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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0050, 1945-12-07.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0250

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSTSLATIONS
No. 250 Date: 7 Dec 45

ECONOMIC SERIES: 50

ITEM 1 Curtailment of Train Service - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 4 Dec 45. Translator K. Sato.
Extracts:
Reduction of Passenger Service.

"Passenger traffic will be cut to half of its present load and will be in a worse condition than it was in June of 1945.
The TOKAIDO and SANYO Lines will operate only two round trips and the TOHOKU Line will operate only one round trip.
Effort will be made to retain long distance through trains:
More than a 50 per cent cut of branch lines and short distance lines will be effected, with the result that some lines will make one or two round trips daily, or just enough for the regular daily passengers.
As many cars as possible will be coupled together on passenger and freight trains to economize on coal consumption.
Curtailment of Freight Train Service.
The number of cars attached to one train are to be increased to the maximum but the total number of freight trains is to be reduced as much as possible.
The sending of empty cars on runs, and the operation of upgrade railroad lines is to be avoided. Circuitous routes are to be used instead even though more time will be needed.
The transportation of special freights may be stopped.
Other Measures for Relief of the Coal Situation.
Promotion of coal production.
Priority of transportation for coal miners.
Direct management of coal mines by the railway for its own purpose.
Sending of railwaymen to coal mines to give assistance.
Reducing Expenses.
Full utilization coal (to use above 90 per cent of pulling capacity of locomotives).
Utmost control of all heating systems.
Strict enforcement of a coal-saving campaign. (Promotion of engine repairing skills, prohibition of inferior engineers).



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ECONOMIC SERIES 50 (continued)

ITEM 1 (continued)
Travel Restrictions. In accordance with the curtailment of the number of passenger trains, the following controls will be instituted. The concrete measures will be published later.
Reduce the number of tickets sold to 50 percent of present sales.
Prohibition of the use of students' season tickets on steam lines, control of season tickets in general.
Strict control of the baggage carried into trains by season ticket holders.

ITEM 2 Establishment of Reparation Law and the Governments' Preparation for Reparation - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 4 Dec 45. Translator: S. Kinoshita.
Summary:
The reparation problem, having close relation with postwar JAPAN, is arousing the interest of the general public.
In view of progress being made in the work of the Allied Reparation Commission, the Japanese Government is drafting plans relative to reparation matters. The Government announced that it will establish a Reparation Liaison Commission (BAISHO RENRAKU I-INKAI) in the Foreign Office. The projected commission is to be composed of vice-ministers and chief secretaries of bureaus of the ministries concerned, and will be charged with formulating fundamental measures relative to reparation problems. It will be launched as soon as the directive of Supreme Headquarters is dispatched. In addition, the Government is drafting a bill for a Reparations Law (BAISHO HO) which provides for reparations, and a bill for the establishment of a special accounting office for reparation, which will conduct all the relative financial matters. It will function independently of other Government accounting offices. These two bills will be submitted to the next Diet session.
The Government also announced that the Ministry of Finance, handling financial matters and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, handling matters on reparation, will join the Foreign Office in handling reparations.
ITEM 3 Government Decides to Halve Passenger Trains on and After Dec. 15; Express Trains to be Cut to Three - Asahi Shimbun - 4 Dec 45. Translator Okuyama Service.
Extracts:
The changed train schedule enforced on and after 20 November aiming at an increase in passenger trains will not serve to ease the difficult transportation situation for longer than one month because the Government has decided to bring about an unprecedented decrease in the number of trains on, and after, December 15 on account of the alarming coal shortage.
The details of a new time schedule have not yet been revealed, but the passenger trains are to be reduced by half and the freight trains by
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ECONOMIC SERIES 50 (Continued)
ITEM 3 (continued)
30 per cent. Heretofore, all trains, including special trains and trains for the transportation of Allied forces, have covered a total of more than 350,000 kilometers, which is expected to decrease by one-third to 240,000 kilometers, according to the new time tables. The passenger capacity wild be less than the minimum capacity throughout the war as was seen on June 10. This will paralyze the railway service which the Government authorities have endeavored to readjust with the sole view of stabilizing the life of the people, and will produce a wide social effect by forcing the schools to close, and making it impossible for people to transport food from the country areas.
The Railway Bureau of NIIGATA has already reduced by 30 per cent the number of passenger trains on the lines under its control and the other railway bureaus are planning to follow suit by degrees. On 1 December the Railway Bureau of TOKYO cut the number of tickets for sale by 30 per cent, and people desiring to travel are seen thronging the ticket windows, or over-flowing in trains. People have to put up with the present miserable situation until January of next year when the coal situation is likely to become better.
ITEM 4 Redistribution of Rice among Farmers and Special Distribution of Fertilizer Assumed by Agricultural Minister - Nippon Sangye-Keizai - 4 Dec 45. Translator: J. Okamura
Summary:
Fundamental agricultural policies of the Government to meet the food crisis were agreed upon by the Liberal Party when two representatives of the party conferred with Agriculture and Foresty Minister OGASAWARA at the Diet on 3 November.
In light of the answer which the Minister gave to an interpellation by Mr. NISHIO, Suehiro on 29 November at the plenary session of the House of Representatives, Messrs. ANDO, Masazumi and KOHNO, Ichiro representing the Liberal Party, interviewed Minister OGASAWARA at 1300 to ascertain his views on the ground that his reply made at the recent session may give rise to a misunderstanding of the peasants situation.
The views which the party representatives revealed to the minister are summarized in the following three points:
According to the minister's explanation, the Government plans a 100 per cent utilization of all food in case the importation of foods becomes impossible. However, JAPAN'S food situation can not be solved without importation. The utilization of all food must be conducted, even if imports are realized.
The redistribution of rice among individual farmers used to bring disputes every year. At the report that the Government would redistribute rice among farmers who offer rice for sale, prefectural governors have requested farmers to deliver their crop, but some farmers intend to receive distribution even though they have enough cereals. These acts are an injustice to honest farmers. To overcome the food crisis the Government should collect rice temporarily from

