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Samson Occom, journal, 1785 October 4 to 1786 December 4

ms-number: 785554

[note (type: abstract): Occom describes the events of the period between October 4, 1785, and December 4, 1786; they include an Indian wedding, the naming of Brothertown and other Brothertown business.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is mostly clear and legible. There are several uncrossed t’s and crossed l’s, which the transcriber has corrected.][note (type: paper): Several small sheets folded into a booklet and bound with thread or twine are in good condition, with light staining and wear. There is some fading, and the opening and closing pages are more worn than those inside them.][note (type: ink): Brown ink varies in intensity.][note (type: noteworthy): On 18 recto, the identity of David Fowler's daughter is uncertain, and so she has been left untagged. On 19 recto, the identity of Elijah Wympy's son is uncertain, and so he has been left untagged; however, he may possibly be Elijah Wympy, Jr.[pers1347.ocp] On 23 recto, the identity of John Post's son is uncertain and so he has been left untagged. An editor, likely 19th-century, has written notes in black ink on one recto; these notes have not been included in the transcription. The date for “Sabbath Oct 30” should be 31. The date “Nov 2” should be Nov 20. Names and place names that are illegible have not been tagged. It is likely that the two Mr. John Smiths mentioned in this document are two different people.]
[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): Oct. 4,]Oct. 4,
[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): to Dec. 4.]to Dec. 4.[1785-10-04]

[note (type: editorial): Blank page.]

1785[1785] N: III
[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 4[1785-10-04]

After [Brea | break]Breabreak
[faſt | fast]faſtfast, took leave of the [Famy | family]Famyfamily
and went on towards Ablbany[place0001.ocp]
got there about 11: I [turnd | turned]turndturned
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. John [McKinny | McKinny]McKinnyMcKinny[pers1117.ocp]s a
[Tervern | tavern]Terverntavern keeper, and it
[Raind | rained]Raindrained [extream | extreme]extreamextreme hard. the
Rain [Catcht | caught]Catchtcaught us [juſt | just]juſtjust as
we got over t[illegible]he Ferry, —
when the Rain abated I went to
See Some Friends, but [moſt | most]moſtmost of
my particular Friends were
gone out of the City, went to
our good friend Hollenback[pers1108.ocp]s
[Inqured | inquired]Inquredinquired of him of my [Daugh | daughter]Daughdaughter
but he [Coud | could]Coudcould not tell
anything about them, he [deſird | desired]deſirddesired
me to [Baptiſe | baptize]Baptiſebaptize his Child, that
was born the [Sabath | Sabbath]SabathSabbath Day Day
before which was the Second Day
of the Month, and I [Examend | examined]Examendexamined
them Concerning their [knowledg | knowledge]knowledgknowledge
of the Nature of [Baptiſm | baptism]Baptiſmbaptism.
and their Duty to bring up
their Children in the Fear of god
and [non | not]nonnot to do it only out of [Cus
tum | cus
and [Faſhon | fashion]Faſhonfashion, and they
[promiſe | promise]promiſepromise to do their Duty, — and
[in deed | indeed]in deedindeed it was a great Trial to
me, and finally I [Conſented | consented]Conſentedconsented
and [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in the evening
I [Baptiſed | baptized]Baptiſedbaptized the Child by the Name
of J[illegible]enney[pers1287.ocp], with the great Name
of the ever [Bleſsed | blessed]Bleſsedblessed Trinity —
[Lodgd | Lodged]LodgdLodged at the Same [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and
was kindly [intertaind | entertained]intertaindentertained, —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 5[1785-10-05]

was in the City
[till | 'til]till'til after noon, Dined at [mr | Mr.]mrMr.
s, and Soon after [D– | dinner]D–dinner
[Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff from Albany[place0001.ocp], and got
to Loudensd Ferry[place0468.ocp] and we [coud | could]coudcould
not get over, and [Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged at
Mr F[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): u]undys. and they were
very [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable Folks —

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Octor | October]OctorOctober 6:[1785-10-06]

went [of | off]ofoff
very early in morning and
went up to the Northward
[becausſe | because]becausſebecause we [coud | could]coudcould not get
at this Place and we wen[above] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): t]t[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): t]t
So far as to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Whitney[pers0589.ocp]'s in
[Neſ | Nes]NeſNes[illegible]ia, and we wan
der about backwards and
forwards all Day, — got over
the River[place0172.ocp] lower part of Nes
[illegible]ia, and [Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged at poor
[Tervern | tavern]Terverntavern one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. John
s, —

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [octr | October]octrOctober 17:[1785-10-17]

got up
very early in the morning
and [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff for Saratoga[place0470.ocp] and
we [S[above] ttopt | s[above] ttopped]S[above] ttopts[above] ttopped at [Sev[above] elely | several]Sev[above] elelyseveral prlaces by
the way, and we found
no [frinds | friends]frindsfriends in [above] thethe Road, —
got to [Still Waters | Stillwater]Still WatersStillwater[place0471.ocp] about 12
[Stopt | Stopped]StoptStopped [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [gap: omitted] a [Tervern | tavern]Terverntavern and
Several knew me, and they [offer[above] dd | offered]offer[above] ddoffered
us [illegible]Dinner and we [acepted | accepted]aceptedaccepted of
it kindly,— and here found out
the People had Concluded to have [above] meme
keep Sabbath with them, good
old [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Campell[pers0832.ocp] is a [Miniſter | minister]Miniſterminister
of this Place, and he was Sent
for he Came Direc[above] ttly to See me
and Concluded further to be with
them on the Sabbath, and two
went on but the Bridges were
So gone and [Shatterd | shattered]Shatterdshattered by the
Flood, that we [Coud | could]Coudcould not go a
long by the River[place0172.ocp], and [turnd | turned]turndturned
right off from the River[place0172.ocp], and
[inquried | inquired]inquriedinquired after [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kalley[pers1109.ocp], and
found him in the [Duſk | dusk]Duſkdusk of the
evening, and was kindly [recevd | received]recevdreceived
his wife[pers1411.ocp] was not well; and I
went to another Family to Lodge
one old [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Concling[pers1096.ocp] Lodged
with me, — — —

