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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0013, 1945-11-13.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0070

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOR THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 70 Date: 13 Nov. 45

ECONOMIC SERIES: 13

ITEM 1 October Output of Ammonium-Sulphate test 12,000 Tons - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 13 Nov 15. Translator: Z. Konishi.
Full Translation:
The production of ammonium sulphats was gradually expanded toward the beginning of October, and the total output that month rose to 12,000 tons because of the beginning of operations by the JAPAN [illegible]company ([illegible]I[illegible]ON-CRISC OO.), MIZUMATA-Factory, and. the SUMITOMO chemical company. NIRAMA-Factory, which progressed to the point where they doubled their September output of 5,600 tons.
Moreover the two factories of NIITO-KAGAKU at YO O[illegible]MA and RACHIDO are scheduled to start production in November. The October output for each company is as follows:
JAPAN Chemical Products Company (TOYAMA) - 6,200 tons.
JAPAN Nitrates Company (KIZUMATA) - 1,200 tons.
TOYO Electrical Company ([illegible]) - 300 tons.
U[illegible]E Development Company[illegible]- 400 tons.
TOA-SY[illegible]TICS or Amal[illegible]Company (GOSEI) (MAGOYA) - 1,000 tons.
TO[illegible]- Fertilizer Company (A[illegible]ITA) - 400 tons.
SUMITOMO[illegible]Chemical Company ([illegible]) - 2,000 tons
Japan Steel Manufacturing Company (YAMATA) ([illegible]ATA) ([illegible]) - 30 tons.
ITEM 2 Crop Quota - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 13 Nov 45. Translator K. Sato.
Summary:
Agriculture & Forestry Minister Visits Saitama Prefecture.
Agriculture and Finance Minister [illegible]visited SAITMA Prefecture yesterday to encourage the crop quota system operating there. After marking a fall survey of the food situation in that prefecture, he visited GISRIMA-MURA in MANAMI SAITAMA-GUN and then drove to MATSUSE-MURA [illegible]-GUN. He discussed this year's food problems with the farmers and listened to their opinions. The farmers gathered together in their working clothes, and talked the matter over with the minister. He came back to TOKYO with much important information, and the farmers were greatly encouraged by his visit. His visit will aid greatly in making the crop quota system a success in that prefecture.

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 2 (Continued)
Rice Crop in SAITA[illegible]A Expected to be Above 1,258,000 KOKU.
According to the statistics of 20 September, the rice crop in SAITA[illegible]A prefecture is expected to be 1,219,000 KOKU, but according to the statistics made by the prefectural Agriculture Section, an increase of 46,900.KOKU is shown. The farmer figures are adjusted figures presented by village and town offices and are not correct.
Food Stuff assignment Committee ([illegible]) in SAIZUOMA Prefecture.
In order to solve the difficult problem of food allotment in post-war JAPAN, the S[illegible]-Prefectural Government selected a committee composed of 12 members from among the serious-minded farmers in that prefecture. The same Government also issued an order to select seven committee members from each GUN, C[illegible]O and MURA respectively. The above mentioned prefectural committee is composed of seven outstanding farmers having actual experience in food affairs, end two other officials.
Special Measures for Shipping Beef
The SHIZUOKA Prefectural Government has set up the special measure for shipping beef in order to induce the marketing of cattle meat. As a result, people will be able to acquire more albumen and fat. According to this measure ¥4o of help for each ox or cow and ¥15 per pig, in addition to the fixed price, is offered by way of encouragement. This expence will be met by the contribution of the Meat Control union of the same prefecture.
Early allotment of Rice In [illegible]This Year Is Very Successful.
The result of the early delivery of the Government rice quota. This year has been extraordinarily successful in spite of successive rain and floods. The government expected only 50 percent of the quota, but by the earnest efforts of the farmers 12,359 bales or 93.3 percent out of an assigned quota of 13,250 bales of rice were delivered.
In [illegible]4,475 hales were presented in place of the assigned quota of 3,000. The Prefectural Government is planning to distribute necessary clothing and other essential stuffs to the farmers as a remuneration.
Rice quota in CHIBA Prefecture to be above 890,000 KOKU.
The combined rice delivery quota in CHIBA Prefecture has been set at 802,000 KOKU. This year, 333,000 KOKU less than that of last year. This is due to a shortage of 250,000 KOKU below last year's actual harvest. However, 60,000 demobilized soldiers have returned to the villages and the reduction in the government quota is not being recognized. Hence, pressing situation in government quota percentage has been created.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 3 Five Go of Rice To Be Supplied to Mining Workers - Mainichi Shimbun - 13 Nov 45. Translator: S. S. Mnoshita.
Summary:
The first committee meeting of the Coal Industry Planning Commission, held on 10 November 1945, arrived at the following decisions, which will be put into effect shortly:
Settlement of Mine Dispute: Thanks to local mediation by the Occupation Forces of mine disputes involving Chinese and Korean workers are coming to a settlement. The Commerce an Industry Ministry authorities are also investigating the matter. The commission is desirous of settling the matter on the basis of compromise between capital on labor.
Food Secured: In view of the special character of mine labor, 2.5 GO of rice will be supplied, in addition to the ordinary ration of 2.5 GO, thereby ma[illegible]ing a total food ration of five GO per day.
Reasonable Wage: Wage of underground workers should be set indiscrimately 50 percent higher than that of workers above ground. The standard wages of the latter is 6.80 yen a day; hence 12.24 yen should be the standard wage of the farmer.

