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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0084, 1945-12-21.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0412

call-number: DS801 .S81

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No. 412 Date: 21 Dec 1945


ITEM 1 Retraining of 140 Agricultural Experts at NAGASAKI Ken - Provincial Paper NAGASAKI Shimbun - 12 Dec, 45 Translator: S Zwata.
Full Translation:
The NAGASAKI Prefecture Agricultural Association is to conduct the agricultural er-education for the technical agricultural experts of 70 men and 70 women at the NAGASAKI Prefecture Agricultural experimental station in ISAHAYA city from January to March of next year. This is due to the fact that the art of agriculture has made very slow progress during the war because of wartime national agricultural policies. Lectures will be given by members of the staff of the Agricultural Experimental Station and members of the NAGASAKI Prefecture Agricultural Section, (NOMUKA) and the NAGASAKI Prefecture Agricultural Association.
ITEM 2 Electric Bulbs Will Soon Be On Market - Kahoku Shimpo (SENDAI) - 12 Dec. 45 Translator : R. Shibata.
Full Translation:
Manufacture of electric light bulbs began on 11 December in a factory connected with the TOKI Electric Industry Company, which is located on HASIKURA-Dori in SENDAI. The corporation is the only electric light bulb manufacturing plant in the TOHOKU District.
The factory was the only one left undamaged by bombs, among similar workshops which the TOKI Electric Company had moved to SENDAI to avoid air raid damage. It now has a monthly capacity for manufacturing 90,000 bulbs, and in the future it intends to turn out 200,000 special bulbs as well, for use in electric-cars and railway vehicles. At present, the factory is manufacturing three standard size bulbs of 15, 20 and 25 watts. By next spring they will begin the manufacture of bright glass globes of the 200 watt grade, and will start servicing used bulbs.
Mr. KATO, managing director of the corporation, said, "The manufacture [illegible]bulbs entails considerable difficulty because of the short gas supply. Fortunately we have a good quantity of materials in stock. We intend to establish a glass manufacturing factory, which is vital for electric light bulb manufacturers." He also said that his corporation, upon completion of the glass factory, would be able to distribute products throughout the entire TOHOKU District. For the present, he said that the company intends to distribute these products among the people of SENDAI, because it was so badly damaged by the war, and also among the people of other cities in his prefecture.