Saturday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 9:[1785-10-09]

Soon after
[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff and went to the
River[place0172.ocp], got to the River[place0172.ocp] [ab | about]ababout 12:
Call in at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [McCarty | McCarty]McCartyMcCarty[pers1115.ocp]s and
the offer us Dinner and we
[Sot | sat]Sotsat down to eat, — and here
we [underſtood | understood]underſtoodunderstood my Daughter[pers1095.ocp]
was [eaſt | east]eaſteast Side of the River[place0172.ocp] [Cloſe | close]Cloſeclose
by the River[place0172.ocp], Soon after [Dinr | dinner]Dinrdinner
We [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff again I went [a foot | afoot]a footafoot
and left my [Horſe | horse]Horſehorse with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Mccarty | McCarty]MccartyMcCarty[pers1115.ocp]
, got over the River[place0172.ocp]
about 2: in ther [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon
and went to the place where I hear[above] dd
my Daughter[pers1095.ocp] was, [above] gotgot to where [Siſter | Sister]SiſterSister
lives, and there was [no body | nobody]no bodynobody
at home [bout | but]boutbut old mother Margery[pers1114.ocp]
after a while Isaac Tattleton[pers1130.ocp]
Came [hom | home]homhome, and I got his mare to
go to where my Daughter[pers1095.ocp] lives, a
bout 7 miles further, and we
got to the Place [Some Time | ]Some Time in
the evening, and not well but
better than She had been
for She has been very Sick
the [reſt | rest]reſtrest were well, Thanks
be to the great god for his mercy
to me in the [preſervation | preservation]preſervationpreservation of
me and my Daughter[pers1095.ocp] and her
Family Lodged here —

Sabbath [Octr | October]OctrOctober 9[1785-10-09]

got up very
early and [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff to go [Still waters | Stillwater]Still watersStillwater[place0471.ocp]
to preach in [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Campel[pers0832.ocp]s [m– | meeting]m–meeting
got to the River[place0172.ocp] [a bout | about]a boutabout 9, and
Sent the mare back by James
for he Came down with
with me; got over Soon and I
on [a foot | afoot]a footafoot and [tryed | tried]tryedtried to get a [Horſe | horse]Horſehorse
at the [firſt | first]firſtfirst [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, but I [Coud | could]Coudcould not
and went on foot, and two or three
Places. and all in Vain, a wagon
Came by me [goining | going]goininggoing to meeting
[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): and]and I [deſired | desired]deſireddesired him to help me
[a long | along]a longalong, but he [woud | would]woudwould not, at
[laſt | last]laſtlast I gave up, and Sendt word
forward to have [Horſe | horse]Horſehorse Sent me
and I went into a [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, told the
man of the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse of my difficul
ties, and he [aſked | asked]aſkedasked me whether
I was going to hear the Strange
[miſter | minister]miſterminister, I told I [Suppoſe | suppose]Suppoſesuppose I Should
hear him, and then told him,
the People Could not See that
Strange Creature [till | 'til]till'til I got
there, and then he [aſked | asked]aſkedasked me
whether it was I that they expe[above] ctedcted
—I told him Yes,—and he was
[Surpriſed | surprised]Surpriſedsurprised, and there were then
Several People going by, he
Called to them and told them I
was in the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse and wanted
help, and one of the men got
down and [offerd | offered]offerdoffered me his
[Horſe | horse]Horſehorse to ride to meeting, and
I took it, and went on, got
there at half after 11, and there
was a prodigious large [Congre
gathon | congre
the [bigeſt | biggest]bigeſtbiggest that ever
was Seen in the Place, and I
went in, gave them a Short
[diſcourſe | discourse]diſcourſediscourse, from [Jona | Jonah]JonaJonah [gap: omitted] 5 [verſe | verse]verſeverse
in the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon from another
the g People attended with grea[above] tt
and Solemn attention and with
many Tears, — as Soon as the
meeting was done, a gentleman
took me in his wagon, and [Cari
ed | carri
me to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Powers[pers1121.ocp]s, the good
man [recevd | received]recevdreceived me with [tender
neſs | tender
and [Friendſhip | friendship]Friendſhipfriendship, at Candle
lighting we went to meeting
in a Small Log meeting [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
and it was [Crouded | crowded]Croudedcrowded like a Bee
Hive, and [the | they]thethey attended like
Criminals at the Bar, I [beliv | believe]belivbelieve
they felt the power of the word
[tho | though]thothough I was much Spent —[Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged
at Elder Powers[pers1121.ocp]s —