The Welfare Minister made a statement on the coal crisis as follows:- The output of coal has been [illegible]eclinin since the end of the war, and the total output during October is only 600,000 tons, which is one seventh of the average production during the war. This decrease is mainly due to the shortage of labor caused by the return of Chinese and Korean workers to their homeland or because of change of employment. I earnestly desire that all the people, especially repatriated soldiers, co-operate to tide the nation over this coal crisis.
ITEM 4. Talk of the Agriculture and Forestry Minister - Mainichi Shimbun - 14 Nob 45. Translator: Y. Kurata.
Summary:
Through his recent inspection trip in the CHIBA and SAITAMA-Prefecture, the minister of Agriculture & Forestry uncovered a good deal of hitherto unpublicized facts. First is the difficulty of disposing of more than [illegible]ba[illegible]s [illegible]YO) of wheat and barley formerly stored up for the military purposes.
Second is the farmer's attitude toward the delivery of the rice crop. The farmers say, they would exert strenuous efforts, in this direction if they could make the Minister understand the problems involved.
Minister MATSUKURA and the chief of the Foodstuff Management Bureau, [illegible]AMIKA[illegible]A, after their investigation trip both expressed the following views on the food problem:
The Overseas Food Situation: In view of the oversea food situation, only imports from KOREA (especially from South KOREA) are available. The rice crop there is so favorable this year that its total will

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)

ITEM 4 (Continued)

amount to l6,000,000 KOKU, of which exports of at least 3,000,000 KOKU are deemed possible. Although, there is also a favorable rice crop in MANCAURIA, NORTR CHINA, and other regions such as [illegible]SA, [illegible]I [illegible]DO-CHINA and SIAM, imports from there must not be expected. The surplus of rice capable of being collected in the Far East seems to be approximately 100 tons.

If the importation of wheat from AMERICA, CANADA, and AUSTRALIA, is permitted, it will not be able to meet the present critical food situation, owing to the serious lack of shipping.
Increased Production of Raw Silk: Raw silk, estimated at 500,000,000 or 600,000,000 yen in price, is expected to be the most suitable product for export in return for imports. Accordingly, growing the mulberry trees will procure foodstuffs, now that the American raw silk demand is estimated at about 200,000 bales.
Reorganization of the Agricultural Association; This must be undertaken during the coming extraordinary Diet, and a new plan must be submitted.
Size of Sweet Potato & Wheat Crops: The total size of the sweet potato crop is only 1,380,000,000 KAN, of which 550,000,000 KAN are to remain in the farmers' possession for their own consumption. Two hundred eighty million KAN are to be set aside for food, and 530,000,000 KAN are to be used in the production of alcohol in the making of bean paste, and will be rationed as vegetables. As for wheat and barley, the crop will be 11.400.000 KOKU through 1946, of which approximately 9,400,000 KOKU will be used up in making flour to serve as a main foodstuff.
Privately Owned Rice and The Pooling. Ration System: Since this year's rice crop delivery is fixed at 300,000,000 KOKU, farmers will be able to consume only l60,000,000 KOKU, for their own use provided this year's rice crop is 460,000,000 KOKU. There is no inequality in this step, for this proportion is to be applied only to rice, but not to other crops such as wheat barley, sweet potatoes, etc. Besides, the pooling ration system which will get underway in some regions this year, may clarify matters.
Fertilizer: Superphosphate fertilizer is unavailable, but the increased production of nitrogen and ammonium sulphate, and research into substitutes for the above mentioned fertilizers are now underway and must be speeded up. As a result, the amount of fertilizer to be rationed in the next year should be increased.
Revision of Wheat Price: An increase in the price of wheat must be made to correspond with the price of rice.
Agricultural Implements and Necessary Commodities: It is planned that those who have completed the delivery of their crops, should be rationed agricultural implements and necessary commodities in so far as possible. Investigations in this connection are now underway.

