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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0138, 1946-01-08.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0666

call-number: DS801 .S81

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No. 666 Date: 8 Jan 46


ITEM 1 The Government Railroad to Relieve the Crowded and Congested Conditions - Yomiuri Shimbun - 5 Jan 46. Translator: S. Iwata.
Since the year's end the government railroad has been encouraging measures to relieve as quickly as possible, the crowded and congested conditions in passenger trains. As a result, the amount of coal stored has been increasing little by little.
The coal storages of the various railroad bureaus on 2 January 1946 are calculated as follows:
Names of Railroad Bureaus Amount of Coal in tons Time for transportation
TOKYO 9,540 5.2 days
NIGATA 1,670 1.4 days
SENDAI 2,520 1.1 days
NAGOYA 11,270 6.6 days
OSAKA 12,520 6.4 days
HIROSHIMA 6,110 4.2 days
SHIKOKU 4,060 10.2 days
MOTI 2,180 6.6 days
SAPPORO 9,920 6.4 days
TOTAL 69,420 5.4 days (average time)

In comparison with the figures of 26 December 1945, which gave 50,780 metric tons or an average of 3.8 days for transportation there is an increase of 8,640 tons and about 1.5 days. The authorities contemplated increasing the number of trains when the amount of coal storage increased. But whether the number of trains could be increased by 10 per cent or not is doubtful.
The authorities expect that the present system of coal storage will continue. Some 440,000 metric tons of coal should be produced in a month. If this amount can be produced then there should be a proportionately increasing number of trains.
ITEM 2 Food and Vitamins - by Dr. INOUE, Kanes, M. D. (2nd of Series on Food, Shelter and Clothing) - Tokio Shinbun - 6 Jan 46. Translator: K. Sato.
Full Translation:
Since there is danger of malnutrition by subsisting on rationed food alone, and due to the lack of Vitamin C, it is necessary to supplement the diet by buying the necessary fruits and vegetables from the free market. In such cases, a knowledge of dietetics and good judgment is necessary. For instance, a medium size orange and an apple are sold at 50 sen and five yen respectively at fruit stands, but if we compare the amount of vitamins contained in each of them, we may regard apples as

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ECONOMIC SERIES 138 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
very expensive. In fact, they are much too expensive.
If we realize the nourishment contained in orange peels, we would never throw them away as carelessly as we usually do. Take another example, in vegetables. If we eat the roots of radishes only, throwing away their leaves, we can never supplement the necessary vitamin A, however much we may eat them. And to obtain vitamin C, it is far more economical to eat spinach than radishes, even though the former may cost five times as much as the latter. Therefore, kitchen gardens must be cultivated, in light of these facts. When people buy perishable foods at the market, care must be taken.
Suppose you buy fish. Small ones such as sardines are preferable because they contain not only much fat, but their bones and tails can also be eaten. As for vegetables, green ones are much better than others. In fruits, those having red and yellow colors such as oranges and persimmons are best, because they have much nourishment, so that a small quantity will be sufficient for the preservation of health.
I find many cases of malnutrition among single people who live in a room by themselves commonly called "SOKAYAMOME" (evacuated widower). It is necessary therefore to supply them with both cheap and nourishing food. Sardines with bones and every part of the fish, mixed with green vegetables and made into dumplings, are very nutritious. Or they may be made into so-called SHUMAI (meat or dish cake). These SHUMAI are very cheap, healthful and very effective in preventing malnutrition.
Vitamin Table For Common Fruits and Vegetables International Units of Vitamin
A B1 (2) B2(2) C(MG)
Oranges 1,100 100 30 35
Orange Peels 4,800 50 150 240
Apples 10 15 15 5
0 10 20 17
Radishes Roots 5,300 100 260 170
Spinach Leaves 6,700 140 400 170
ITEM 3 Stringent Measures to Check Blackmarket-Police Department to Assist - Asahi Shimbun - 6 Jan 46. Translator: Z. Konishi.
Because of the present serious situation in TOKYO, the preparation of measures to check the black market was revealed here by TAKANO, Superintendent General of the Metropolitan Police Board. During the war various commodities had been concealed from the normal market on account of the difficulties brought about by the control of commodity prices.
Since the termination of the war, the activities of street-vendors has been overlooked by the authorities in order to relieve the stringent situation in our economy. Furthermore, even if the prices were rather high, free purchase of daily necessities on the black market was considered a convenience to the citizens.
Recently however, activities of street-vendors grew into a large black market problem as the prices of commodities soared tremendously. Consquently, public opinion has developed for the removal of the black market. Motivated by this, police authorities are now considering new remodial policies. The plan is to restrict vendors activities by designating market locations, and to order vendors in these designated markets to establish a system of prices autonomously. The details for
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ECONOMIC SERIES 138 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
this step are progressing now with co-operation of the ministry.
Though the control of street markets will be strengthened in the future, the authorities will use a certain amount of discretion in order to keep commodities in circulation. To keep down exorbitant prices, however, the Unjust Profits Control Law (BORI, TOPISHIMARI FEI) will be applied. The authorities are also contemplating the drafting of a new law to meet future situations.
ITEM 4 Food and Prices - Control of Black Market - Interview with Vice- Minster of Agriculture - Tokyo Shimbun - 6 Jan 46. Translator: P. Shibata
Full Translation:
Journalist: At the end of last year we wrote in our paper, "Rice only ten or twenty per cent polished is hard to digest. Rice should of necessity be more thoroughly polished, for then we could also make use of the additional rice bran for fertilizer, etc. What do you think about this?"
Vice Minister of Agriculture and Forestry KAWAI: "As the rice distribution is very poor, I think it necessary to distribute rice in such a condition as to increase its volume when boiled, and to make it easier to digest. So, I quite approve of your opinion on the degree of polishing rice and want to deliver rice that is 50 or [illegible]per cent polished.
Journalist: "What do you think about the recent growth of black markets?"
Vice-Minister: After the abolition of controls, commiodities were turned out as you see. Probably prices will be ten or more times what they were when controlled. Yet, if I suggest a return to the former condition, everybody will say, "It is all so puzzling." Of course, I don't think those prices are right. But we couldn't take such a step. The first requisite was to bring commodities out on the market. Hereafter we will manage to lower these prices gradually.
First, as to fresh fish, we intend to apply a link system. That is, fishermen will receive, in return for fish delivered, a distribution of oil which is to be supplied by the Allied Forces as already announced. Hitherto, control of fresh fish was managed so unsatisfactorily that fish went only to the black market. But hereafter, we intend to carry on this link system by sending officials of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to the main fish-landing places. When things cannot be marketed by any means under the present retailer's system, we will consider, in place of that, the establishment of public markets. Against this, opposition may arise. I think we must overcome such friction in any way possible in order to brighten the outlook for the whole Nation, and this is indeed a duty of the officials.
We officials will endeavor by every means to distribute the fish obtained by the link system to each family at half the prices in the present black market. As for vegetables, we are puzzled because we have no materials to distribute as an inducement for farmers to supply them. But we feel keenly the necessity for lowering their prices to a considerable degree.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0138, 1946-01-08.
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