Monday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 10[1785-10-10]

was at Mr Powers[pers1121.ocp]
[till | 'til]till'til near meeting Time, Elder
let me have his [Horſe | horse]Horſehorse
to ride to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kalley[pers1109.ocp]s meeting
got there near 12 [Stopt | stopped]Stoptstopped a while
at a [Houſe | house]Houſehouse near the meeting [H– | house]H–house
and [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kalley[pers1109.ocp] Came to me, [& | and]&and
we went to another [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and
there we took Dinner — and Soon
after eating we went to [meetg | meeting]meetgmeeting
and there was a Multitude of
People, and I [preachd | preached]preachdpreached to them
from [gap: omitted] and there
was an affectionate attention
the [Chriſtians | Christians]ChriſtiansChristians were [Some what | somewhat]Some whatsomewhat
[Elivated | elevated]Elivatedelevated, and the Sinners were
alarmed, and I [belive | believe]belivebelieve the Hypo
crites were [Surpriſed | surprised]Surpriſedsurprised and we
had a little [intermiſtion | intermission]intermiſtionintermission, and
went to meeting again at Can
dle Lighting, and there was a
great number of People again
and they attended [Solmnly | solemnly]Solmnlysolemnly,—
after meeting I went home with
with one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. John Smith [above] CarperterCarperter[pers1094.ocp] about
one Hundred Rods from the
meeting [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and was [extrea | extremely]extreaextremely
well [entertaind | entertained]entertaindentertained, we had very
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation with the
man and Woman after [Conver
ſation | conver
, I went to bed quietly,—

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 11:[1785-10-11]

about 9: in
the morning [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kalley[pers1109.ocp] and I
went towards the North River[place0172.ocp],
[Call'd | called]Call'dcalled on [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Powers[pers1121.ocp], and he was
[geting | getting]getinggetting ready to go with us, and
So we went on; got to [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Bacon[pers1088.ocp]'s
about 11: and the People began
to [Collectogerther | collect together]Collectogerthercollect together, and about half
after one we began the meeting,
and the People Seemed to be tied
to the word, and I believe they
felft the Power of the word, Soon
after meeting we went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
s where I had left my
mare and the man C[illegible]harged
me nothing for keeping my
mare, and went on [preſently | presently]preſentlypresently
and [Calld | called]Calldcalled on [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. John Smith[pers1126.ocp]
and took DTea with them, and
directly went on to the Ferry —
got over about [Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset, and
went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Matt Vanburan[pers1134.ocp]s
and the People Collected toge
ther, and we had a meeting
and there was [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable [Nr | number]Nrnumber
number of People, and they
behaved well, [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed at the
Same [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 12:[1785-10-12]

I saw Tattle[above] tonton[pers1130.ocp]
and I went to my Daughter[pers1095.ocp]s, [& | and]&and
we got there about 12: and I
[reſted | rested]reſtedrested a little at my Daughter[pers1095.ocp]s
and then we went to meeting
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [gap: omitted] and the People
behaved well generally but
not So Solemn as at other P[illegible: [guess (h-dawnd): s]s]
after meeting, went back to
my Daughter[pers1095.ocp]s, and [reſted | rested]reſtedrested a
little, and in the evening, the
People Collected, at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Begle[pers1090.ocp]'s
and we had a little meeting
after meeting went to my [D | daughter]Ddaughter[pers1095.ocp]'s
again, and went to bed very

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 13[1785-10-13]:

after [Bre | breakfast]Brebreakfast
left my folks and went on
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Jonathan [Thomſon | Thomson]ThomſonThomson[pers1131.ocp]s,
got there before noon, and took
Dinner with them, — at 2
we went to, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Tomſons | Tomsons]TomſonsTomsons Son[pers1128.ocp]'s
a few Rods, and there we
had meeting, and there was
[Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable number of Peop[above] lele
and they attended well, — as Soon
as the meeting was done, they
[deſired | desired]deſireddesired me to preach to them
again in the evening, and
I Complied, and I begun a
gain in about ha[illegible]lf an [H | hour]Hhour
and there was greater at
tention Still, the People were
much affected, Lodged at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Tomſon | Tomson]TomſonTomson[pers1131.ocp]

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 14:[1785-10-14]

[Some Time | ]Some Time
after [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Tomſon | Tomson]TomſonTomson[pers1131.ocp]
and I took our [Horſes | horses]Horſeshorses and we
went to [Still waters | Stillwater]Still watersStillwater[place0471.ocp], — got there
[Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime before meeting, a
bout 1 we went to meeting, and
there was a great number of
People, and they attended
with great affection, after
meeting went to [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Campell[pers0832.ocp]'s
and, near [Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset we[illegible] went
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Baker[pers1289.ocp]s and had an
evening there, and there was
a great Number of People a
gain, and they attended with
all gravity, and after the
People were [diſmiſt | dismissed]diſmiſtdismissed, a num
ber [Stay'd | stayed]Stay'dstayed, and I gave out
out my Cards to the People
and we had agreeable [Exer
ciſe | exer
, and [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in the
evening the People [diſperſt | dispersed]diſperſtdispersed
and I went to bed Quietly
once more. Thanks be to god
The People in this Place are
exceeding Friendly and kind
to me, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Campel[pers0832.ocp] is as a
Father to me.

