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Samson Occom, Journal, 1785 December 5 to 14

ms-number: 785655

[note (type: abstract): Occom details his travels as an itinerant preacher.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is clear and legible. There are several uncrossed t's and crossed l's, which the transcriber has corrected.][note (type: paper): Several small sheets folded into a booklet are in good condition, with light-to-moderate staining and wear. There is some repair work on the heavy central crease of the outer pages.][note (type: ink): Brown ink varies in intensity.][note (type: noteworthy): The booklet is bound with a small pin, which is visible on the images of three verso and four recto. There is a red wax-pencil mark on one recto. An editor, likely 19th-century, has added notes and overwrites in black ink; these edits have not been included in the transcription.]

[MondDay | Monday]MondDayMonday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 5: 1785[1785-12-05]

got up
very early, and [Prayd | prayed]Praydprayed together [& | and]&and
Soon after Prayer I went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Clark[pers0129.ocp]
s. and from there to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Holms[pers1014.ocp]
s, I [illegible][rid | rode]ridrode [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Clark[pers0129.ocp]s mare
and Came directly back, for
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Dake[pers1009.ocp] was waiting for me
to Carry me in his [Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh to [Balls
Town | Balls
ton]
Balls
Town
Balls
ton
[place0363.ocp]
; about 9: we [Sot | set]Sotset off, [& | and]&and
to [Balls | Ballston]BallsBallston[place0363.ocp] about 12: and I put
up in [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Weed[pers1023.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and
he [receivd | received]receivdreceived me kindly; (abou[above] tt
[gap: tear]2 went to meeting and there wa[above] ss
a little Number of People
and I [preachd | preached]preachdpreached to them from
Acts, XIII. 30: and there was
great [Seriouſneſs | seriousness]Seriouſneſsseriousness in the [aſem‐
bly | assem‐
bly]
aſem‐
bly
assem‐
bly
. after meeting went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Weed[pers1023.ocp]
s and took Some Victua[above] lsls
and [al | ale]alale) Lodged [Some Time | Sometime]Some TimeSometime
in the evening, a man Came
to the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse and [deſired | desired]deſireddesired me
to go to See a man that was
very Sick, and I went [directy | directly]directydirectly
and Soon got there, [a bout | about]a boutabout

eight [O: C | o'clock]O: Co'clock, and found the man
very Sick his Name is [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Theophilus Hide[pers1012.ocp]
, and was
greatly [Deſirous | desirous]Deſirousdesirous to be [Baptiſd | baptised]Baptiſdbaptised
and I [illegible] [Examind | examined]Examindexamined and found
him much [Diſtreſt | distressed]Diſtreſtdistressed about his
Soul, and I [endeavourd | endeavoured]endeavourdendeavoured to
[Explaind | explained]Explaindexplained to him the Nature
of [Baptiſm | baptism]Baptiſmbaptism, and finding him
to [underſtand | understand]underſtandunderstand [Some thing | something]Some thingsomething of
the Nature of [Baptiſm | baptism]Baptiſmbaptism [& | and]&and
he [earneſtly | earnestly]earneſtlyearnestly [Deſirin[illegible]g | desiring]Deſirin[illegible]gdesiring it, So
at [laſt | last]laſtlast I [Concented | consented]Concentedconsented it and I
[Baptiſed | baptised]Baptiſedbaptised him — and his
wife was [alſo | also]alſoalso greatly [Exer
ciſed | exer
cised]
Exer
ciſed
exer
cised
[a bout | about]a boutabout her Soul, and
they wanted to have their
Child [Baptiſed | baptised]Baptiſedbaptised [alſo | also]alſoalso, but I
declined — and I [lodgd | lodged]lodgdlodged there
and [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. [Jerviſs | Jerviss]JerviſsJerviss[pers1242.ocp] was there
all Night. —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Decemr | December]DecemrDecember 6:[1785-12-06]

after [Brea
faſt | break
fast]
Brea
faſt
break
fast
went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Weed[pers1023.ocp]s in a [Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Hide[pers1012.ocp] Carried me, got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.

