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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0214, 1946-01-27.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0968

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 968 Date: 27 Jan 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 214

ITEM 1 Democratization of Industry and The Industrialization of The Agricultural Districts by DOI, Kunitaro - Magazine; Sangyo Hyoron - Jan 46 Issue. Translator: Mrs. Asaka & T/4 Kawata.
Extracts:
If, among the Japanese people, there are those who believe that the democratization of industries and the industrialization of agriculture will come about as a natural consequence of JAPAN'S defeat, they are in grave error. Along with the establishment of a democratic government, the democratization of all industries in general is of utmost importance. Since the MEIJI restoration, there has been a rapid development of a capitalistic economic system, which helped bring prosperity to JAPAN and elevated JAPAN'S industries to a par with those of other countries.
On the other hand, there was something unjust in this system, aid that was the capitalists were reaping huge profits in which labor did not share. The capitalists kept these profits and left the laborers working with no increase in pay. The capitalists used these profits to favor politicians and thus had legislation passed which was to their advantage. Labor, meanwhile, was completely powerless.
The new politicians of JAPAN cannot be elected except on the merits of their political experience, ability, and knowledge, but they must also be tolerant, sympathetic, sincere, and honest. We must revolutionize the present social setup by getting rid of the politicians employed by the capitalists and putting in their places men who can be trusted as leaders by the multitude of the common people. It can be said that the decline of the plutocrats is a natural and inevitable tendency. The social classes of today are formed by the governing class and the governed class or the exploiting class and the exploited class.
The industrial system of JAPAN today is controlled by individuals who apply selfish motives in exploiting thousands of workers, Class distinction, and discrimination existed long before the coming of CHRIST. During the course of time various leaders pointed out the unjustness of class destinction and discrimination, and social revolutions were staged.
In JAPAN, however, things were different. Talk of overthrowing the capitalists existed, but the feudal system was so powerful that movements for social reform were always crushed before they could get started. Now, social justice will be brought about in JAPAN. The new industrial system must be formed on a basis of tolerance and co-operation, then only can we stop the development of class distinction, and the Government, following the people, will be enabled to control this capitalistic, industrial system.
Just what is the relationship between the democratization of industries and the industrialization of agriculture? The industries of JAPAN are all situated in large cities, and these cities prospered, whereas the farming districts and suburbs did not. To realize democratization of