Saturday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 15[1785-10-15]

[Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime
after [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast went on my
way; [Stopt | stopped]Stoptstopped at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Campel[pers0832.ocp]s
a few minutes, and then took
leave of them, and went on
my way towards [Ball Town | Ballston]Ball TownBallston[place0363.ocp]
got to [Capt | Capt.]CaptCapt. Dunning[pers1105.ocp]s about
12: Dined with them, in the
evening we had a meeting
in [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Gregory[pers1107.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and
there was a goodly number
of People — and it was a So
lemn meeting — after [meetg | meeting]meetgmeeting
went home with [Capt | Capt.]CaptCapt. Dunning[pers1105.ocp]
again. and Lodged there,
the [Capt | Capt.]CaptCapt. and his whole Family
are exceeding [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable
Folks —

Sabbath [Octr | October]OctrOctober 16:[1785-10-18]

went to
meeting with the People and
it was as a bad way as ever
I was out in all my [Travils | travels]Travilstravels
Mirey the [bigeſt | biggest]bigeſtbiggest of the way
went we got to the Place the
People had got together a
great Number, — they have
a new meeting [Ho[above] uuſe | house]Ho[above] uuſehouse very
large for a new Settlement
I preach to them from [Danile | Daniel]DanileDaniel
 mene [&c | etc.]&cetc.
in the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon from John
ye are my Friends [&c | etc.]&cetc.
Soon after meeting, went to the
old meeting [Houſe | house]Houſehouse [weſt | west]weſtwest Side of
the Lake— and [preatchd | preached]preatchdpreached in
the evening, and there was
a [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable number of
People, here I [illegible]Met my old
[aquaintaince | acquaintance]aquaintainceacquaintance [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Dake[pers1009.ocp], I
[lodgd | lodged]lodgdlodged at one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. weed[pers1023.ocp]s, and
his Son in Law—[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Cable[pers1092.ocp]
with his wife[pers1806.ocp] [Deſird | desired]Deſirddesired me to
[Baptiſe | baptize]Baptiſebaptize their [Chile | child]Chilechild, and [above] whenwhen
I had Examined them abou[above] tt
the Nature of [Baptiſm | baptism]Baptiſmbaptism
and finding them well
ground in the [goſpel | gospel]goſpelgospel Faith
I [Baptiſed | baptized]Baptiſedbaptized their Child, and
after I had [performd | performed]performdperformed my
[ofice | office]oficeoffice, one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Bright[pers1091.ocp] made
an objection, and we [ta[above] llke | talk]ta[above] llketalk
upon the matter [a while | awhile]a whileawhile,
and I [Coud | could]Coudcould not be [Convincd | convinced]Convincdconvinced
that I was wrong, and we
[diſſiſted | desisted]diſſiſteddesisted, and they went a
way, and I went to begd
quietly once more —

Monday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 17:[1785-10-17]

after [Break
faſt | break
I went to 5000. Aires[place0429.ocp]; before
I had got to the Place, I met [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
, and he went back, with
me, and I went with him to his
[Houſe | house]Houſehouse, about from the meeting
[Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and took Dinner with
him, and Soon after Dinner [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
and I went to meeting [& | and]&and
there was a [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable number
of people their meeting [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
is made of Logs, and I [preachd | preached]preachdpreached
to them from [Matt | Matthew]MattMatthew [gap: omitted] thou Shalt
[worſhip | worship]worſhipworship the Lord [&c | etc.]&cetc.: and there
was an Awful Solemnity in the
[Aſembly | assembly]Aſemblyassembly,— after meeting I went
home with one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp], and
I was very kindly [entertain'd | entertained]entertain'dentertained. The
old People [apper'd | appeared]apper'dappeared very Religi
ous, [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in the evening
I had Some [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise with the
Children of the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse. They were
all grown up but one, and they
[appear'd | appeared]appear'dappeared very Solemn in the
[exerciſe | exercise]exerciſeexercise, and then we [prayd | prayed]praydprayed
together, and after that I went
to Bed Quietly once more —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 18[1785-10-18]:

Soon after
[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast took good and Friend
ly leave of the Family, and I
went on to [Galaway | Galway]GalawayGalway[place0432.ocp], and I [miſ[above] tt | missed]miſ[above] ttmissed
my way, [loſt | lost]loſtlost about 3 [qrs | quarters]qrsquarters of a
miles and it was very [diſagre
able | disagree
, to my mind, I was [obligd | obliged]obligdobliged
to go right back, and it put
me in mind of [miſsing | missing]miſsingmissing a way
to heaven it [muſt | must]muſtmust be dreadful
[beyound | beyond]beyoundbeyond all [Expreſsion | expression]Expreſsionexpression to [miſs | miss]miſsmiss
Heaven [finaly | finally]finalyfinally at [laſt | last]laſtlast: I got
to [Galaway | Galway]GalawayGalway[place0432.ocp], before 12: and [Calld | called]Calldcalled
in at Good [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]'s one that
went from New London[place0164.ocp] North [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): P]P
near by where I live, and he [& | and]&and
his wife[pers1807.ocp] [receiv'd | received]receiv'dreceived me with all [kind
neſs | kind
, — about 2 o: c we went to
meeting a few Rods from [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse — and there was a good
Number of People, I [preach'd | preached]preach'dpreached
to them from the words— we will
go three Days Journey [&c | etc.]&cetc. [above] [gen | Genesis]genGenesis 8.27[gen | Genesis]genGenesis 8.27, in the
evening I [preachd | preached]preachdpreached again in
the Same [Houſe | house]Houſehouse and there was
a good number People of again
I Spoke from Ruth — what
is thy Petition [&c | etc.]&cetc.[Sot | Sat]SotSat Some
Time after meeting had Some
[Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation with Some Friends
and it was [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable, and then
went home with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp], and
I went to bed [Peacabl[illegible]y | peaceably]Peacabl[illegible]ypeaceably once
more thanks be to Heaven —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 19[1785-10-19]:

after [Breakft | breakfast]Breakftbreakfast
about 9: I took Friendly leave
of [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. otis[pers0400.ocp] and his Family, and
one [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Dean[pers0163.ocp] went with me
6 or 7 miles, to direct me in
the way — got to [Mohauk | Mohawk]MohaukMohawk River[place0469.ocp]
near 12: and So I went on
got to [Caukunnawaka | Caughnawaga]CaukunnawakaCaughnawaga[place0467.ocp] in the
evening and I put at one
[Vuders | Vedder's]VudersVedder's a Dutch Tavern[place0472.ocp]

