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Press translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0010, 1945-11-14.
Supreme Commander for The Allied Powers. Allied Translator and Interpreter Section.

translation-number: economic-0051

call-number: DS801 .S81



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GENERAL HEADQUARTERS
SUPREME COMMANDER FOE THE ALLIED POWERS
ALLIED TRANSLATOR AND INTERPRETER SECTION
PRESS TRANSLATIONS
No. 51 Date: 14 Nov 45

ECONOMIC SERIES: 10

ITEM 1 Naval Krsenal to be Converted into Repair Shops and Factories for Railway - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 6 Nov 45. Translator: H. Shindo
Full translation:
The Ministry of Transportation announced that more trains are to be scheduled for passenger use. In order to repair damaged vehicles, the authorities announced that personnel of the various repair sections are being rapidly mobilized, and every effort is being made to repair cars and locomotives damaged by the air raids.
In the hope of augmenting the capacity of this section, the authorities asked the Allied Headquarters, through the Cabinet Disposition Committee, for the use of the following arsenals: the Naval Arsenal of FUKAZAWA, the First Arsenal of OMIYA, the Navy -Aerial Arsenal of KISARAZU, and others. The FUKAZAWA arsenal was the only one released by the Allied Headquarters. The Transportation Ministry renamed it OI Repairing Section OFUNA Factory of the TOKYO Transportation Board.
For the operation of OFUNA Factory two plans have been made covering the period of transfer. In the future train cars will be repaired there, but for some time to come work will be conducted according to the first plan. Repairs are to be made on the following: Train car machine parts, motor car parts, and factory equipment.
ITEM 2 Weights Measures Instruments - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 8 Nov 45 - Translator: I. Shigeki
Full translation:
The collateral asked for imported foods by the Allied Headquarters is silk and sundry items including weights and measures instruments, scales, etc. The estimated value of the exports is ¥5,000,000. It has been decided to begin shipping them from April of next year to December. The Weights, Measures, and Scales Associations of Japan have hopes that manufactures will increase production of superior weights and measures instruments, and scales for export. This is also essential for domestic use in order to increase the production of food and charcoal, and to receive light industry, thus increasing the quantity of consumer goods. The revised requested of the Department of Commerce and Industry, was recognized as an exception under Article 7, clause 2, of the control law. The Associations reported to the makers that the new price can be applied. This price will be changed to an agreed price, even if the official price system is discarded in future.

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ECONOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 3 Neighborhood Associations are Now Free to Deal with Any Distributor of Staple Foods - Mainichi Shimbun - 10 Nov 45 - Translator: T. Kitagawa
Summary:
The distribution system which has been in practice since July this year will be abolished soon by municipal authorities in view of its extreme unpopularity. Rice, bean paste, vegetable and fish have been handled by more than four hundred fixed distributors with registration by the CHO office as the unit. From 1st of December this year each neighborhood association will be free to select and register at any distributor as far as vegetable, fish, durable food (such as dried seaweed) and spices are concerned. As to the elimination of fixed distributors, it will be authorized KU heads according to neighborhood association's applications as to the special staple foods, such as rice and fuel for household use, citizens are asked to keep their old fixed registration plan, but the new arrangement of distributors may be made. Upon the abolition of standing distributors, the following steps will be taken by unions of distributors.
Vegatable: The areas subject to the reform program are Tokyo city and its four outlying towns. The number of distributors will be doubled resulting in one for every 800 families. Delivery at houses will be managed according to arrangements with neighborhood association.
Fish: The new regulation takes effect in Tokyo City and one suburb. Distribution is to be made to neighborhood associations as the units. Excess goods will be offered for sale at un-fixed prices.
Spices: Areas subject to new regulation is Tokyo city, and one distributor for every 300 households will be provided. Municipal authorities established a consultation bureau of distribution to achieve impartial and smooth distribution of indispensable articles and will advise consumers whenever asked.
ITEM 4 The Dissolution of the Four Zaibatsu and the Stock Exchange - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 10 Nov 45. Translator: H. Shindo
Summary:
A directive dated 6 November 1945 ordered the dissolution of the four great ZAIBATSU and also prohibits the transfer of securities. Attention is drawn to the fact that the four great stock-holding companies, are dissolved and their stocks are on the open market. The ZAIBATSU having vast holdings in numerous companies, their dissolution will bring vitality to the market and, at the same time, the increase of stocks to be circulated will cause a great increase in transactions in the future market. As these stocks are offered on the open market, they will be controlled by Adjustment Committee (SEISAN IINKAI) which will be allowed to dispose of the stock subject to approval by the Supreme Headquarters, in order to fix the prices and operations of the concerned. Demand from these stocks will not be as great as in the past.