Weed[pers1023.ocp] [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime before noon
about 1 went into the meeting
[Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and there but few People
the [Smalleſt | smallest]Smalleſtsmallest Congregation I have
had in [theſe | these]theſethese parts, and I Spoke
from Acts VIII: 30: the People attend
ed well, — went with one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Hollister[pers1013.ocp]
and in the evening, there a Num
ber of Neighbours Came in and
my good old Friends [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Larkins[pers1016.ocp]
and his wife[pers1017.ocp] Came in [alſo | also]alſoalso, I was
well acquainted with them on
Long Island[place0129.ocp], and we were very
glad to See one another, and 2
of their Children Came in [alſo | also]alſoalso
a Son and Daughter, a likely
young Folks, — and we had very
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise with my Cards
and we Sung and [Prayd | prayed]Praydprayed together
and then I went home with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Larkins[pers1016.ocp]
and Lodged there and
was [extreamly | extremely]extreamlyextremely well [receivd | received]receivdreceived [& | and]&and
Treated, went to bed late and
Slept [Comfortablely | comfortably]Comfortablelycomfortably

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 7:[1785-12-07]

after [Break
faſt | break
fast]
Break
faſt
break
fast
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Holliſter | Hollister]HolliſterHollister[pers1013.ocp] Came to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Larkins[pers1016.ocp]
with a [Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh to Carry to meeting
[Mrs | Mrs.]MrsMrs. Larkins[pers1017.ocp] and her Daughter
[Bettſey | Bettsey]BettſeyBettsey[pers1006.ocp] went with us in the
[Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh,; we got the meeting [a bou[above] tt | about]a bou[above] ttabout
10: and the people had not got
together but few, and we [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed
[till | 'til]till'til [a bout | about]a boutabout 12 w and went [in to | into]in tointo
a [School, Houſe | schoolhouse]School, Houſeschoolhouse and there was
[prety | pretty]pretypretty good number of People [& | and]&and
I Spoke from 1 Peter 1:24 —
and there was great Solemnity in
the [Asembly | assembly]Asemblyassembly, Soon after I went
to one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Jeremiah Bettys[pers1007.ocp] [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
and a number of People went
[alſo | also]alſoalso, and the man [deſired | desired]deſireddesired me to
[Baptiſe | baptise]Baptiſebaptise his Child, the woman
was of [Baptiſt | Baptist]BaptiſtBaptist[org0124.ocp] [Perſwaſion | persuasion]Perſwaſionpersuasion, Yet
She gave her [ful Concent | full consent]ful Concentfull consent, and
after Examination, I got up to
Show the Nature of offering a
Child unto god in [Baptiſm | baptism]Baptiſmbaptism [& | and]&and
the woman was much [afected | affected]afectedaffected

and I Proceeded to [Baptiſe | baptise]Baptiſebaptise the
Child, — after that, I [Sot | sat]Sotsat down to
eat with them, Soon after, I went
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Palmmer[pers1019.ocp]s, and in the
Evening, w[illegible]e again [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): w]wI had [Ex
erciſe | ex
ercise]
Ex
erciſe
ex
ercise
with my Cards there
was a Number of Young People
and they behaved well, — late in
the evening I went to Bed quietly
once more, the Lord the[above] bebe [Praiſed | praised]Praiſedpraised

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 8:[1785-12-08]

got up very
early, and [Mrs | Mrs.]MrsMrs. Palmmer[pers1243.ocp] got [Brea[above] kk
faſt | break
fast]
Brea[above] kk
faſt
break
fast
early and Soon after eating
I went [of | off]ofoff to a meeting North
part of [Ball's Town | Ballston]Ball's TownBallston[place0363.ocp], to Preach
got to the [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. weed[pers1023.ocp]s [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime
in the morning, and [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed Some
Time, and one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Sprague[pers0511.ocp] Come
with a [Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh for me, and we went
off Directly, and got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Sprague[pers0511.ocp]
s [a bout | about]a boutabout 12: and took
Dinner with them, and then
directly went to meeting, and
there was a great number

of People, and I Spoke from
John XVII. 3: and there was a
great and [moſt | most]moſtmost Solemn attenti
on there were many Tears —
Soon after meeting I went di
rectly back with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Sprague[pers0511.ocp]s
Folks; and went directly to
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Turner[pers1020.ocp]s, and had a mee[above] tt
ing there in the Evening, and
there was a Number of People
again they [Crouded | crowded]Croudedcrowded the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
and I [preachd | preached]preachdpreached. from [Hebre – | Hebrews]Hebre –Hebrews
2: 3: and I [belive | believe]belivebelieve the Lord
was [preſent | present]preſentpresent, I had Some [Senſe | sense]Senſesense
of Divine things, and the People
were greatly affected, there
was a flood of Tears, — I [Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged
at the Same [Houſe | house]Houſehouse