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 214 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
industries, we must not only erect numerous small factories, but we must free the tenant farmers as well as raise their standard of living.
In order to bring about the industrialization of agriculture, the farmers must be given more education for leading a cultural and moral life. The industrialization of agriculture must start before the democratization of industries. This does not necessarily mean utilizing arable land to construct factories, but rather building for example, a hydroelectric plant in a farm area to facilitate irrigation and increase rural production.
The present purpose of industrializing agriculture is to democratize industry. Industries in the rural areas manufactured food using products from the farms, or made small parts of machinery to be used later on assembly lines. Sericulture is common in the farm areas but silk reeling industries are concentrated in the cities where huge quantities of raw silk are bought by the capitalists for use in their factories. This means profits for the capitalists while the farmers in the silk worm raising business earn almost nothing. Therefore, the farmers should establish a co-operative system of their own by joining all of their accounts or by barrowing from some banking institution. In this way, employment is also added to a farming community in the administration of the co-operatives.
The principle of the industrialization of agriculture is to achieve a co-operative spirit and an acceleration of production within the farming communities. Each family should be given parts of an article which is to be manufactured. They will work on it during spare hours and will bring it to the factory where all of these parts will be assembled and the product sold.
With the democratization of industry should come peace and happiness, and the unbounded progress of JAPAN as a nation. The industrialization of the agricultural districts contributes not only to the development of the agricultural industries but is a good plan for developing all industry along modern democratic principles.
ITEM 2 Female Labor Problem, Part 3 (End of Series) - Provincial Newspaper Kahoku Shimbun (Sendai) - 20 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
Summary:
Eight hours a day and 43 hours a week are considered normal working hours. However, during wartime, Japanese authorities forced workers to toil for 12 hours a day. But among civilized nations, the eight-hour day was well observed even in the emergency, and, in any case, never more than a nine-hour day was experienced. There are other questions, such as the prohibition of night-work for women, rest after certain hours of work, a dayoff on Sunday, and paid vacations for about two weeks annually. Henceforth, workers will be keenly interested in working hours, in the post war democratic structure of JAPAN.
Most countries provide laws stating an age limit for work. Children under the age of 12 are prohibited from being industrial employees. Workers between 13 and 16 years old, and those between 18 and 60, are usually treated differently. Female and child labor are usually in the same category. For the welfare of the workers, domitories, safety devices for protection from machines and for underground or transpotation works, fire protection measures, et cetera, must be taken into consideration.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 214 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Special considerations should be given for female-workers during periods of pregnancy and delivery. For instance, labor in dusty places or in heat, or underground work should not be assigned to them during the above-mentioned periods. It is an acknowledged fact that the wartime failure in extending welfare facilities to female workers was injurious to industrial efficiency.
Throughout the war, wages were loudly discussed without any results, In JAPAN, wages were classified into three parts: basic salary, additional payments for encouragement, and miscellaneous allowances. However, the system met with little success. There is no reliable standard for wages, but they must be seriously studied to meet with the chaotic economic condition which workers are destined to face. Since female workers will be driven back to their homes, and are going to lose their incomes, wages for male workers should be increased to some extent. The TAYLOR system, or salary scale according to efficiency (SOKUTEIKYU-SEI), will be studied and transplanted in JAPAN to good advantage.
Social insurance, including health insurance, accident insurance, insurance for disability, widow or orphan insurance, unemployment insurance, and so on, are necessary. JAPAN is quite backward in insurance facilities. Only after seeing the deluge of jobless, did unemployment insurance came into the discussion. A social insurance policy is very vital to the workers' welfare, but JAPAN, which is so backward in that sphere, seems almost like a primitive country. Serious attention should be given to this problem.
Labor problems in the country will have a troubled future because of difficulty of industrial recovery, food shortage, and the deluge of jobless. The writer requests businessmen to recognize the importance of welfare institutions. The cause of our defeat in the war is remotely related to the failure to provide welfare facilities.for workers. The most important request for workers is that they shouldn't forget that business must obtain remuneration.
Agreements reached by strikes will not be successful for workers if they win at the cost of the economic standing of business. Under capitalism, labor, material, and capital should be in a healthy condition. Workers should not insist on privileges which might threaten the existence of business itself, and which would only aggravate unemployment. But, it is desirable that capitalists admit the workers to participation in the management of business.
ITEM 3 Vegetable and Fish Prices at TOKYO Market - Mainichi Shimbun - 25 Jan 46. Translator: R. Aoki.
Full Translation:
The free price system of vegetables under the auction sale was reinstituted at the Central Market of TOKYO one week ago. But the price is generally very high. In fact, per unit of weight, the price of vegetables is even higher than that of fish, which have just begun to flow into the Market under the new device of the motor oil and fish "link" system. For instance, the wholesale price of horseradish and beets during the past week reached the peak of 20 YEN and 19 YEN per kan, respectively. The wholesale price of mackerel and shark remained at 23 yen and 11 yen, per kan, respectively.
The price table of vegetables and fish at the Central Market of TOKYO during the past week is shown below (in yen per kan):
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 214 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
VEGETABLES
Highest Lowest Standard Price
Horseradish 20.00 5.00 10.00
Beets 19.00 2.00 7.50
Lettuce and other greens 10.00 7.50 6.00
Carrots 28.00 18.00 22.00
Burdock (roots) 30.00 3.00 25.00
Yams 65.00 40.00 50.00
FISH
Mackerel 23.00
Whale [illegible] 21.00
Round Shark [illegible] 11.00
Codfish [illegible] 13.00
Flatfish and KASUBE [illegible] 5.00
Since the adoption of the motor oil and fish "link" system recently, fish are coming into the Market in considerable volume. On the other hand, the shipment of vegetables declined from 120,000 to 130,000 kan per day, at the beginning of this year, 15,000 to 20,000 kan when a kind of official price (KYOTEI-NE) was adopted. Now the free price under auction system has been re-introduced and the shipment has been increased 140,000 to 50,000 kan a day.
The recent high price is partially due to the winter season, but it is also partially due to the activities of brokers in the producing and consuming centers.
It will be noted that the Pacific Ocean Fishing Company, with the approval, of the Fishery Bureau of the Agricultural Ministry, has started a direct distribution of whale meat to the households of TOKYO, at the rate of 24 momme per person, for 60 sen. This distribution will begin on 29 January. The Company plans to dispose of 100,000 kan of whale meat by this plan.
DISTRIBUTION: "X"
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