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ECONOMIC SERIES 84 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Process for the Approval of the Agrarian Land Reform Bill-Commentary - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 16 Dec. 45 Translator: T. Okanura.
The much discussed Farmland Reform Bill was approved after slight amending at the plenary session of the House of Representatives. The Bill will be submitted for further deliberation to the House of Peers on 16 December.
Slight though the amendment was, it may be regarded a considerable concession to landlords by the Government, in view of the social situation now prevailing in JAPAN. The reason this much discussed bill has been approved without much amendment is largely due to the fact that the government plan had the backing of a directive issued by the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces. Disputes and discussions during cobinet meetings and the Diet sessions involved the following problems: 1. Extent of land acreage to be held by landlords; 2. Payment of farm rent in kind, and methods for deciding the rates of farm rent in cash; 3. Increase of governmental subsidies to farmers to increase production; 4. Approval or disapproval of the re-renting of land by tenants; and 5. Organization of agricultural committees in cities, towns, and villages.
The original plan of the ministry of Agriculture and Forestry provided that an average of three chobu of land be held by individual land lords but the Cabinet ministers amended it to five chobu. At the rate of three chobu, the total amount of land to which the bill would apply comes 1,500,000 chobu, while at the rate of five chobu, the amount totals one million chobu, making a difference of 500,000 chobu.
The Socialist Party supported the original plan of the Ministry of Agriculture and Industry, while the Government insisted upon fiver chobu on the ground that land assignment may be settled by mutual understanding between landlords and tenants, even if the basis is fixed at five chobu. Although both the Progressive and the Liberal Parties did not oppose the five chobu plan, the former propased that the amount of land should not exceed five chobu. The propasal also provided that the acreage be not less than 3.8 chobu, while the Government insisted that not less than five chobu be set as the basis.
The provisions regulating the payment of farm-rent in cash seem not to have attracted attention at first, perhaps because more farmers have now became peasant-proprietors. However, the House of Representatives did not overlook the significance of the system which is of vital importance to the landlords. Dr. MATSUMOTO, Minister Without Portfolio, is a firm supporter of the payment of farm-rent in cash, and he proposed at the cabinet meeting the cancellation of an article providing for payments in kind found in the original draft of the bill prepared by the ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. But the supporters of the payment in kind plan influenced the others and the Progressives insisted upon the insertion of a clause providing, that payment in kind shall be permitted by mutual agreement between landlards and tenants. Payment in cash will lose its significance if payment in kind is permitted, since most agricultural leaders in rural districts are feudalistic landlords.
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ECONOMIC SERIES 84 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The Liberal Party insisted on the amendment of the second clause of article nine to read as follows: "Farm rent may be contracted, received and paid for in cash or by any other medium. In cases where tenants and landlords are unable to agree the Agrarian Land Committee, which will be established in all towns and villages, shall render the final decision."
Under the intervention of the Government, this propasal was again revised to the effect that tenants may pay in kind upon obtaining the approval or their landlords. The original plan was to set the cash payment basis at 55 yen per koku, for the rice crop of 1945, but the progressives insisted that it be fixed at 75 yen, which is the price at which it is sold to the consumers. The reason for this is attributed to the fact that landlords will be compelled to be consumers and that they can not afford a difference of 20 yen. The Government, however explaines that it intended to support the price of 55 yen as it did not wish to confuse landlords with consumers. However, it finally, acceded to the proposal of the Progressive Party and fixed the rate at 75 yen. On this basis, the rent which landlords may receive will be raised 18 to 20 percent, if the rice crop produced from a field of one tan is two koku, and farm rent by payment in kind is one koku. Thus the approval by the Government of the farm rent at 75 yen is really a major concession.
The ministry of Agriculture and Forestry conducted negotiations with the Ministry of Finance in connection with the 190 yen subsidy to be granted by the Government for either paddy or non-paddy fields. The Progressive Party demanded that the amount be increased in accordance with the present farm rent situation, which means an increase to about 500 yen. The Government opposed this proposal on the grounds that subsidies should be calculated at the established government rates (farm rent fixed by the government is much cheaper than the rates actually being paid). The Liberal Party suggested that the amount be increased to lessen the burden sustained by the tenants. This proposal may be regarded as quite progressive, in view of the attitude of the party shown toward the payment of farm rent in cash, but we feel that this proposal is a mere political gesture to insure favorable results in the next general election. The proposal aims to please tenants at the expense of the Nation without any loss to the landlords.
The Government, in accordance with the decision made at a cabinet meeting, inserted a clause (Paragraph Three, Article Six) providing for the authorization and transfer of ownership, rights to lease, surface rights and other similar privileges without obtaining the permission from prefectural governors, mayors of cities, towns, or village heads, in cases where land is designated for agricultural purposes. According to this provision, it is possible for tenants to re-rent farmland and for urban dwellers to rent it, but there is the risk of creating a premiun on tenancy. This is the weak point in the new bill. Some Independent Party representatives submitted an amendment requesting the cancellation of this clause. The Socialislests, however, in recognition of the radical significance of the bill, supported it and urged that it be passed.
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ECONOMIC SERIES 84 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (Continued)
The role of agrarian land committees in the cities, towns, or villages has become important in putting this new bill into force. The Government proposed to organize committees of five members each, representing landlords, tenants and peasant proprietors, while the Socialist Party protested, against the Government plan, and protested against selecting these committee members by classes. The party suggested an election system with peasants as the sole participants. The Progressive Party advocated the inclusion of three persons "of high moral repute'' and experience selected by prefectural governors. It was finally agreed that the committee be composed of 18 members. We have never heard of the participation of persons "of high moral repute," though intellectuals are included in the committee. We wonder what role these three persons will play, in such committees?
In either case, the smooth execution of land reform depends upon the functioning of this agrarian land committee, not only on the bill itself. Therefore, landlords should prepare to meet the new situation, It is feared that the new bill will bring adverse results unless tenants feel that this is a vigorous and far reaching reform.
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0084, 1945-12-21.
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