The market for disposal of the stocks of the four great and fifteen lesser ZAIBATSU will be opened in the near future. The appearance of these stocks on the market will result in an unprecedented number of transactions. The opening of the market is anxiously
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 4 (Continued)
awaited. It is anticipated the general market will also be opened at the same time.
It has not been made clear whether or not the dissolution of the ZAIBATSU is defined to mean limited to only the fifteen. There are many smaller ZAIBATSU which are subsidiary companies and cannot function efficiently by themselves. In conclusion, the stability of the market in the future will indicate whether all the companies, cut from their protectors, ZAIBATSU or otherwise, can enjoy prosperity under a democratic economic management. Thus a stable, pound market must be brought about to realize that objective.
ITEM 5 Korean Salt Importation - Mainichi Shimbun - 10 Nov 45. Translator: R. Aokf
Summarny:
It has been reported that the Japanese government had been authorized the importation of 70,000 tons of salt from KOREA by the Allied Headquarters. But more recently, Allied Headquarters directed that Japanese subjects refrain from bringing back salt from KOREA. Supreme Headquarters interprets the prohibition as temporary and states that these contradictory orders as soon as they can get touch with American Military authorities in KOREA.
It has been estimated that actually only about 30,000 tons of salt will be imported from KOREA.
ITEM 6 Potato Shipment in CHIBAKEN - Mainichi Shimbun - 10 Nov 45. Translator: R. Aoki
Summary:
Because of the hordes of potato descending oh the farms, the police authorities of YOKAICHIBA-MACAI, a center of the potato producing area in CHIBA Prefecture, have suggested that TOKYO-TO or the Metropolitan Police Bureau issue buyers' certificates to such at the township or neighborhood associations. Such groups may then purchase sweet potatoes on the open market.
At the same time former members of a Balloon Unit stationed in the CHIBA area have offered to the Prefecture Agricultural Association (CHIBAKEN NOGYO KAI) of CHIBA their services in shipping potatoes to TOKYO-TO. Accordingly the Prefectural Agricultural Association has decided to ship 10,000 KAN of sweet potatoes in 10 trucks from YOKAICHIBA-MACAI to TOKYO, Where, without charge, it will be distributed to the war-sufferers and other specified groups.
ITEM 7 Compensation for Munitions Company - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 10 Nov 45. Translator: Z. Konishi
Summary:
Commerce and Industry Minister OGASAWARA spoke at NAGOYA, regarding Compensation for Munitions Companies, during an Economic Roundtable Conference, which was held under the auspices of the Commerce and Industry Economics Association, AICHI Prefecture (AICHI-KEN). His
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 7 (Continued)
statement, "Payments to be made will be made and those to be accepted will be accepted" in regards to the compensation of munitions company's losses is a noteworthy thought. As for the problem of prices of various materials, a fixed price system will be limited only to absolutely necessary daily materials, pricing of other goods will be uncontrolled by permission of the Supreme Allied Headquarters. However, the level of material prices will be strictly controlled even after the abolishment of official prices. On the matter of compensation for munitions companies he states that his opinion was in accordance with that of the Finance authorities. Furthermore, the government authorities will keep their promise of stability by strict adherence to economic ethics. In addition, business men should start new companies with a view toward producing and supplying urgently needed necessities for the public. As for manufacturing, the government plan is to increase silk worm raising next year as great quantities of raw-silk and silk fabrics are required as reparation goods. Due to the present situation, he said he was unable to make any predictions as to what the future of the other fibre industries will be. Increased production of porcelain and chinaware will be necessary to meet reparation demands to KOREA and the UNITED STATES. The selection of munition factories for conversion will be determined solely by their capacities and mechanical facilities. The coal shortage, the demands for increases in food rations and wages are now being considered. Financial assistance and revision of prices are also being considered at present, to increase production of lignite coal.
ITEM 8 Condition of Textile Industries in KOREA - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 10 Nov 45 - Translator: Lt. G. Kayano
Summary:
Until the return of NAKAYAMA, Yosnio, Chief of silk-reeling plant of KATAKURA Industry (KATAKURA KOGYO) from SEOUL recently, there were no contact with KOREA. The following is NAKAYAMA's story:
At the same time of the defeat of JAPAN, all operation of silk industries were suspended. At the end of October under American Army Administration, negotiations were made with the Korean superintendents, but, at present, the plants are still idle. Major General ARNOLD, military administrator, indicated that AMERICA could use all the silk and carrots that we produced in KOREA. Free selling of silkworm eggs and cocoons came into effect this autumn. People are reeling silk at home. Production of silkworm eggs for the next year is about 50 percent of this year. There were 800,000 kan (kan = 8.27 pounds) of cocoons produced in the spring but more were on the market.
There are no industrial organizations to run the silk reeling enterprise. The factories are without workers and Japanese technicians have no desire of staying in KOREA. It is difficult to resume operations.