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday, [Decr | December]DecrDecember 9:[1785-12-09]

[Some Time | Sometime]Some TimeSometime
after [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast, I went [of | off]ofoff a
young man went with me I
Call on [Colol | Col.]CololCol. Gordon[pers1011.ocp], and
he Treated me very kindly

[woud | would]woudwould had me Stay to Dine with
him, but I [Coud | could]Coudcould not Stay, and
So went on Soon, [Calld | called]Calldcalled on [gap: omitted]
but Stay but few [mi[illegible]ntes | minutes]mi[illegible]ntesminutes and
So went on, got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. weed[pers1023.ocp]s be
fore Noon, and was there [till | 'til]till'til
[a bout Sun Sit | about sunset]a bout Sun Sitabout sunset; and then [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Holleſter | Hollester]HolleſterHollester[pers1013.ocp]
Came with his [Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh
for me, and we[illegible]nt with him
directly, and got to his[illegible] [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
and got there [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in
the [Evining | evening]Eviningevening. and when, we [above] gotgot
[above] therethere found a number of Friends
together waiting for us; and
I [Sot | sat]Sotsat a [litle | little]litlelittle while, and I began
with them with my Cards and
we had Very [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Exer
ciſe | exer
cise]
Exer
ciſe
exer
cise
, and we [Sot | sat]Sotsat up late and
finally we [brok | broke]brokbroke up, and I
went to be[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): g]gd [quietely | quietly]quietelyquietly once
more; [Bleſsed | blessed]Bleſsedblessed be the name
of the Lord for his [goodneſs | goodness]goodneſsgoodness to
me

Saturday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 10[1785-12-10],

[Some Time | Sometime]Some TimeSometime
after [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Larkins[pers1016.ocp]
and took Dinner with
them, and Soon after Dinner
I went back to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Ho[illegible]lleſter | Hollester]Ho[illegible]lleſterHollester[pers1013.ocp]s
Call, [an | on]anon [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Bettys[pers1007.ocp], and [Sot | sat]Sotsat
only few minutes, and went
on, — and [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in the [afr
noon | after
noon]
afr
noon
after
noon
, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Holleſter | Hollister]HolleſterHollister[pers1013.ocp] got his [Slay | sleigh]Slaysleigh
ready and we went on, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Amos Larkin[pers1015.ocp]
, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Ely[pers1010.ocp] and a
woman went with us, and
we got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Rogers[pers0454.ocp]s [juſt | just]juſtjust
before [Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset, and we [Stopt | stopped]Stoptstopped
there a while, took Tea with
them, — and Soon after Tea we
went on, and [Calld | called]Calldcalled on [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Clarke[pers0129.ocp]
, a few minutes and then
we went on to good old [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. North[above] roprop[pers1018.ocp]
and there I [Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged, we had Some
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise with my Cards
only with the old People and
one young man, I read

a great Number of the Cards
after they had [Choſen | chosen]Choſenchosen each of
them a Text —

[Sabb: | Sabbath]Sabb:Sabbath [Decr | December]DecrDecember 11[1785-12-11]

After [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast
went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Clarke[pers0129.ocp]s and abou[above] tt
11 the People began to Collect
[faſt | fast]faſtfast, and a Prodigious numbe[above] rr
of People Gathered, — and
I began the [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise about
1 and I Spoke from, [Cant | Canticles]CantCanticles, 2 [above] 1616
and I think the Lord was [pre‐
ſent | pre‐
sent]
pre‐
ſent
pre‐
sent
, the People attended with
all attention, and there was
great Solemnity and many
Tears were Shed, and I [beli[above] vve | believe]beli[above] vvebelieve
the People will not forget this
Sabbath Soon, [eſpecially | especially]eſpeciallyespecially Some
after meeting took Dinner
with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Clark[pers0129.ocp] — and in the
evening, I went to one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Brown[pers0102.ocp]
, to attend [above] uponupon the Young
with my Cards and there was
a Prodigious Number of Peop[above] lele

old and Young, and we had
had very [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise
it was a Solemn Night, and [illegible]
the People, old angd young
I believe will not forget it
all their Days, and I hope [& | and]&and
pray, that it may be a Night
to be [rememberd | remembered]rememberdremembered to the Glory
of God — Choice Portions of
Scriptures were Sown [illegible]this
Night among the People
as they never had; — we broke
up near midnight, and I
went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Benjamin[pers1005.ocp]s, and
it was Rainy, — and went
to bed late