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ECONOMIC SERIES 50 (continued)

ITEM 4 (continued)

among the stocks which farmers are authorized to store for their consumption, and when foods are imported, the Government should return the rice to the farmers who offered reserve stocks.
Though the Government plans to distribute fertilizer among farmers who have discharged their assigned duties, measures to be taken with regard to chose farmers who have been unable to contribute their crops due to a poor harvest have not been considered. The Ministry of Agriculture and Foresty estimates the production of 360,000 metric tons of fertilizer by next July, while The Chemical Fertilizer Manufactures anticipates production at 300,000 tons, and the JAPAN Fertilizer Manufacturing Company gives a figure of 200,000 tons. "What do the Government authorities think about these differences?

Minister MATSUMURA revealed his opinions which were accepted by these party representatives. The Liberal Party members agreed to co-operate in every respect with the Government to meet the food crisis. The highlights of Minister MATSUMURA'S views were: A minimum amount of three million tons of foodstuffs for import, according to a government request made to Allied Headquarters must be realized, for, unless these foods are imported, we can not overcome the crucial food crisis. This figure was submitted to the Supreme Command before 15 September on the basis of investigations conducted prior to the month of September. Even at that, however, we did not anticipate the poor harvest we see at present. It is anticipated that the Government will be able to maintain a 2.3 go rice ration if rice products this year reach the 48 million koku mark, but the recent estimate shows further decline, which compels us to lower the rice ration to 2.1 go.
"In view of these facts," the Minister declared, "rice will still be short, even if three million tons of food is imported. For this shortage, we are preparing a 'mobilization of all edibles for utilization,'" He expressed regret for arousing misunderstanding in his inadequate explanations.
Regarding the suggestions in an above paragraph (2), the Minister revealed his views, saying, "I am well aware that there is an earnest demand to allow farmers to keep ample stocks for their own consumption, at the sane time avoiding the redistribution system. We wanted to put this fundamental policy into effect for the current harvest year, but because of the present crucial situation, the Government has to resort to the latter system." He said that he would consider this point in further detail and would take adequate measures.
In connection with the problem of fertilizer, Minister MATSUMURA assured the production of chemical fertilizer as scheduled by the Government, if every one does his best. In his opinion, manufacture of sulphate of ammonia in JAPAN has been and still is very slack, due to the war. Manufacturers apparently lost their zeal to produce during and after the war. "Under these circumstances," Mr. MATSUMURA went on, "there are conspicuous differences in the amounts of products from time to time, but I am sure that they can turn out the estimated amount if we encourage their industries, by distributing enough raw materials, and granting subsidies. If manufacturing is started one month earlier, the results will be better.
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ECONOMIC SERIES 50 (continued)
ITEM 4 (continued)
Speaking of the special distribution of fertilizer, the Minister said, "some people say that special distribution of fertilizer will bring unfavorable results, but I disagree with this. When I made a short trip to the rural districts recently, I found most farmers could not obtain what they wanted, unless they paid in kin, not in cash. To obtain fertilizer, especially were they compelled to resort to barter." He said he had put this into effect so as to eliminate such unlawful acts of bartering.
It was decided at a recent cabinet meeting that coal will be supplied preferentially to the fertilizer manufacturers. The Ministries of Transportation, and Commerce and Industry, and the fertilizer manufacturers, all formally decided that for the manufacture of nitralime, 50,000 tons of coke will be brought from HOKKAIDO. Regarding price control, Minister MATSUMURA said that the Government did not intend to cancel the fixed prices of fertilizer for the time being, but he said he was encouraging the manufacturers to produce, regardless of the cost.
DISTRIBUTION "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0050, 1945-12-07.
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