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 5 Reorganization of the Central Aquatic Industries Association - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - l4 Nov 45. Translator: Z. Konishi.
Summary: [illegible]
A bill for the revision of the Marine Industry Association's Law (SUISAN DANTAI-RO), which is the basis of the Central Marine Industries Association (CRUOSUISANGYO-KAI), and its subordinate groups, is now under consideration by the Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry. The Association is also undergoing internal reorganization. At present there are disputes between the Marine Industry and the fishermen.
If control over the fresh fish and shell fish industries is abolished, the organization of the central organization must also be changed. A revision of the Association's law (DANTAI-HO), alone will not bring about democratic practices in the fishing industry.
The Central Marine Industry Association officials will hold a conference on 17 November to discuss these problems.
ITEM 6 Severe Coal Shortage In Iron Industry Makes it Difficult to Keep Furnaces Going - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 14 Nov 45. Translator: T. Kitagawa.
Summary:
On Monday at the office off the Iron and steel Control Association try Mining Bureau representatives of the. Commerce and Industry Ministry conferred with iron industry experts and members of the control association. They reached the conclusion that the shortage of coal sould compel the closing of several plants before long. According to the report, it is impossible to procure the 73,000 metric tons of coal which is the minimum requirement for keeping eight ready furnaces going for the month of November. Their struggle to get more coal for steel production, the coal shortage has become critical.
The problem of which furnaces can be taken out of operation without causing damage to them is being carefully studied.
ITEM 7 Present aspect of farm-horses in the GUMMA and CHIBA-Prefectures - Nippon-Sangyo-Keizai - 14 Nov 45. Translator: T. Mitsuhashi.
Full Translation:
The horse-breeding plan of the GUMMA Prefecture set up during the war was aimed at producing 30,000 horses by the end of 1950. Through every possible effort 20,000 have been produced. It had been planned to secure an additional stock of 5,000 by this Month from the following:
Yearlings born this spring, 1,900.
War-horses sold by the government, 2,100.
Horses born in the KOKKAIDO prefecture, 300.
Others 700.
At the war's end, because of the great decline in price it secured as if it would be difficult to dispose to 1,000 state-owned farm-horses, leased from the government, and 700 horses distributed within the prefecture.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 7 (Continued)
However, the price has increased to as much as 2,000 yen, owing to the increased demand for home made fertilizer and the use of horses for food. Thus the number of the state-owned farm-horses for lease decreased to 500 against a demand for 1,000. The prefecture is now endeavoring by every means to fulfill the demand for 3,000 horses.
(CHIBA) One hundred fifty state-owned horses were rationed out to the CHIBA-Prefecture. A member of the Federation of Horse Dealers Unions went to the NISHINASUNO Live Stock Market and the KUROBA market both located at the TOCAIGI-Prefecture to purchase yearling horses. The member reported that he could hardly purchase half the rationed number as the owners were unwilling to offer colts at the official price and only a few colts were offered for sale at the market.
These horses are to be leased by the Federation to farm-villages, 50 going to KATORI, 50 to RYOSO to YAMATAKE, in CHIBA etc. The ration will be decreased if half the expected numbers cannot be purchased.
ITEM 8 Importation of Raw Cotton - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - l4 Nov 45. Translator: S. Iwata.
Extracts:
A Round table discussion between Major TATE, of General Headquarters, and members of the cotton industry was held at the Fibre Control Association Council room, 13 November 1945. The members of the various companies discussed such problems as the present situation of the companies and the lack of raw material. Major TATE gave them favorable answers.
He explained that written application for the importation of raw cotton must be submitted in accordance with the order issued by General Headquarters, dated 3 November 1945, and advised them to reapply, making clear that this problem is handled separately from that of food.
ITEM 9 Sufficient Distribution of all Kinds of Fertilizer, next year - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 14 Nov 45. Translator: S. Iwata.
Extracts:
Agriculture and Forestry Minister MATSUMURA declared a conference for increasing the supply rice in SHIZUOKA-Prefecture held 12 November 1945, that the supply of fertilizer in 1946 will be greater than in 1945.