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Oct.r | October]Oct.rOctober 20[1785-10-20],

[Sot | Set]SotSet [of | off]ofoff very
early in the Morning, and
went over to [Southſide | southside]Southſidesouthside of the River[place0469.ocp]
a little above the [Noſe | nose]Noſenose and [kep | kept]kepkept on
[till | 'til]till'til I got to one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Mabee[pers1111.ocp]'s and
I took [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast, and Soon after
[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast went on, and about
11 it began to Rain hard, and
I [Stopt | stopped]Stoptstopped at one [Esqr | Esq.]EsqrEsq. Henry Wa[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): u]u
rath, [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable gentleman; [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed
here all Night, —

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 21[1785-10-21]:

got up very
early even before break of
Day a great while, and the
[Esqr | Esq.]EsqrEsq. got up too Soon after —
at broad [Day light | daylight]Day lightdaylight, I got up
on my [Horſe | horse]Horſehorse and [puſhd | pushed]puſhdpushed on
my way, [reach'd | reached]reach'dreached at Widow
s about 9: and took
[breakfaſt | breakfast]breakfaſtbreakfast there, and after
eating went on again, here
I heard Tour Anthony[pers1087.ocp] and Jame[above] ss
Slept, and one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Prince[pers1122.ocp]
with them, and I never over
took them, [till | 'til]till'til I got to the
turn of the New Road to our
Peoples Settlements, [Juſt | just]Juſtjust as I
was going to one of the [Houſes | houses]Houſeshouses
[Antony | Anthony]AntonyAnthony[pers1087.ocp] [Calld | called]Calldcalled me, and I look
ed back and there was [Antony | Anthony]AntonyAnthony[pers1087.ocp]
Smiling, and we went into [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
together, and Concluded to Stop
here,— and he [Calld | called]Calldcalled [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Prince[pers1122.ocp]
and [Jamy | Jamey]JamyJamey[pers1137.ocp], and they Came
back,— and to one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Folt[pers1106.ocp]s
and Lodged there, —

Saturday [octr | October]octrOctober 22[1785-10-22],

we got up
quite Early and got ready
to go on our way, [juſt | just]juſtjust as we
were going off, Elijah [Wymp[above] ii | Wympy]Wymp[above] iiWympy[pers0721.ocp]
Came to our Lodgings, and he
told us David[pers0155.ocp] and Jacob Fowler[pers0018.ocp]
and [moſt | most]moſtmost all our men were
in another [Houſe | house]Houſehouse [juſt | just]juſtjust by, and
I sent James[pers1137.ocp], and they Soon
Come to me, and it was a Joy
ful meeting,— and then I wen[above] tt
to where the [reſt | rest]reſtrest of them were
and they all rejoice to See me
and was with them a little while
and then went back to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Folt[pers1106.ocp]s
and Concluded not to go [thro | through]throthrough the
woods this Day, [becauſe | because]becauſebecause it was
a [miſty | misty]miſtymisty kind of weather,— Some
went [thro | through]throthrough, but I [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed and Some
others, I [taried | tarried]tariedtarried at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Fol | Folt]FolFolt[pers1106.ocp]s,—

Sabbath [Octr | October]OctrOctober 23:[1785-10-23]

This morning was
a Snowy Morning, and it [Raind | rained]Raindrained all
[laſt | last]laſtlast Night,— and I [taried | tarried]tariedtarried at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Conora[illegible]d | Conrad]Conora[illegible]dConrad [Fol | Folt]FolFolt[pers1106.ocp]
s, all Day, they were
quite [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable Family, [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed
here again this Night —

Monday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 24[1785-10-24]:

[Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime after
[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast Brother David Fowler[pers0155.ocp]
and I [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff to go [thro' | through]thro'through the Woods to
our Indians new Settlements, and
[preſently | presently]preſentlypresently after we [Sot | set]Sotset out it began
to Rain and it [Rain'd | rained]Rain'drained all the way
not very hard, — and it was [extream
ly | extreme
bad muddy riding, and the
Creeks were very high, and Some
Places very Mirely, and we were
[over taken | overtaken]over takenovertaken with Night before we
got in, and Some places were very
Dark where [Hamlock | hemlock]Hamlockhemlock Trees were
our Eyes did us [illegible]but [above] littlelittle good, we [travild | traveled]travildtraveled
about a mile in the Dark, and
then we [arrivd | arrived]arrivdarrived at David[pers0155.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
as we [approach'd | approached]approach'dapproached the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse I hear[above] dd
a Melodious [Sining | singing]Siningsinging, a number were
together [Sining | singing]Siningsinging [Pſalms | psalms]Pſalmspsalms hymns and
Spiritual Songs, we went in [amon[above] gtsgts | amongst]amon[above] gtsgtsamongst
them, and they all took hold of my
Hand [above] one by oneone by one with Joy and [Gladneſs | gladness]Gladneſsgladness from
the [Greateſt | greatest]Greateſtgreatest to the [leaſt | least]leaſtleast, and we
[Sot | sat]Sotsat down a while, and then they
began to Sing again, and Some
Time after, I gave them a few words
of [illegible]Exhortation, and then Conclude[above] dd
with Prayer,— and then went to
Sleep Quietly, the [illegible]Lord be [praiſed | praised]praiſedpraised
for his great [goodneſs | goodness]goodneſsgoodness to us —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 25[1785-10-25]

