per cent of area was planted, which shows an increase of 3.3 per cent over that of last year. About 300 kan of fertilizer per tan were given so far. There was no insect damage, except for a small portion in the northern parts. No cold or frost damage has been reported.
KANTO District: Over 85.4 per cent of the assigned area of 92,228 chobu was sown in IBARAGI-Ken, which is the top ranking wheat producing prefecture. The growth is satisfactory, on the average, though sowing was 20 days behind schedule, due to flood disasters. The zeal for production by farmers is in a satisfactory status, and labor is amply afforded, though fertilizer is short. In some regions, growth is developing unfavorably, and there only 60 per cent production is anticipated. In TOCHIGI-Ken, 87 per cent of the assigned area was planted, which shows an increase of 6,100 chobu over last year. Wheat cultivation there, is far better than last year. No damage by snow, frost, or insects have been reported so far. Being favored by moderate sunshine, and temperature after planting, the wheat cultivation in GUMMA-Ken has been forecast as good. Labor is ample because of the return of many repatriated service men, but since chemical fertilizer is insufficient, farmers are compelled to use human manure. The actual planting area is measured at 59,600 chobu, a decline of 1,500 chobu from last year.
Sowing in SAITA[illegible]A-Ken was delayed by five days, on an average, due to prolonged harvesting of other products. The plantation area for the year is measured at 63,700 chobu, which shows a slight increase over last year. The supply of chemical fertilizer is 500 to 600 momme per tan, and the self-manufactured fertilizer is around 150 kan per tan. Wheat cultivation is progressing steadily, reflecting a zeal in production by the peasant classes.
CHIBA-Ken plans to produce 800,000 to 900,000 koku of wheat, barley, and oats, by enlarging the plantation area by 1,000 chobu over last year. The actual plantation percentage was 84 through the prefecture. Only 50 per cent of the assigned chemical fertilizer was delivered to individual farmers at the time of planting. However, growth is in a satisfactory condition, with no insect damage.
KANAGAWA-Ken saw a decline of some 2,000 chobu in planting area. The actual area sowed measures 27,000 chobu. Blessed by good weather and an ample labor supply, the sowing was completed according to schedule. The present fertilizer supplies are 80 per cent chemical and 60 percent home-made fertilizer of either assigned or scheduled amounts. Farmers' zeal for production is high, but it is still too early to for tell a rich harvest, considering the poor fertilizer supply.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0230, 1946-01-30.
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