The monthly output of nitrogenous fertilizer was only 8,000 metric tons just before the war ended as there was only undamaged factory, but the amount that can be distributed for next year's rice crop will be two KAN (KAN = 8.28 lbs) of nitrogenous manure and two KAN of superphosphate of lime per TAN (TAN = 0.245 acre). The amount that can be distributed for next year's wheat crop is four KAN of nitrogenous fertilizer and three and a half KAN of superphosphate of lime per TAN.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 9 (Continued)
But it will be somewhat risky to distribute superphosphate of lime as the raw materials must be imported. However, the supply of nitrogenous fertilizer will be certain if the factories are repaired.
ITEM 10 Mr. KIYOSHI GOHKO & Mr. RYOZO ASANO Comment on the factory conversion from war time into peace time system - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 14 Nov 45. Translator: T. Okamura.
Summary:
Regarding government policy toward conversion of war-time to peace time industry, Minister of Commerce and Industry OGASAWARA, Mr. Kiyoshi GOHKO, (Chairman of the Board of Directors of the MITSUBISHI Heavy Industry Company), and Mr. Ryozo ASANO, (president of the NIPPON Steel Turbine Company), expressed their views as follows: (TN: Their opinions are regarded as representative of the industrial circles of JAPAN.)
Mr. GOHKO, who supports the necessity of rational compensation for such conversion, declared that during war-time Industrial people did their utmost to increase production, but with the advent of peace, no further orders were issued by the government nor could they expect the government's protection. He further states, "All industrialists have to draw up a plan of management on their own initiative". It is, therefore, necessary to foresee lasting demands in order to initiate enterprises by investment.
Ammunition Corporations must have large scale equipment and production capacity, as the war necessitates consumption, on a large scale, but peace time industry cannot indefinitely expand its enterprises nor increase its production since consumption is limited".
The industrial veteran attributed the sluggish progress of conversion to the conservation of industrialists who are afraid of over-production when all labor, materials and equipment of war-time factories are connected to peace time industrial purposes. Even if industrialists want to continue operation, they can not produce due to the scarcity of materials and labor. Another obstruction is that they can not faretell the supply of raw materials, especially iron and coal. Some promoters hesitate to resume their activities, as they can not tell to what extent government subsidies for losses are to be granted.
Some are reluctant, as compensation subsidies are not paid at the proper time. Especially to those whose equipment was expanded by outside investments during they war, the conservative compensation policy is fatal, and they are unable to resume their operation.
Mr. GOHKO entertains the opinion that those who insist on the suspension of compensation subsidies are rather too idealistic and sensitive. He said, "some oppose the step that the government give compensation subsidies on the ground that it accelerates inflation, but in my opinion it is an unfounded observation. Of course, I do not agree with the opinion that every kind of loss caused by
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 10 (Continued)
governmental orders must be compensated. In short, the establishment of a rational compensation system with a national viewpoint must be taken to promoted the reconstruction of a new JAPAN. It will, at the same time, contribute towards curbing inflation.
Mr. GOHKO thinks that the wholesale suspension of compensation would bring forth the collapse of enterprise, the decline of productive capacity, and a rise in prices. In his opinion, in such cases the cost of products will rise, as the industrialists have to pay increasing interest on loans. "In this way" Mr. GOHKO said in conclusion, "subsidies to be issued as adequate compensation to munition corporations are not issued directly among the people, but they are absorbed by financial organizations (possibly Banks) for the munition companies. Thus, the grant of compensation subsidies will not be a determining cause in inflation".
Mr. Ryozo ASANO attributed the suspension of production by many major factories since the end of war to the lack of materials, labor, and to the high cost of production. He gave other causes as follows:
"The Japanese are bewildered or absent-minded at the sudden change of the situation resulting from the wholesale defeat. They cannot distinguish between enterprises which they may carry on or may not, because of the lack of mutual understanding between the UNITED STATES and JAPAN, which comes from the difference of languages and feelings."