Monday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 12[1785-12-12]:

[Some Time | Sometime]Some TimeSometime
in the morning, I went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Clarke[pers0129.ocp]
s, and from thence to
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]'s, and was there [till | 'til]till'til
about 2 in the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon
and there was a Young man
Came to fetch me from [Galla
way | Gal
way]
Galla
way
Gal
way
[place0432.ocp]
, and I went off with him

directly, and we got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Andierſon | Andierson]AndierſonAndierson[pers0057.ocp]
's near night where
I am to marry a [Cupple | couple]Cupplecouple of Scotch
Folks and they [receivd | received]receivdreceived me
with all [kindneſs | kindness]kindneſskindness and [Friend
ſihp | friend
ship]
Friend
ſihp
friend
ship
, [Lodged | lodged]Lodgedlodged there and had
a Comfortable [reſt | rest]reſtrest, —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 13[1785-12-13]:

we all got
up very early, and they got
[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast Soon, — and we wait
‐ed for weddeners, and about
1 [o.c | o'clock]o.co'clock they Came, and a young
man went out with a bottle
to meet them and treated them
round before they Came into
the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and Soon after they
got into the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, we proceede[above] dd
in Celebratidng the [ordernance | ordinance]ordernanceordinance
of Marriage, — and as Soon as
it was over we Sat down to
Dinner, and w[above] hhen that was
over, the weddeners [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff

to the North end of [galla
way | Gal
way]
galla
way
Gal
way
[place0432.ocp]
, — and I returned to 5000
A[illegible]ires[place0429.ocp]
, and got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]
[juſt | just]juſtjust before [Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset, and in
the evening a number of Peop[above] lele
came in and we had [exerciſe | exercise]exerciſeexercise
with my notes, and it was
quite [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable, and wen[above] tt
bed late, —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday, [Decr | December]DecrDecember 14[1785-12-14]:

This morn
ing [Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation, with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Coffin[pers1008.ocp]
, the [Univerſaliſt | Universalist]UniverſaliſtUniversalist[org0152.ocp] Prea[above] chch
er, the Same I had [Conver‐
ſation | conver‐
sation]
Conver‐
ſation
conver‐
sation
with the other Day,
he is a very bold Creature
about 10: I went [of | off]ofoff to go to
one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Wakeman[pers1022.ocp]s and
had a meeting there, and
there was [above] [illegible][illegible] a goodly num
ber of People, [illegible]after meeting

Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
The Baptists were a dissenter sect that became especially popular in New England after the First Great Awakening. They diverged from Protestant belief mainly in insisting that only believers should be baptized, and that it should be done by immersion in water and not by sprinkling or pouring water, but they represented the most radical of the radical New Lights and were known for lay preaching and personal spirituality. Wheelock and most of his former students were more moderate New Lights and opposed this sort of radical Christianity. Occom, however, had many connections with Baptist ministers in central New York. On his preaching tour in 1774, he records visiting several Baptist ministers, largely white, and speaking to large crowds, sometimes in the woods. He also records meeting with a "Seven Day Baptist" minister. The Seventh Day or Sabbatarian Baptists differ from Baptist beliefs mainly in observing the Sabbath on Saturday, in accordance with the ten commandments. Baptist belief held a strong attraction for Native peoples because it protected their autonomy and embraced preaching and leadership by lay people. Divides over theology became problematic at Brothertown, where Occom’s moderate sect clashed with the more Baptist sect over whether or not to lease their land to Americans. After Occom’s death, Samuel Ashpo, a Baptist Mohegan minister known for his separatism, began spending more time at Brothertown and built up a substantial Baptist congregation there.
Universalist Church
The Universalist Church was a Christian religious denomination that developed in America from Pietist and Anabaptist movements, inculding Quakers, Moravians, Methodists, Lutherans and others. Its defining theology is universal salvation, and thus it runs counter to the central Calvinist belief in predestination, in which some souls are predestined for damnation. As a Presbyterian, Occom held to the Calvinist view and vigorously disagreed doctrinally with adherents of Universalism. The first Universalist Church in America was founded by John Murray in Gloucester, MA in 1779, and in 1790 the Universalists adopted a a doctrinal statement and plan for church government. In 1961 the Universalists consolidated with the Unitarian Association to form the Unitarian Universalist Church.
Ballston

