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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0212, 1946-01-26.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0961

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 961 Date: 26 Jan 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 212

ITEM 1 Various Opinions of Political Parties Concerning Current Food Situation - Asahi Shimbun - 25 Jan 46. Translator: Y. Kurata.
Summary:
With the recent Government decision to decree an emergency order for the compulsory management of food various opposing opinions are being voiced among political parties, who in turn are urging their own measures for the solution of the food crisis. The NIPPON Farmers Union (NIPPON NOMIN KUMIAI) backed by the Social Democratic Party submitted on 23 January the following demands to Mr. SOEJIMA, Minister of Agriculture and Forestry: (1) Revision of the present allocation system of rice deliveries. (2) Reorganization of the present Farm Products Delivery Committee and the abolition of its secret meetings for deciding the allocation of farm products.
The communists, while insisting on carrying out the distribution of food by the people, urged that the question at issue was to dispose of a great amount of hidden food through the assistance of the people. However, with the present food situation, there is considerable doubt whether the demand supply of food can be brought into reasonable balance by such makeshift plans as they propose.
Concerning the revision of food management, there are also many constructive opinions among political parties. The Social Democratic Party proposes: (1) Revision of the present Farm Products Delivery Committee; (2) Abolition of discrimination against tenant farmers regarding rice deliveries and giving priority to those holding rice for their own consumption; (3) Fixing the amount of commodities to be distributed among farmers in exchange for their farm products and establishing a Commodity Distribution Committee to the advantage of the farmer; and (4) Making farmers deliver their farm products at a fixed exchange rate, rather than hold the products for barter.
Meanwhile, the communists stress the following two points: (1) Making the demand and supply of foods available to both producers and consumers and leave no means untried to meet the shortage of foods due to the lack of imports; and (2) Fixing the price of rice in proper relation to that of necessities so as to be able to maintain agricultural production.
The Progressive Party, though it has had no clear-cut policy in this connection gives its suggestions as follows: (1) Make clear the amount of imports anticipated and relieve the anxiety of the people in this regard. (2) Make it possible for farmers to forecast this year's fertilizer production and distribute fertilizers among farmers fairly thereby stimulating increased production of food.