Was a Snowy Day
was very uncomfortable weather I
[kep | kept]kepkept still all Day at David[pers0155.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
and it was [Crouded | crowded]Croudedcrowded all Day. Some of
[onoydas | Oneidas]onoydasOneidas[org0075.ocp] Came in — In the evening
Singers Came in again, and they
Sang [till | 'til]till'til near ten o: c: and then
I gave them a word of Exhortation
and Conclude with prayer, So we
ended another Day —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 26:[1785-10-26]

Snow is about
is about [ancle | ankle]ancleankle [Deed | deep]Deeddeep this [Morng | morning]Morngmorning
and all [Poſh | posh]Poſhposh under the Snow and
the Land is [foul | full]foulfull of water every
where, and the Brooks are very
high— it is not Clear [wheather | weather]wheatherweather
yet — in the evening we had a [litte | little]littelittle
Singing again — This morning
I [rench'd | wrenched]rench'dwrenched my Back, only [puting | putting]putingputting
on my Stockings, and [above] waswas put [above] toto Some
difficulty to go out all Day —

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Octor | October]OctorOctober 27[1785-10-27]:

Cloudy but
moderate, my back Continues as
it was [yeſterday | yesterday]yeſterdayyesterday,—

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Octor | October]OctorOctober 28[1785-10-28]:

it was warm
and [pleaſent | pleasant]pleaſentpleasant Day but Coloudy
the [begeſt | biggest]begeſtbiggest part of the Day — in
the evening they Sung in [Abra[above] mm | Abraham]Abra[above] mmAbraham
s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, a mile from David

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Octr | October]OctrOctober 29[1785-10-29]

David[pers0155.ocp] intended to gather his Corn
but it [lookd | looked]lookdlooked very much like for
Rain, and So [difer | defer]diferdefer it to an[ſ | s]ſsother
Day, — the Young Folks went
in the evening to Abraham:
s a mile [of | off]ofoff from David
s to Sing, but I did not
go my back Continued out of
order, —

Saturday [Octr | October]OctrOctober [illegible]29[1785-10-29]:

David[pers0155.ocp] [gather[above] dd | gathered]gather[above] ddgathered
his Corn he had a number of
Hands [tho' | though]tho'though it was Cloudy in the
morning, and little Rain, and
in the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon he [huſked | husked]huſkedhusked his
Corn, and the [Huſkers | huskers]Huſkershuskers Sung Hym[above] nsns
Psalms and Spiritual Songs the
[bigeſt | biggest]bigeſtbiggest part of the Time, [finiſhd | finished]finiſhdfinished
in the evening,— and after Supper
the Singers Sung [a while | awhile]a whileawhile, and
then [diſpa[above] rrſed | dispersed]diſpa[above] rrſeddispersed

Sabbath [Octr | October]OctrOctober 30[1785-10-30]:

Had a meeting
in David[pers0155.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and a Number
of Stockbridgers[org0121.ocp] Came to meeting
to the [diſtance | distance]diſtancedistance of Six miles, they
had eleven [Horſes | horses]Horſeshorses and there
was a number of foot People, and
there was a Solemn [Aſembly | assembly]Aſemblyassembly, the
People attended the word with
affection many of them— I Spoke
from [Mathew | Matthew]MathewMatthew IV. 10: in the after
Noon from XXXII: 1: in the even
ing we had Singing a long
while and then gave them a
word of Exhortation and Conclu
ded with Prayer —
Monday [Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday and [wedneſday | Wednesday]wedneſdayWednesday
nothing [hadpen'd | happened]hadpen'dhappened remarkable
only Rainy and Snowy weather
and I was mu[above] cch [Confind | confined]Confindconfined with my
[wren[above] ttch | wrenched]wren[above] ttchwrenched Back —

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 3: 1785[1785-11-03]