Ballston is a town in central New York state, north of Albany. The area was occupied by Mohawk Indians, who resented the appropriation of their sacred grounds by European settlers. The first settlers, the MacDonald brothers, built a homestead on the west bank of Ballston Lake in 1763. Reverend Eliphalet Ball arrived in 1770 with his three sons and members of his congregation from Bedford, NY, bought the land from the MacDonalds, named it Ball's Town, and established a Presbyterian church there in 1771. Soon, settlers arrived from other parts of New England, New Jersey, Scotland and north of Ireland. In 1774, a stockaded fort was built in Ballston, which was attacked by the British and their Indian allies from Canada in 1780 and 1781. It became a town of Albany county in 1785 and was part of the religious circuit in upstate New York in which Occom travelled.

Long Island

Long Island is an island located in southeast New York State. In 1824, historian Silas Wood claimed that 13 different tribes inhabited the island when the Dutch and English arrived in 1639: the Canarsie, the Rockaway, the Matinecock, the Merrick, the Massapequa, the Nissequoge, the Secatoag, the Seatuket, the Patchoag, the Corchaug, the Shinnecock, the Manhasset, and the Montaukett. This is the commonly accepted tribal history of Long Island, and Wood’s theory is taught in New York textbooks today. Yet, in 1992, historian John Strong challenged this dominant narrative, arguing that tribal systems did not develop on Long Island until after Europeans arrived. Based on Dutch and English colonists’ accounts, the Algonquian communities on western Long Island likely spoke the Delaware-Munsee dialect and those to the east spoke languages related to the southern New England Algonquian dialects. These indigenous peoples organized themselves by language and kinship, but beyond village systems and the occasional alliance, there existed no formal tribal structure. Rather, internal structures arose among the Montauks, the Shinnecocks, the Poospatucks, and the Matinnocks to cope with English settlers, and became integral to these peoples’ survival. Although new diseases and land negotiations severely encroached on the freedom of Long Island’s Native population, these groups that developed tribal structures retain a sense of community today. By the 18th century, much of the island had fallen into the hands of the English, who were the sole European power on Long Island once the Dutch relinquished their claims to the land after the second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664. During the Great Awakening of the 18th century, Occom spent 12 years serving as a missionary to the Montaukett Indians of Long Island, along with Presbyterian minister Azariah Horton. Today, the western half of the island is densely populated due to its proximity to Manhattan, and its eastern half is mainly devoted to resort towns. The Shinnecocks and the Poospatucks retain autonomous reservations on Long Island.

5000 Aires
Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Hide, Theophilus
Hollister
Larkins, Bettsy
Bettys, Jeremiah
Larkin, Amos
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0129.ocp M r Mr. Clark mentioned Clark
pers1014.ocp M r Mr. Holms mentioned Holms
pers1009.ocp M r Mr. Dake mentioned Deake
pers1023.ocp M r Mr. Weed mentioned Weed
pers1012.ocp M r Mr. Theophilus Hide mentioned Hide, Theophilus
pers1242.ocp Doc r Dr. Jerviſs Jerviss mentioned Jerviss
pers1012.ocp M r Mr. Hide mentioned Hide, Theophilus
pers1023.ocp Weed mentioned Weed
pers1013.ocp M r Mr. Hollister mentioned Hollister
pers1016.ocp M r Mr. Larkins mentioned Larkins
pers1017.ocp his wife mentioned Larkins
pers1013.ocp M r Mr. Holliſter Hollister mentioned Hollister
pers1017.ocp M rs Mrs. Larkins mentioned Larkins
pers1006.ocp Bettſey Bettsey mentioned Larkins, Bettsy
pers1007.ocp M r Mr. Jeremiah Bettys mentioned Bettys, Jeremiah
pers1019.ocp M r Mr. Palmmer mentioned Palmer
pers1243.ocp M rs Mrs. Palmmer mentioned Palmer
pers1023.ocp M r Mr. weed mentioned Weed
pers0511.ocp M r Mr. Sprague mentioned Sprague
pers1020.ocp M r Mr. Turner mentioned Turner
pers1011.ocp Colo l Col. Gordon mentioned Gordon
pers1013.ocp M r Mr. Holleſter Hollester mentioned Hollister
pers1007.ocp M r Mr. Bettys mentioned Bettys, Jeremiah
pers1013.ocp M r Mr. Holleſter Hollister mentioned Hollister
pers1015.ocp M r Mr. Amos Larkin mentioned Larkin, Amos
pers1010.ocp M r Mr. Ely mentioned Ely
pers0454.ocp M r Mr. Rogers mentioned Rogers
pers0129.ocp M r Mr. Clarke mentioned Clark
pers1018.ocp M r Mr. North rop mentioned Northrop
pers0102.ocp M r Mr. Brown mentioned Brown
pers1005.ocp M r Mr. Benjamin mentioned Benjamin
pers0057.ocp M r Mr. And i erſon And i erson mentioned Anderson
pers1008.ocp M r Mr. Coffin mentioned Coffin
pers1022.ocp M r Mr. Wakeman mentioned Wakeman