In all KOREA there are 15 silk reeling plants at the termination of war. Among these, there were no communication from three factories (KATRKURA, GUNZE, and KANEBO(KANEGAFUCHI TEXTILE)) up till the time I left KOREA. There are twelve factories under the American Occupation Force. They are KATAKURA 3, GUNZE 2, KANEBO 2, TOYO SEISHI (Oriental Silk Reeling) (MITSUI concern) 2, SHINKO SEISHI (SHINKO Silk Reeling), KOREA Raw Silk (CHOSEN KIITO), and WAKABAYASHI SEISHI (WAKABAYASHI Silk Reeling). Desposition of the above plants are not fixed as yet. General ARNOLD is awaiting orders from Allied Nations Supreme Headquarters.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 9 Conference of Laborers and Farmers (Informal Meeting of Laborers and Farmers) - Asani Shimbun - 11 Nov 45 - Translator: I. Shogehi
Extracts:
A meeting of laborers and farmers was held under the auspices of the Peoples Union (JINMIN SHA) at MIKI Building on the 10 November 1945, to solve the problem of food shortage facing the laborers in the city.
The representatives of the labor unions were MATSUOKA, K., SHIMAGAMI, and Abe, S. More than twenty others representating the Labor General Union, the TOKYO Intercourse Labor Union, the TOKYO City Workers Union, and the KAWAKUCHI Casting Labor Union also attended. The representatives of the farmers union were NOMIZO, K., OKADA, S., KURODA, J., and MATSUNAGA, Y.
The representatives of the labor unions gave their opinions both regard to the conditions of the laborers in Tokyo due to their inability to purchase food and the black market prices prevailing.
The final resolution of this meeting was that the laborers and farmers must work hand in hand during this food crisis, and that they must destroy the old powers which had brought about this crisis.
ITEM 10 Larry Smith Comments on Japan’s Food Importation - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 11 Nov 45. Translator: R. Aoki
Full translation:
According to a San Francisco dispatch, Mr. Larry SMTH, a well known commentator on current topics, commented on the question of food importation to Japan, and said the following: "General MacARTHUR requested the Japanese Government to present a detailed plan regarding food imporation from abroad, and promised full consideration of it. However, as yet such a plan has not been presented. Premier SAIDEHARA says that JAPAN alone cannot formulate such a plan, but this is not true, Col. CRAMER of the Economic and Scientific Section of General MacARTHUR's Headquarters pointed out that a secretary to the Premier stated that JAPAN has enough food but simply lacks adequate means of transportation. On the other hand, the Premier said, the Allied Authorities should supply food. Shipping facilities should be requested of the Allied Authorities. "What the Premier is trying to do at present is to shift the burden for remedying the crisis of starvation, facing the people, to the UNITED STATES. The Japanese Government is still not quite prepared to face the Allied Occupation Force with full faith."
ITEM 11 Bamboo Leaves and Other Leaves Can be Made into Auxiliary Foodstuffs: Report by Dr. Saito - Nippon Sangyo Keizai Shimpo - 11 Nov 45.
Translator: M. Manhicki
Summary:
Michio SAITO, Doctor of Agriculture, who was a technical member of the now defunct Board of Technology in the Cabinet, has made public the results of his "Research on the Study of the Utilization of Herbs" in his report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, The following is a summary of his report which he read before a meeting of the Ministry.
What I herein term "herbs" is not limited to the dandelion, mulberry leaves, sweet potato stalks, and other kinds of herbs which grow on the roadside, but includes all kinds of nameless herbs and leaves in
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 11 (Continued)
the mountains and fields. For instance, crawling bamboo leaves, bush clover, arrow-root leaves, seaweeds, leaves of trees, and others, are involved. The approximate quantity of these herbs and leaves, in a broad sense of the term, in JAPAN is enormous, there being more than 10 times the amount of cereals on which the Japanese people usually receive. That the nutritive value of these herbs is generally high, containing all kinds of elements which contributes to the nourishment of animals, is a potential asset to the country. Application of appropriate processing methods will render them edible and will materially aid in making up for the shortage of foodstuffs. Men have so far failed to appreciate the nutritive value of these herbs, mainly due to a lack of correct information on the subject and also to the fact that some varieties cannot be eaten. Some are too fibrous and others are even poisonous. The fibers, however, can be powered without there being any change in the fundamental substance of the herbs. The odor and other characteristics peculiar to herbs can easily be done away with by boiling and the chemical process of using alkali or liquid lime. There will be no need to consider too seriously the danger of poisonous herbs because they can be detected very simply.
Two new methods of utilization are provided. The traditional method is the utilization of herbs without removing their fibers by means of boiling and powdering. The method of their utilization for eating purposes by removing fibrous substance is the object of the research now being carried on. There are two types of processes; one, the industrial production formula, and the other consisting of home methods. Here, I refer to the two home methods, the dry method, and the wet method.