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 212 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
The Co-operative Party urges the necessity of organizing immediately the so-called food management committees in every district to meet the shortages of food by making farmers deliver their farm products to the Government in exchange for necessary commodities.
As may be clearly understood from the above, all political parties seem to be stressing the necessity of persuading the producers to deliver farm products, rather than a reform of the present food management system. On the other hand, there is a strong tendency by political parties to oppose a Government monopoly of rice. The reasons for this opposition may well be ascribed to the following three points: (1) Due to the coming general elections, all political parties are apprehensive about the farmers' attitude toward them; (2) They have too shallow a knowledge of the importance of planning for the nation's food needs and capacities; (3) They still lack a positive attitude toward revising and stabilizing the existing system.
So varied are the opinions of each political party in regard to the current food problem, that people are now at a loss as to its solution. Meanwhile, it is reported that Social Democrats in OSAKA, headed Mr. NISHIO have just decided to give full support to the Government's compulsory measures of rice deliveries. At the same time, they have established the Rice Delivery Investigation Committee headed by Mr. SUGIYAMA, so as to begin a nationwide movement for the acceleration of rice deliveries.
ITEM 2 Authorities Request Democratization of Tax Paying - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 25 Jan 46. Translator: T. Ukai.
Full Translation:
As the tax forms to be used in reporting various incomes to taxation offices and to be sent to the public by the end of this month are not yet fully prepared owing to inadequate printing capacity through war-damages and so on, though the deadline is approaching, taxpayers are requested to give special co-operation, the Finance Office announced. The TOKYO Finance Bureau (TOKYO ZAIMU KYOKU), is going to estimate fully the contents of reports, and will depend on the sincerity of those filling them out, for these reports are of prime importance for the completion of preliminary arrangements for introducing such epoch-making taxes as the property tax, war-time profits tax and so on. Besides, the paying of taxes this year must be simplified and democratized.
The Financial Bureau, TOKYO has issued the following information: 1. Reports on what is called "all-around" incomes, namely business net profits, temporary gains, and so on, must be sent in within the end of this month, namely 31 January 1946. 2. Family members to be supported mean those that were born on and after 3 January 1928 and on and prior to 2 January 1886. 3. Reports sent in to have life insurance exempted from taxation, must be sent along with other reports. 4. Tax forms will soon be distributed, through neighborhood associations, town associations and so on. If, on account of shortages they are not received, they can be obtained from township associations, taxation offices and so on. 5. Reports are not requested of those whose yearly incomes are under 3,000 yen (including incomes of other members of the family) and those whose earned incomes or business incomes of the C class have been
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 212 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
taxed according to the Classified Incomes Taxation (BUNRUI SHOTOKU KAZEI). 6. Reports must be sent to taxation offices directly. (Reports sent in by post, are valid if postmarked no later than 31 January 1946). Taxpayers in municipalities may avail themselves of municipal offices that will later collect the filled out forms sent there and hand them over to taxation offices. 7. Obscure points shall be made clear directly by taxation offices.
ITEM 3 The Reparations Law and the Special Account Law will be Introduced to the Special Diet - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 25 Jan 46. Translator: K. Saco.
Full Translations:
Methods of reparations are under deliberation by the Government. From the legislative standpoint, the Reparations Law and the Special Account Law (TOKUBETSU KAIKEIHO) should be established. Therefore, these two bills will be presented to the coming special Diet session. The method of reparations has not been decided yet, because it has a close relation with compensation to munitions firms.
The Reparations Law: Its main purpose is the establishment of various methods, such as the disposal of the separations articles and also the carrying out of the reparations themselves. In view of the difficulty in the appraisal of objects for reparations, it is expected that the Reparations Appraisal Commission will be appointed and the regulations will be drawn up.
The Reparations Special Account Law: The reparations activities will be performed by each Ministry, but this special accounting will handle all the funds collectively. In this respect, it differs from the ordinary accounting under each Ministry. The main items of the expenditures are indemnities, but besides these are the costs of maintaining the Occupation Forces, and the maintenance expenses of the collaterals for the reparations. The principal income is the money coming through the ordinary accounts but a means of special income by this independent account is under consideration.
The Method of Reparations: The method of reparations is under discussion, but the general idea may be described as follows: Among the plants and institutions that are allocated for reparations, there are some of which only a part will be taken for the purpose. But in such cases, the entire plant or institution will suffer damage. Therefore the Government is considering what measures should be taken. Three solutions can be considered. First, the Government may buy up the entire plant or institution and use it for reparations, and dispose of the remainder.
Second, the Government may buy the plants, which are allocated for reparations and compensate them for the damages suffered. Third, the Government may compensate for the entire cost. The national loan policy must be taken into consideration, in determining the method of payment. A special method of payment will be adopted in which compensation will be paid in proportion to the parts of plants used for reparations. Reports are being gathered by the Finance Ministry concerning reparations in the overseas areas. It is thought that the enforcement of reparations overseas will take place later than in JAPAN proper.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 212 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The maintenance expenses of the munitions plants allocated for the reparations will be paid in advance by the Bank of JAPAN. The maintenance expenses for the 400 aircraft plants which were ordered to be taken into custody for the purpose of reparations by the directive of the Allied Headquarters will be paid in advance by the Bank of JAPAN, as id done in the case of occupation expenditures for the Allied Forces.
The maintenance expenses will be divided into the following three categories: 1. Management expense, 2. Transportation of the evacuated equipments, and 3. Repairs. The payment of these expenses will be made after the order to keep the plant in good condition is given by the Government to the plant concerned. Therefore, it will be given at the beginning of February. Following this order, the procedure and the decision of the aims will be published. The occupation expenditures of the Allied Forces, and the maintenance expenses of the plants allocated for reparations will be advanced as a provisional basis until the special account for reparations is established.
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0212, 1946-01-26.
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