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0363.ocp Balls Town Balls ton Ballston
place0363.ocp Balls Ballston Ballston
place0129.ocp Long Island Long Island
place0363.ocp Ball's Town Ballston Ballston
place0432.ocp Galla way Gal way Galway
place0432.ocp galla way Gal way Galway
place0429.ocp 5000 A ires 5000 Aires

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0124.ocp BaptiſtBaptist Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
org0152.ocp UniverſaliſtUniversalist Universalist Church

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1785-12-05 MondDayMonday DecrDecember 5: 1785
1785-12-06 TueſdayTuesday DecemrDecember 6:
1785-12-07 WedneſdayWednesday DecrDecember 7:
1785-12-08 ThirdsdayThursday DecrDecember 8:
1785-12-09 FrydayFriday, DecrDecember 9:
1785-12-10 Saturday DecrDecember 10
1785-12-11 Sabb:Sabbath DecrDecember 11
1785-12-12 Monday DecrDecember 12
1785-12-13 TueſdayTuesday DecrDecember 13
1785-12-14 WedneſdayWednesday, DecrDecember 14

Regularized text:

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modernization Houſe house
variation receivd received
variation preachd preached
modernization Seriouſneſs seriousness
variation aſem‐
bly
assem‐
bly
variation al ale
variation Some Time Sometime
modernization deſired desired
variation directy directly
variation a bout about
modernization Deſirous desirous
variation Baptiſd baptised
variation Examind examined
variation Diſtreſt distressed
variation endeavourd endeavoured
variation Explaind explained
modernization Baptiſm baptism
modernization underſtand understand
variation Some thing something
modernization earneſtly earnestly
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exer
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modernization Jerviſs Jerviss
modernization Tueſday Tuesday
variation Brea
faſt
break
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variation Some Time sometime
modernization Smalleſt smallest
modernization theſe these
variation agreable agreeable
modernization Exerciſe exercise
variation extreamly extremely
variation Comfortablely comfortably
modernization Wedneſday Wednesday
modernization Break
faſt
break
fast
modernization Holliſter Hollister
modernization Mrs Mrs.
modernization Bettſey Bettsey
variation Stayd stayed
variation till 'til
variation in to into
variation School, Houſe schoolhouse
variation prety pretty
variation Asembly assembly
modernization Baptiſe baptise
modernization Baptiſt Baptist
variation Perſwaſion persuasion
variation ful Concent full consent
variation afected affected
variation Sot sat
modernization Ex
erciſe
ex
ercise
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variation Thirdsday Thursday
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modernization moſt most
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variation belive believe
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modernization Senſe sense
variation Lodgd lodged
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modernization Breakfaſt breakfast
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variation woud would
variation Coud could
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variation mi[illegible]ntes minutes
variation a bout Sun Sit about sunset
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variation Evining evening
variation litle little
modernization Exer
ciſe
exer
cise
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variation quietely quietly
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ſent
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variation Galla
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Gal
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modernization Converſation conversation
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modernization Conver‐
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conver‐
sation

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Decr December
& and
Balls Ballston
O: C o'clock
Decemr December
Hebre – Hebrews
afr
noon
after
noon
Sabb: Sabbath
Cant Canticles
o.c o'clock

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Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 58)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 58)
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HomeSamson Occom, Journal, 1785 December 5 to 14
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