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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0086, 1945-12-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0420

call-number: DS801 .S81

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No. 420 Date: 21 Dec 45


ITEM 1 Situation of Fertilizer Production; Urgent Measure Required - Nippon Sangyo Keizai Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kinoshita.
The production of chemical fertilizer is the key to the improvement of the food situation. It is evident that an insufficient supply of chemical fertilizer, as well as bad weather, decline of farm land and shortage of labor, accounts for this year's poor rice crop. This was recognized by Allied Headquarters and their intention to allow the recovery of chemical industries, first of all, was revealed by Foreign Office spokesmen at the beginning of last September. It is regrettable, however, that fertilizer production has not made any appreciable progress. To encourage the delivery of rice by farmers, the Government promised compensational distribution of fertilizer. But, judging from the present condition of the industry, it may be difficult to keep the promise. A decisive measure by the Government to cope with the situation is urgently required.
Ammonium Sulphate
Almost all ammonium sulphate manufacturers suffered war damages, with a resulting decline in production. In August 4,500 metric tons were produced and in September, 5,600 metric tons. These figures show that total production was less than that of any one manufacturer in normal conditions. To cope with this critical situation, the Ammonium Sulphate Association (RYUAN KUMIAI) tried to distribute to manufacturers the materials token over from the military authorities. These materials were valued at 3,000,000 yen. In addition, the NIPPON Fertilizer Company (NIPPON HIRYO KAISHA) financed other fertilizer manufacturers to the extent of about 36,000,000 yen. As a result, production has increased in October and November. But, it has now declined again, due to the coal shortage. The following table shows the amounts of coal and coke, available to fertilizer manufacturers at the end of November:
Stock of Coal and Coke (in metric tons) of Fertilizer Factories at the End of November
Name of Factory Coal Coke
TOYO Electric Company (TOYO KOATSU) 4,054 1,652
TOHOKU Fertilizer Company (TOHOKU HIRYO) 145 700
SHOWA Fertilizer Company (SHOWA HIRYO) 485 2,000

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 86 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
NISSAN Fertilizer Company (NISSAN HIRYO) 2,141 NONE
TAGI Fertilizer Company (TAGI HIRYO) 883 861
TOA Fertilizer Company (TOA HIRYO) 115 NONE
UBE Fertilizer Company (UBE HIRYO) NONE NONE
SUMITOMO Company (SUMITOMO) 7,653 1,426
NIHON Nitrogen Company (NIHON CHISSO) 6,202 NONE
NITTO Fertilizer Company (NITRO HIRYO) 1,698 1,028
According to the government plan, production of ammonium sulphate and calcium nitrate (in metric tons) from December 1945 to July 1946 is estimated as follows:
Month Ammonium Sulphate Calcium Nitrate
December 1945 26,700 10,600
January 1946 32,500 12,100
February 1946 33,800 10,400
March 1946 41,800 15,300
April 1946 45,100 22,600
May 1946 47,200 22,900
June 1946 48,700 22,600
July 1946 49,000 22,900
Total 324,900 139,400

Assuming that two metric tons of coal are required for producing one metric ton of ammonium sulphate, about 650,000 metric tons of coal should be required in order to carry out the above plan.
Calcium Nitrate
Of all the calcium nitrate manufacturers, only one factory, the OMUDA Plant of the Electro Chemical Industry Company (DENKI KAGAKU KAISHA) suffered war damages. Nevertheless, no speedy progress has been made, as shown by the following production figures: August, 3,010 metric tons; September, 3,452 metric tons; October, 5,638 metric tons. The August figure was the smallest of this year. It is sincerely hoped that the output will reach, at least, 7,500 metric tons in November, and 10,000 metric tons in December. Even though these
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 86 (Continued)
ITEM 1 (Continued)
increases are attained, the amounts will be far less than those in September and October 1944. These were, respectively, 16,000 metric tons and 12,000 metric tons.
As a carbonic material for calcium nitrate production, anthracite was used. This was imported from INDO-CHINA and KOREA until the end of last year. Since the beginning of this year, coke has been used instead. Therefore, coke supply is the key to increased production of calcium nitrate. It is generally expected that the calcium nitrate industry will recover more speedily than the ammonium sulphate industry. The problem which this industry is now facing is the shortage of special paper for wrapping. This is due to the cutting off of the supply from KARAFUTO.
Superphosphate of Lime and Potassium Sulphate
Production of superphosphate of lime and potassium sulphate suffered its worst setback during the war, and even today there is no prospect for any improvement. Phosphate fertilizer, which is absolutely necessary for growing barley or wheat, was consumed at an annual rate of 1,500,000 metric tons in the past. In consideration of the importance of this fertilizer, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry is asking Allied Headquarters for permission to import about 800,000 metric tons of phosphate ore.
As to production of potassium, it is almost impossible at present to make any concrete plans. Utilization of marine plants is suggested, but this cannot be carried out as marine plants are needed more as a substitute foodstuff.
Before the end of November, about 80,000 metric tons of ammonium sulphate had already been delivered to distributors. Compensational distribution of ammonium sulphate and calcium nitrate, amounting to a total of 50,000 metric tons, will begin next January. For the sake of smooth distribution of chemical fertilizer, it is absolutely necessary that December production reaches the estimated amount.
In addition to the shortage of materials and fuel, all fertilizer manufacturers are experiencing difficulties in reconstructing of factories due to the shortage of construction materials and transportation facilities. Furthermore, they are suffering from the decline in labor efficiency. The Government must take effective measures to cope with this situation as promptly as possible.
ITEM 2 Labor Unionism in Japan - Tokyo Shimbun - 17 Dec 45. Translator: Y. Kurata.
Labor unionism in JAPAN started as early as the MEIJI Era, about 1897. The first union was organized in TOKYO by iron workers in the prosperous period of Japanese industry after the Sino-Japanese War. This was followed by the JAPAN Railway Workers' Union (NIPPON TETSU-DO KYOSEIKAI) and the Printers' Union (KAPPAN KO KUMIAI) in 1900.Then the movement died out for about ten years owing to the industrial depression and control by the Peace Restoration Law.
It was not until after 1918 that modern labor unionism formally made its appearance. Stimulated by the great development of Japanese industry.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 86 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
After World War I, labor unionism attained its finest and fullest development, and at the same time its doctrines gradually became influenced by the class struggle.
During the rice riots and general strikes of 1918 and 1919 socialism gained much ground among labor unionists. In this background many labor unions were organized, and many labor disputes occurred. After increasing the number of unions and union members, the further development of labor union was halted by the outbreak of the CHINA Incident. From then on the movement was replaced by the nationwide spiritual mobilization movement, which demanded full co-operation of all workers in carrying out the war.
Finally in 1941 labor unions were almost completely destroyed by the establishment of the Industrial co-operative Association (SANGYO HOKOKU-KAI). Upon the termination of the war, however, unionism was again established by the dissolution of the Industrial Cooperative association.
The following list shows the number of labor unions and members at various stages of development:
Year Number of Unions Membership
1907 40 —-
1918 107 —-
1919 187 —-
1920 273 —-
1921 300 103,412
1922 389 137,381
1923 432 125,551
1924 469 228,278
1926 488 284,739
1927 505 309,493
1928 501 308,900
1929 640 330,985
1930 712 354,312
1931 818 368,975
1932 932 377,625
1933 942 384,613
1934 965 387,964
1935 993 408,662

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 86 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
1936 973 420,589
1937 837 359,290
1938 731 375,191
1939 517 365,804
1940 49 9,455
1941 11 845
1944 3 155
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0086, 1945-12-21.
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