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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0074, 1945-12-18.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0365

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUATERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
NO. 365 Date: 18 Dec 1945

ECONOMIC SERIES: 74

ITEM 1 Impationt Ships Only 60% Operated - Provincial Newspaper, Kahokn Shimbun (SENDAI) - 10 December 45 Translator; H. Shindo.
Full Translation:
At present, the TOHOKU Destrict which includes six prefectures, contains the following seaworthy ships required for passenger and cargo service:
MIYAGI-Ken AOMORI-Ken
SHIOGAMA Port…..36 Ships HACHINOHE Port…..13 Ships
ISHIMAKI…………..48 AOMORI……………………..132
MEKAWA…………..23 AKITA-KEN
KISENUMA………... 26 FUNAKA[illegible]………………...A 7
IWATE-Ken YAMAGATA-Ken
OFUNATO…………. 27 SAKATA……………………….. 9
MIYAKO…………… 24
KAMAISHI………… 19

These total 384 ships and 18,000 gross metric tons, and include 266 sailboats, 103 ferryboats and l5 tugboats. Only 30 per cent of these ships were in operation in September, 40 per cent in October and some 45 per cent in November, the poorest record ever found in TOHOKU district.
Though during the war, the shortage of fuel oil war one of the greatest obstacles to navigation, this has been overcome. For the TOHOKU Navigation Bureau has permitted the ration of 50 metric tons of fuel oil per month since the war's end, which is equivalent to half the greatest amount ever required. What is more, oil has been released from the Army and Navy depots. Then, why is such a small percentage of these ships in operation?
Some thought it was due to the Allies holding in custody all available ships. But such an impression is a mistaken one. Although the Allied Powers took into custody all the ships above 100 tons, they have given permission for the necessary navigation of ships below that tonnage. By and large, the above listed ships have remained out of Allied custody owing to their low tonnage.
Now, people in the TOHOKU District as well as in others are entirely indifferent to sea transportation. Both the HOKKAI and TOHOKU Navigation Bureaus, and the Shipping Operation Association are sparing no effort to turn from rail to sea transportation of vital goods, i.e., timber, charcoal, cement, fuel, vegetables and stable foods between prefectures and islands of JAPAN. But the stubbornness of the widespread preference of rail, and motor to sea transport still remains to be modified.

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ECONOMIC SERIES 74 (Continued)
ITEM 2 The Labor Union Law Bill - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 13 Dec. 45 Translator: R. Shibata.
Full Translation:
An interesting discussion occurred at the meeting of the House of Representatives committee on the Labor Union Law Bill on 12 December, as Mr. MURAMATSU, Hisayoshi, Progressive, made a considerably acute interpellation upon the contents of the Bill.
(MURAMATSU)
"Should not the enactment of the Labor Union Law be preceded by measures to combat unemployment?
What is the standard wage of the labor agreement?
In cases where wage-raising by labor agreement is contrary to the price policy of the Government and results in the raising of prices, what steps should be taken?
Will tenant farmers or other employees ongoing in agricultural and marine product industries be permitted to establish labor unions?
Why are only tenant farmers excluded from the law?"
Answering these questions, the welfare Minister, ASHIDA, and the chief of the Labor Administration Bureau, TAKHASHI, made the following statements:
(The Welfare Minister)
We are planning concrete measures, based on the estimation of four million unemployed. I believe the key point for the solution to the unemployment problem is in increasing the desire of the people to work. The Government will set about, on a large scale, various undertakings for the relief of the unemployed, such as public works, building, cultivation and marine product industry. At the same time, the Government is considering a social insurance system as a relief measure for those who would be excluded from these undertakings. In addition, for the relief of the lowest class whose living standard is extremely low, we will take sufficient measures by enforcing the present at Relief Law.
The right percentage of industrial profit is a fundamental element of economic policies. It must be determined by taking into consideration the bank deposits, the bond rate and other actual conditions in various industries. It is difficult to determine by simply using the figures on the labor relations of one factory. I intend to apply the 32 provision a after a consultation with those concerned.
"A labor union needs as its premise the excistence of the relationship between employer and employee. However, tenant farmers lack such a condition. Their exclusion from establishing labor unions is due to those remarkably different situation compared to that of [illegible]laborers working in factories, etc."
(The chief of the Labor Administration Bureau, TAKAHASHI)
"The standard of the labor agreement should be within the limits

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ECONOMIC SERIES 74 (Continued)

ITEM 2 (Continued)

of the highest and the lowest wages decided by the Government. If it goes beyond this standard, it should naturally be invalid.
It is prescribed in the 33 provision that when the labor conditions of specified laborers are not adequate, the labor committee can make proposals to the administrative office. I am sure that by this provision such matters will be properly handled. In case it is feared that the demand of laborers to raise wages may have a bad affect on the employer's management. The labor committee, complying with the employer's request, will solve the matter rationally. A union for tenant farmers is not implied in this Law. However as in this Law, laborers are defined to be those who obtain their living by wages, salary or other such incomes, irrespective of the type of occupation. Some agricultural laborers such as farmhands, and employees engaging in the marine product industry are also included in the category of those recognized as being able to form labor unions."
During the afternoon committee meeting, the following interpellations and answers were interchanged between Mr. MASAKI, Kiyoshi, Social Democrat, Welfare Minister, ASHIDA, and the Chief of the Laborer Administration Bureau, TAKAHASHI.
(MASAKI)
"What are the measures to be taken in case a general strike should break out in the TOKYO suburban railways or in case of a labor dispute at a colliery?
What will happen in such cases when the administrative office committee should be unacceptable to either laborers, or capitalists?
What are the components and substance of the Labor committee which is to manage the important business prescribed in the 27 provision of this law?
What is the opinion of the authorities in regard to the facts that company unions are now being formed in every district, and that capitalists are lacking in zeal for the restoration of industries?"
(Gist of answers by the Welfare Minister, ASHIDA, and the chief of the Labor Administration Bureau, TAHAKASHI.)
For the labor disputes in public enterprises, we intend to expand the extent of compulsory arbitration by revising the present Labor Dispute Arbitration Act. However, we are not in a position to do soat present. Therefore, we can consider another method such as to call for volunteers from the metroplis and have them act on the labor committee.
In case no approval could be obtained by any method from both laborers and capitalists in the arbitration committee, the administrative office may use its own descretion to request proper persons for arbitration committees.
The proposal to establish a bureau under the central labor committee

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ECONOMIC SERIES 74 (Continued)

ITEM 2 (Continued)

has been submitted to us by the Labor Law Deliberation Committee and we intend to conduct an effective bureau, selecting men of ability as its members. In addition, we also intend to establish the same organization under the local labor committee.
Whether to use authoritative power on these capitalists or not is a matter to be decided later."
The Welfare Minister, ASHIDA, answered Mr. MASAKI, Kiyoshi's interpellation regarding the wage problem of laborers as follows:
It may be a difficult task to decide maximum and minimum wages as the changes of rising prices are so acute; however, we are now studying this problem. It will be decided as the occasion arises."
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