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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0207, 1946-01-26.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0946

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 946 Date: 26 Jan 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 207

ITEM 1 A Unified Cooperative Society planned in MIYAZAKI City - Provincial Paper "Hyuga Mainichi Shimbun"(Miyazaki) - 16 Jan 46. Translator: R. Shibata.
Summary:
A movement to form co-operative societies according to vocations is now going to have a concrete form in MIYAZAKI City, as already reported. Some time ago, Mr. SUSUMU, Kazuo, of SETO Street in that city, attempted to form co-operative societies on a regional basis. He gave up this attempt later because he came to understand that it met the actual condition much more in organizing cooperative societies according to vocations.
He has been promoting the formation of co-operative societies by persons respective vocations and is now making preparations for the establishment of a conference committee, headquarters, and branches of a unified society, which is to be organized by the above societies based on vocations, and in which the will of the citizens can be well reflected. According to his plan, when this unified co-operative society becomes successful and public opinion demands the participation of the regionally formed co-operative societies in the above society, it will, of course, be permitted. Anyway, it aims at protecting and giving security to the lives of citizens by their own hands. In addition, it is worth noticing that this society, not being satisfied with only contributing to the alleviation of the present sufferings of citizens, intends to develop in the future, into an organization which would, cultivate co-operative spirit and mutual friendship among the consumers through their daily lives and world do much for the construction of a better community.
ITEM 2 Current Industrial Situation In MIYAZAKI Ken - Provincial Newspaper Hyuga Shimbun (Miyazaki) - 17 Jan. 46. Translator: Y. Kurata.
Summary:
In MIYAZAKI Ken the current inflation, together with the food shortage is assuming so serious an aspect that industries there, both medium and small-scale, are still in extreme depression. According to the statistics of financial institutions, only a slight increase has been shown in their loans for reconstruction, which have been made chiefly to storekeepers.
The following will show the present industrial situation viewed from the financial standpoint:
At the MIYAZAKI branch of the JAPAN Hypothec Bank, there is a slight increase in loans for the local salt industry, the reconstruction of shops, housing, and small-scale food industries. Although little progress has been made thus far in commodity production, there is a gradual increase in the demand for funds for reconditioning equipment, such as rice refining machines and flour



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ECONOMIC SERIES: 207 (Continued)

ITEM 2 (Continued)

mills. On the other hand, most of the long term loans for farmers are being redeemed before the expiration of their term, thanks to the close co-operation of the Agrarian Associations.
At the HYUGA Industrial Bank (HYUGA KOGYO GINKO), because of prevailing prices, food problems, and the difficulty of forecasting the supply of material, there are few, if any, loans of industrial funds. However, as there is much room for the development of such industries as lumbering, farming, and marine products, much hope can be entertained for industrial reconstruction.
At the MIYAZAKI Mutual Financing Association (MIYAZAKI MUJIN), loans are very few except for home reconstruction funds, owing to a shortage of labor and industrial materials.
At the MIYAZAKI Financial Association (MIYAZAKI SHINYO KUMIAI), there is but a small demand on the part of commodity retailers for funds to buy commodities. It is apparent in the present situation that all financial institutions are facing frequent withdrawals of deposits, instead of frequent loans for industrial reconstruction.