First, the dry method: This method is applied to herbs and leaves containing a comparatively large percentage of water, including cherry leaves, platanus leaves and others. Dry the materials thoroughly in the sun or by using fire, and reduce the water content to about 10 per cent. When dried, put them quickly into a heavy wooden bowl and keep pounding. Fibers in the leaves are kept comparatively intact without being broken, but thick fibers between the leaf muscles are vulnerable and can be easily powered. Some fibers of stalks are only partially destroyed by the pounding. They are therefore sieved, leaving the fibers in the sieve. Using, this method, thick powder containing 20 percent of albumen and 15 per cent of fiber can be obtained from green stalks of barley prematurely cropped. The barley powder thus produced is far thicker in substance than dried powder (12 percent of albumen and 30 percent of fiber) produced from green stalks of barley dried and powered straight. This method can be applied to clover and sweet potato leaves. Mr. SATO, Kannosuke and Mr. NAGATA, Yosnito, experts of the Research Mobilization Department of the Board of Technology, are in charge of this method.
Second, the wet method: Unlike the dry method, the wet method is one which mashes the herbs and leaves. Accordingly, materials are not dried, but are processed at once. Chop the materials and steam them for about one minute. Then the materials should be mashed with a stick. Most of the fibers are strong and cannot be cut, while the thick ones between leaf muscles are easily smashed in the grinding vessel and are turned into a green juice. The green juice is sifted through cloth, and the fibers are left in cloth. Mix the green juice with wheat flour or other powder and knead it well. It may be eaten with bread or any other kinds of flour. The other way of utilizing the wet method is by using the thick juice which is produced. As was previously mentioned, this should be put into a drier and
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ECNOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 11 (Continued)
dried until it forms a powder. Put potato flour or wheat flour into the juice, so that water is absorbed by the flour, and then the dried powder can be produced quickly. The wet method yields less quantity than the dry method, but provides a better fiber removing technique than the other. Naturally, the products of the wet system usually contain more than 30 percent of albumen, and the fiber containing amount goes below 10 per-cent. The products therefore are more suited to use as food than the dry method.
ITEM 12 Farmer's Income on Rice Will be Increased to ¥150 per KOKU (4.96 Bushels) - Nippon Sangyo Keizai - 11 Nov 45. Translator: T. Kitagawa
Summary:
It is reported that the Agriculture and Forestry Ministry has decided to increase the farmer's ceiling price on rice to ¥ 150 per Koku. The Cabinet will reach a decision after the Supreme Headquarters has passed judgement. The step was taken in view of one tendency of people out of town to double the current price at which the government buys rice from farmers.
The landowners price will remain fixed at ¥155 per Koku, while consumer's price will be increased to some extent.
In an interview with NISHIYAMA, assistant chief of the Liaison Bureau, Major CRAMER is purported to have favored adherence to the current consumer's price for rice.
ITEM 13 Enactment of Law to Create Stock Breeding Organization Reported - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 11 Nov 45. Translator. T. Mitsubashi
Full translation:
The Stock Breeding Association of JAPAN (NIHON CHIKUSAN KYOKAI) has petitioned the vice-Minister of Agriculture and Forestry to enact a law governing stock breeding organizations (CHIKUSAN-DANTAI-HO). This action was the result of a resolution made at a general meeting held in TOKYO on 10 November 1945.
The Stock Breeding Union was active under control of the Stock Breeding Law (CHIKUSAN-KUMIAI—HO), enacted in the year 1915, which superseded the Cattle and Horse Breeding Union Law (SANGYUBA-KUMIAI-HO). However, this became ineffective since it was absorbed into the Agricultural Party in the year 1943.
The association states that to fulfill a mission that was become more important as a result of the situation, a law governing stock-breeding must be enacted in order to key stock breeders independent of the Agricultural Party (NOGYO-KAI).
ITEM 14 The Conference on Foodstuffs - Nippon Sangyo-Keizai - 11 Nov 45. Translator: H. Shindo
Believing that the problem of overcoming the food shortage is one of utmost urgency, the Government has decided to hold a conference on the afternoon of the 14th with various political parties, urban societies, economic, religious and agricultral associations, metropolitan presses, etc., at the official residence of the Premier.
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ECONOMIC SERIES: 10(Continued)
ITEM 14 (Continued)
Government officials to be present are: Premier Baron S[illegible]RA, and the rest of the members of the cabinet.
DISTRIBUTION NO OF COPIES
CIE 5
CIS 12
G-2 SCAP 3
GPA 3
NAT RES 6
PUB HEALTH 3
COL MASHBIR 1
FILE 50
INFO 1
TRANS 1
PERI 5
TRAIN 1
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HomePress translations [Japan]. Economic Series 0010, 1945-11-14.
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