He pointed out, as third and fourth reasons, the scarcity of materials and the frequent absence of workers who are suffering from the shortage of food supplies and shelter. The loss of control maintaining during war-time, and the subsequent confusion of demand and supply were also fundamental causes. "Selling prices are still fixed, while the relationship between demand and supply of other free price commodities has not been clearly distinguished. Industrialists cannot foresee when the compensation problem will be solved, nor can they foresee the future supply of raw materials such as coal and iron. Suspension in the recovery of transportation facilities is also counted among the reasons".
Speaking of his own corporation, Mr. ASANO declared, "At the command of the government, we expanded our workshops as far as possible during the war, but we are quite at a loss as how to manage such expanded installations rationally when the war is over. We are, however, trying our utmost to function, but we soon come across the problem of the shortage of raw material.
"The supply of coal is so scarce that we have put under control two smelting furnaces at the KAWASAKI and TSURUMI Iron Workshops. The only workshop being operated now is the number six Iron Plate Factory. Thus, as a result of the poor supply of coal, many large scale plants have to suspend operations."
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)
ITEM 11 A trial cultivation of sweet potato in the IBARAGI prefecture - Nihon-Sangyo-Keizai - l4 Nov 45. Translator: T. Mitsuhashi.
Full Translation:
The Agricultural Experiment Station of IBARAGI prefecture disclosed the results of a trial cultivation of sweet potatoes made throughout the prefecture after test digging in most parts. The harvests on the trial areas yielded about 30 per cent less per TAN as compared with an average yearly figure as follows: (the following are the names of the different varieties of potatoe employed in the experiment)
(KAN = 8.28 pounds.)
IBARAGI No. 1 500 to 700 KAN
HANGO 400 to 500 KAN
KANTO No. 3 500 to 600 KAN
TAIHAKU 400 to 500 KAN
NORIN No. 1 around 400 KAN
NORIN NO. 4 400 to 500 KAN
ITEM 12 Emergency measure will be taken for increased production of food - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - l4 Nov 45. Translator: R. Aoki.
Extracts:
In order to hasten food production, the government decided at a Cabinet meeting held 13th November, to give the high priority similar to that enjoyed by the airplane industry during the war, to three industries having to do with food production. The three are: The land development, projects, the fertilizer industry, and the new foods development program.
Land development: Land easily convertible for farming purposes will be brought under cultivation in time for the planting season next spring. For this purpose, students, young men's organizations, and demobilized soldiers will be employed. All engineering departments of the Ministry of Interior and the Construction Headquarters (KENSETSU HOMBU) of the Ministry of Transportation will be requested to cooperate in this land development plan.
Rehabilitation of the fertilizer industry: The chemical fertilizer production (ammonium sulphate) in JAPAN which once reached over 2,000,000 metric tons dropped last year to 540,000 metric tons. The government has therefore decided to give priorities for obtaining materials needed for the reconstruction of fertilizer factories or the reconversion of war industries to fertilizer manufacture. Scrapped weapons returned by the Allied authorities may be used for this purpose. The suppling coal, cokes and apatite will be done by the government. To break through financial difficulties involved in fertilizer manufacture the government will grant loan privileges to fertilizer manufacturers. This will be done through the Agriculture and Forestry Central Bank (NORIN CHUO KINKO). The facilities of the Industrial Equipments Corporation (SANGYO SETSUBI EIDAN) will also be employed to the fullest extent.
Development of New Foods: The government will take necessary steps to revise the "Food Demand and Supply Special Account" to

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 13 (Continued)

ITEM 12 (Continued)

enable the government to purchase powdered food in large quantities. The manufacturies of grinding machines will be given priority for the purpose of acquiring raw materials. Finally, the government will provide the research facilities for the development of new foods.
ITEM 13 President HATOYAMA calls on MacARTHUR headquarters - Nihon-Sangyo-Keizai - l4 Nov 45. Translator: T. Mitsuhashi.
Full Translation:
Mr. HATOYAMA, l., President of JAPAN Liberal Party (NIPPON JIYUTO) who visited General MacARTHUR's Headquarter on the afternoon of 12 November, met Brigadier-General MARSHALL, Deputy Chief of staff to General MacARTHUR and on his first official meeting as Party president asked particularly for a positive help in regard to the food shortage as a representative of the people. The General declared that a reply would be made through the Japanese Government.
Distribution "X"
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0013, 1945-11-13.
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