ITEM 3 Women Labor Problem - Part I - Kahoku Shimbun - 18 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa
Summary:
Japanese young women, including those from prosperous families who were asked to work in industries during wartime, have returned to their households. Ironically, this is a time when they are in need of income to aid their families that have become poor through a long period of expensive living.
Women workers from the middle class with culture will be increasingly employed from now on in industries. This is in direct contrast to the situation prevailing in former days. Before, workers were mainly composed of illiterate female cotton mill operators. The female labor problem of the country, consequently, will not be as simple as it used to be. Now is the time for women to assert themselves through their newly obtained suffrage. The writer's desire is to explain the current issues on women's labor problems that are under discussion.
The labor problem, in a wider sense, refers to a social problem regarding a contract of employment, no matter what kind of job workers are employed in. On the other hand, problems concerning females assisting in home industries will as classified as a different social question. It is of utmost importance to adopt a practical social policy. Classification of general labor problems, according to British or American ways, will be explained. Here we should pay close attention to the difference between labor problems and measures of legalizing them. Labor problems include organization of employment agencies, recruiting workers or unemployment, working hours, workers' ages, and insurance. There are two ways to solve the above-mentioned problems, despotically or democratically. In the latter case, problems arising between employers and employees will be settled by negotiations between the employer and the trade union, which is established by the workers' own accord. Government, however, will legalize the basic ideas controlling the labor relations. In case a despotic policy, instead of a democratic one, is adopted, there will be a laborers' organization which is formed by the state. Employers alone will fix working conditions, and legisla-
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 207 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
tion of the labor-law will be handled solely by Government offices.
However, the Japanese labor situation, although Americans deem it to be feudalistic, will make a sharp turn towards democracy. Female workers in most countries are legally treated in the same way as juvenile workers that are below eighteen years of age.
ITEM 4 Women Labor Problems - Part 2 - by TSUMAGARI (?), Kuranojo - Kahoku Shimbun (Sendai) - 19 Jan 46. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
Summary:
It does without saying that there should be a difference between labor done by men and that done by women who are mentally physically, intellectually and socially different from men. But improvement in machinery have decreased the importance of putting too much stress upon these differences and a time will come when we have to review the women workers' position from a different angle.
There are four different interpretation of labor problems. The first one is what we might call a humanitarian, paternalistic one in which the workers status is at the mercy of the employers, and the state takes steps to guard the workers' interests. A majority of labor laws were drafted in an attempt to protect the weaker party, the workers. But this view has been filled with infringements of workers' rights. Nevertheless the paternalistic idea is rather widely adopted.
The second viewpoint is based on the economic standpoint which considers labor-power as a part of the resources which should be treated with care and not to be exhausted. The social policy regarding workers from the capitalists: position is to protect workers so as to make utmost use of their capital in the long run. This idea also is open to the charge of looking upon labor-power as material and not recognizing the workers' human character. This criticism is very popular among Japanese interested in labor problems.
Third come what we might call the family unit. According to this, an employer is supposed to be in the relation of the father to the employees. Employers are requested to feel paternal love toward their workers who in turn promise loyalty to their employer. This is supposed to have followed the pattern of a typical Japanese family. This idea is under criticism for it passes over the difference between household management and management of industry. It is not justifiable to ex[illegible]ct fealty of the workers while employers are zealously pursuing a profit, During the war; compulsory workers were, in fact, working under feudal conditions. It is quite natural that Allied Headquarters disapproved of this system. The last one is a democratic labor-policy. As Clayton declared in 1914, labor-power is not a commodity and the workers' personalities must be considered. Workers should be given the right of free speech. But freedom of speech alone will not be enough to protect their rights, so the necessity of organizing trade unions arises. These unions negotiate troubles, with the employers on an equal level. Trade unions must be of the workers' own making, and capitalists or the government should not participate in it. This union idea is what the Allied Headquarters request of Japanese labor circles.
An employment agency, in most countries, originates from servants employment agencies. Agencies maintained by workers' unions made their appearance, and lastly came agencies managed by local organizations or by the State. At present a majority of the
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 207 (Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
countries have such agencies as subdivisions of a Labor or Welfare Department. In forming plans for unemployment problems, men workers are usually given priority. In times when labor power is overabundant, female workers used to be driven out of jobs. Except for SOVIET RUSSIA, most countries deem that female labor is subsidiary to male labor on the ground that women have household work.
(To be continued).
ITEM 5 Fishing Labor Union Established - Provincial Paper Kahoku Shimpo (Sendai) - 20 Jan 46. Translator: S. Iwata.
Summary:
About 35 representatives of the bonito fishermen, the tunnet fishermen, the fixed tow-net fishermen, the net fishermen, the fishing Associations, and the marine products manufacturers in the ISHINO-MAKI fishing district, who have the six greater fishing grounds (ISHINOMAKI, [illegible]ATARINA[illegible]I, MEKAWA, OHARA, AYUK[illegible]A, KINKAZAN) held a conference on increasing the marine products at the public hall of ISHINOMAKI and formed the ISHINOMAKI District Fishing Workers' Union (ISHINOMAKI CHIKYUGYOGYO RODO KUMIAI). This is a powerful combination of fishing associations, shipowners, fishermen and marine products manufacturers and will have some direct connection with the consumers, in order to (1) break down the existing self-righteous control; (2) stimulate the rapidly increased production of marine products, which is one of the important collateral articles; and (3) help the people by reducing the shortage of nutritious food. SHUDA, Kine, was elected president; KADOMA, Jusaku was elected committee chairman; SUSUKI, Eiichi, GOTO, Ichitaro and twenty other men were elected committee men; HOSOKAWA, Shin, SHUDA, Kintaro, HENNI, Yashonosuke, were elected advisors.
Some of the aims of the organization are: (1) To form the Fishing Laboreres' Union and conciliate capital and labor in the fishing industry; (2) To get the directors and the managerial staff to resign in order to reform this Prefectural Marine Products Industry Association; (3) To stimulate the establishment of the northern JAPAN Marine Establishment Association (Provisional name), including the fishermen and the manufacturers in TOHOKU, HOKKAIDO, and NIIGATA: (4) To reform the marine laws so that the fishermen may directly manage business, operation, and manufacturing in connection with the five TOHOKU Prefectures and HOKKAIDO, and to exclude the activities of the ZAIBATSU throughout the marine undertakings; (5) To establish a private Marine College or a higher fisheries school.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0207, 1946-01-26.
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