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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0132, 1946-01-06.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0638

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 638 Date: 6 Jan 46

ECONOMIC SERIES: 132

ITEM 1 Unemployment Conditions in the Central Region - Chubu Nippon Shimbun (NAGOYA) - 28 Dec 45. Translator: R. Aoki.
Summary:
Unemployment conditions in CHUBU or the Central Region were reviewed by the CHUBU NIPPON SHIMBUN. The statistical summaries of unemployment for each prefecture of that Region were given as follows; AICHI-446,000; GIFU-140,000; MIE-99,837; SHIZUOKA-108, 663; SHIGA-5,520; TOYAMA-15,800; NIIGATA-50,560: KYOTO-88,900; NARA-9,000; FUKUT-87,000; NAGANO-68,430; ISHIKAWA-33,000.
Those figures were obtained from official sources. Nevertheless, some of them are more guesses, while, others are more reliable. But these statistics are not reliable. The figures of some prefectures include demobilized soldiers irrespective of their ability or willingness to work. Under such circumstances, only a descriptive study of each prefecture, instead of a statistical analysis, will give a reliable picture of unemployment conditions in any locality. The case of AICHI-Ken, the most important prefecture in CHUBU will be described.
AICHI - Ken includes the important city of NAGOYA. The "unemployment estimate of 446,000 involves the following:
Demobilized soldiers - 137,000
Unemployment due to closing of factories - 300,000
Repatriation and others - 9,000
Total 446,000

of the above total, unemployed persons number 155,000, And among the latter figure, 47,800 or about 30 per cent visited the Labor Mobilization Offices (KINRO DOINSHO), while the number of positions available reached 64,000. Now, among the 47,800 persons being sought for posts, 17,400, or less than one-third, were placed in jobs. Such is a brief statistical survey of unemployment conditions in AICHI-Ken. Now the job-hunting situation, through a Labor Mobilization Office in NAGOYA, will be taken up in detail.
This office receives call from 150 or 200 persons daily. Formerly many of them called at the Office rather whimsically. More recently, the visitors are seriously seeking employment. With regard to the contacts handled by this office, the most desirable is a job in the coal mines, the daily wages being from 8 yen to 12 yen; with a rice ration of 5 go instead of the 2.1 go of the general public. On the other hand, the monthly wages of factory workers rang from 100 to 150 yen for males and 40 to 50 yen for females. Salaries for graduates of girls' high schools range from 50-100 yen.
Formerly there was a definite tendency on the past of the employers

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 132 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
to seek employees who were young and who would receive relatively low wages, but the more recent tendency is to look for stable workers, even paying their extra wages or granting them subsistence, Most factories are eager to supply their employees with lunches in order to obtain permanent workers. One of the other facts found at this office is that many of the unemployed have spent all their savings by the end of the year, and it is expected that more, people will call at the office after the New Year. In view of such a probability, one official of the Labor Mobilization Office expressed the view that Government must be prepared for such a development, and he lamented that the present food and price conditions frustrate all Government plans.
There is the other side of the employment situation as told by a factory manager. "Generally speaking, about 50 per cent of the men engaged to work actually stay in the factory permanently. About ten per cent break the working agreement and quit on the spot, and another 10 per cent quit two or three days later. The remaining 30 per cent resign after ten or more days, when the work requirements become clear. Wages for new men range from 100 to 200 yen a month, depending upon the age or experience. We know these are inadequate for any responsible worker, so we are planning to double the pay in some way or other, besides allowing them daily necessities. After all, the employers want good dependable workers."
ITEM 2 The Farm Land Reform Bill Drafted By the Communist Party - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 4 Jan 46. Translator: K. Sato.
Full Translation:
The: Central Committ[illegible]of the Japanese Communist Party has drafted the Agrarian Reform Bill and published it on 3 January. The Bill is as follows: In order to wipe out the militaristic hotbed and develop a spirit of democracy in agriculture, by democratizing the agrarian system thoroughly and liberating farmers from conditions of slaves in accordance with the directive issued by Allied Headquarters on 9 December 1945, based up on the Potsdam Declaration, the following qualification is absolutely necessary . The fundamental democratic reform among farmers includes: 1. The complete abolition of the feudalistic landlord system; 2. The establishment of farming rights; 3. The democratization of farm village finance. Further, the program necessary for the realization of the above reform is as follows: 1. The entire power to decide questions involving agrarian reform will be entrusted in the hands of the committee democratically chosen from among the laboring farmer groups, except landlords, of each village, or community; 2. The use of land or right to till lands, undeveloped lands, pastures, and forests will be decided in a democratic way by this committee. In order to carry out the decisions of the committee, a specia1 committee will be organized, chosen from among all the farmers concerned; 3. In this relation the farm lands owned by absentee landlords will be transferred to land operators. Imperial ostates, state lands, lands owned by absentees landlords will be used by land operators, from of charge; 4. In all cases, the fixed prices for tenant calculation will be 300 yen per tan (about 991 square metres) of rice field, and 200 yen per tan of other fields. The maximum tenant foe will be seven per cent of the crops and will be paid in cash; 5. Private nortgages and rights of pledge will be prohibited. Money loaned to farmers by absentees landlords and usurers which threaten agrarian communities will at once be frozen or canceled; 6. The question as to whether the land should be a privately or jointly managed one will be decided by every agrarian community; 7. The funds necessary for agricultural purposes will be appropriated from the farm coffers, with an interest of two per cent a year in the case of joint management, and three per cent in the case of private management; 8. The
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 132 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
present bureaucratic Agricultural Corporation. (NAGYOKAI) will be dissolved and both its funds and equipment will be transferred to the Farmer's Committee (NOMINIIM). Each section under the Farmer's Committee, such as production, distribution, monetary circulation, manufacture, and cultivation will organize their respective functions to carry on the activity; 9. It is essential to establish the far-reaching , Farm Land Law which will present the land from going into the hands of the landlords and usurer ore again, and it will facilitate the development of this new agricultural management.
ITEM 3 Co-operation Between Capital and Labor - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 4 Jan 46. Translator: S. Iwata.
Full Translation:
According to the Welfare Ministry's report on 12 December 1945, Labor unions, which have been established after the defeat, number 65, The number of union members are over 77,000 and these are increasing day by day. As the capitalists have to form some organization, not to oppose, but to co-operate, the labor sections of the heavy industry association and the JAPAN economy association and have been under consideration by the four economic associations committees. The latter are only socia1 associations as compared with the heavy industry association, the JAPAN economy association and the JAPAN commerce and industry economy union. These associations are remote in objective from the labor unions, but they expect that a new democratic association among the industrialists will appear.
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