Night we attended upon the
[antient | ancient]antientancient [ordernace | ordinance]ordernaceordinance of [marrage | marriage]marragemarriage
the [firſt | first]firſtfirst that ever was [Selebra
ted | celebr
by our People in their New
in that [wildirneſs | wilderness]wildirneſswilderness,
The [Cupple | couple]Cupplecouple to be married and
the Young People, formed in a
Neighbouring [above] [Houſe | house]Houſehouse[Houſe | house]Houſehouse and Came to
the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse of [Weding | wedding]Wedingwedding in a Regu
lar [Proceſsion | procession]Proceſsionprocession according to their
age and were Seated according
ly — and the old People [alſo | also]alſoalso Seat
ed [themſelves | themselves]themſelvesthemselves Regularly, and
A great Number of [Stocbrid
gers | Stockbrid
Came from their Town[place0165.ocp]
to attend the [Weding | wedding]Wedingwedding, but many
of them were too late —
When I got up, I Spoke to
them Some Time upon the
nature of [Marrage | marriage]Marragemarriage, the [Ho
nourableneſ | ho
and [Lawfulneſs | lawfulness]Lawfulneſslawfulness
of it whereby we are [diſtin
guyſhd | distin
from the Brutal Crea
tion: Said Some of the [firſt | first]firſtfirst
[marrage | marriage]marragemarriage in Eden [above] [& | and]&and[& | and]&and of the
[Marrage | marriage]Marragemarriage where [Chriſt | Christ]ChriſtChrist [illegible]and
his [Diſciples | disciples]Diſciplesdisciples were invited
and the Honour he did to it
by working [above] thethe [firſt | first]firſtfirst [mericle | miracle]mericlemiracle.
he [wroght | wrought]wroghtwrought in the World in
turning water into Wine
and then we prayed, after Prayer
I [orderd | ordered]orderdordered them to take each other
by the Right Hand alternately
and then I declared them in the
Face of the [Aſembly | assembly]Aſemblyassembly to be a Law
ful [Huſband | husband]Huſbandhusband and wife, according
to the Law of god — and then [pray[above] dd | prayed]pray[above] ddprayed
again, [above] [& | and]&and prayer being ended [Mariage | marriage]Mariagemarriage Salutations[& | and]&and prayer being ended [Mariage | marriage]Mariagemarriage Salutations [below] went round Regularly —went round Regularly — and Concluded with by
Singing a Marriage Hymn, —
and then the People Sat down,—
and Jacob Fowler[pers0018.ocp] who was ap
pointed [Maſter | master]Maſtermaster of the [Sereimonies
| ceremonies]
ceremonies at this Marriage, gave out Some
Drink [a Round | around]a Roundaround; the Company
and then Supper was brought
[Sot | Set]SotSet in order on a long Board,
and we [Sot | sat]Sotsat down to eat, and
had [Totty | toddy]Tottytoddy well [Sweeten'd | sweetened]Sweeten'dsweetened with
wild Sugar made of Sugar Trees
in the [Wilderneſs | wilderness]Wilderneſswilderness; and after Sup
per, we Spent the Evening in
Singing Psalms Hymns and
Spiritual Songs, — and after that
every went home Peaceably
with andy [Carouſing | carousing]Carouſingcarousing or [Frollicin[above] gg | frolicking]Frollicin[above] ggfrolicking

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 4[1785-11-14].

The young [Peopl | people]Peoplpeople
put on their [beſt | best]beſtbest [Cloaths | clothes]Cloathsclothes and
went to a Neighbours [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, all
on [Horſe back | horseback]Horſe backhorseback, and they [appear[above] dd | appeared]appear[above] ddappeared
agreeable and Decent, and they
had no [Carouſing | carousing]Carouſingcarousing, they had Some
[Pleaſent | pleasant]Pleaſentpleasant Chat and [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable Con
duct, Some Singing [above] ofof Psalms Hymn[above] ss
and Spiritual Songs, [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime
in the [after Noon | afternoon]after Noonafternoon they dined toge
ther, and after Dinner every one
went Home Quietly,— So the [wed
ing | wed
ended, and it was Conduct
ed, [Caried | carried]Cariedcarried on, and [finiſh'd | finished]finiſh'dfinished with
Honour and great Decency —
and the Lord help this People
to go on Regularly in all their
Concerns —

[Sab: | Sabbath]Sab:Sabbath [Novr | November]NovrNovember[illegible]6[1785-11-06]:

Brother Jacob Fowler[pers0018.ocp]
and I went [of | off]ofoff early in the [Morg | morning]Morgmorning
for Stockbridge Indians[org0121.ocp] that
lately Settled at old [onoyda | Oneida]onoydaOneida[place0179.ocp], got
there [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime before meeting
went to Sir Peter [Pauquunnup[above] peetspeets | Pauquunnuppeet's]Pauquunnup[above] peetspeetsPauquunnuppeet's[pers0431.ocp]
[Houſe | house]Houſehouse, he is a Collegian brought
up and Educated at [Dartmuth | Dartmouth]DartmuthDartmouth
, and he [receivd | received]receivdreceived with all
[kindneſs | kindness]kindneſskindness [Friendſhip | friendship]Friendſhipfriendship,— about 11
went to meeting, and many of
our People from our new Settle
ments Came to meeting, to the [diſ
tance | dis
of Six miles, — I Spoke to
them from [Joſhua | Joshua]JoſhuaJoshua 24: 22: and
Esther 7: 2: in the Evening we
had another meeting, and we
had Solemn Day and evening
the People attended with great
attention and Solemnity, after
I had done Speaking; we [Sot | sat]Sotsat dow[above] nn
and the Singer [roſe | rose]roſerose up and they
Sung Some Time, and then [diſ
perſed | dis
, every one to his quarter,
and [Siſter | sister]Siſtersister Hannah[pers0742.ocp] and [Siſter | sister]Siſtersister
and I [Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged at Widow
's where the meeting
was —

Monday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 67[1785-11-07]:

[Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime
after [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast [above] [Sun Riſe | sunrise]Sun Riſesunrise[Sun Riſe | sunrise]Sun Riſesunrise I [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff with
Brother Roger[pers1139.ocp] and his wife[pers1489.ocp]
to our Place; and [Sotpt | stopped]Sotptstopped at
Roger[pers1139.ocp]'s and I took [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast
with them, they live [illegible][illegible][guess (h-dawnd): near]near twothre[above] ee
miles from the [reſt | rest]reſtrest of the People
and after eating I went on to
the Town[place0023.ocp], got there about 12
and found them all well,—
in the Evening we met on
our Temporal and Religious
Concerns, — we met once before
but we did not Come to proceed
any [Buſineſs | business]Buſineſsbusiness — But [above] nownow we pro
ceeded to form [in [above] toto | into]in [above] totointo a Body [Poli
tick | poli
,— We Named our Town by
the Name of [Brotherton | Brothertown]BrothertonBrothertown[place0023.ocp], in
Indian Eeyawquittoowaucon
[above] J: Fowler[pers0018.ocp] was [choſen | chosen]choſenchosen [Clarke | clerk]Clarkeclerk for thisJ: Fowler[pers0018.ocp] was [choſen | chosen]choſenchosen [Clarke | clerk]Clarkeclerk for this [below] TownTown Roger waupieh[pers1139.ocp], David
, Elijah Wympy[pers0721.ocp], John
, and Abraham Simon[pers0487.ocp]
were [Choſen | chosen]Choſenchosen a Committee or
[Truſtees | trustees]Truſteestrustees for the Town[place0023.ocp], for a Year
and for the future, the Committee
is to be [Choſen | chosen]Choſenchosen Annually, — and
Andrew Acorrocomb[pers1085.ocp], and Thoma[above] ss
were [Choſen | chosen]Choſenchosen to be
Fence [Vewers | viewers]Vewersviewers to Continue a Year.
Concluded to have a [Centre | center]Centrecenter near
David Fowler[pers0155.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse. the main
Street is to run North and South [above] [& | and]&and No[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): th]th[& | and]&and[& | and]&and No[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): th]th[& | and]&and
[Eaſt | East]EaſtEast and [weſt | west]weſtwest, to [Croſs | cross]Croſscross at the [Centre | center]Centrecenter
Concluded to live in Peace, and
in [Friendſhip | friendship]Friendſhipfriendship and to go on in
all their [above] PublicPublic Concerns in Harmony
both in their Religious and Tem
poral Concerns, and [every one | everyone]every oneeveryone
to bear his Public part of Pub
lic Charges in the Town[place0023.ocp], —
They [deſird | desired]deſirddesired me to be a Teacher
[amongſt | amongst]amongſtamongst them, I [Conſented | consented]Conſentedconsented to
Spend Some of my remaining
with them, and make this Town[place0023.ocp]
my Home and Center —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday[Novr | November]NovrNovember 8[1785-11-08]:

got up early
and [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff for Stockbridge Indians[org0121.ocp]
got there [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime before meet
ing, this is a Day of [faſting | fasting]faſtingfasting and
Prayer, with the People here
and they [deſired | desired]deſireddesired me to [aſsiſt | assist]aſsiſtassist them
the [Deſign | design]Deſigndesign of this [faſt | fast]faſtfast is to [Confeſs | confess]Confeſsconfess
their Sins before god, and to repent
and beg the Pardon of all their Sins
and [deſire | desire]deſiredesire the [Bleſsing | blessing]Bleſsingblessing of god up
on them, and to [Proſper | prosper]Proſperprosper them in
their New [Settlemet | settlement]Settlemetsettlement, and [alſo | also]alſoalso [bleſs | bless]bleſsbless
them in their Religious Life —
and I preach to them, in the fore
Noon from Jonah 3: 8: in the
[after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon from [Prover | Proverbs]ProverProverbs 23: 26
and it was a Solemn [Faſt | fast]Faſtfast Day
many were deeply [afected | affected]afectedaffected, all
attended like Criminals before
the [Barr | bar]Barrbar; in the Evening they
met again, and they [adviſd | advised]adviſdadvised
and gave [Councel | counsel]Councelcounsel to one another
to Conduct well and be Careful
in all their Conduct the [enſusing | ensuing]enſusingensuing
winter as they were about to
[diſperſe | disperse]diſperſedisperse, for the winter, that
they may get together in the
Spring in Love and Peace, —
and after advice, they Spent
Some Time in Singing of
Spiritual Songs, and when
they had done, I gave them a
word of Exhortation, [ad[above] vviſing | advising]ad[above] vviſingadvising
them to [uſe | use]uſeuse their Natural Powers
and Conduct as becomes Rational
Creatures, and break off from
all [out breakings | outbreakings]out breakingsoutbreakings of Sin, and
Especially to break off from that
abominable Sin of [Drunkeneſs | drunkeness]Drunkeneſsdrunkeness
and give [themſelves | themselves]themſelvesthemselves to watching
and Prayer, and So Conclude
with Prayer, — and the People
[diſperſd | dispersed]diſperſddispersed in Peace — I Lodged
at Sir Peter [Pauqunnuppeets | Pauquunnuppeet's]PauqunnuppeetsPauquunnuppeet's[pers0431.ocp]

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 9[1785-11-09]:

faſted | break‐
with [Capt | Capt.]CaptCapt. [Hindreck | Hendrick]HindreckHendrick[pers0257.ocp] [& | and]&and
Soon after Eating, I [Sot | set]Sotset off for
Home, got to our Place about
12 and found our Folks well—
[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday and [Saturd | Saturday]SaturdSaturday
[lookd | looked]lookdlooked [a bout | about]a boutabout a little to See the
land and it is the [beſt | best]beſtbest land I ever
did See in all my [Travils | travels]Travilstravels. John
Planted [Juſt | just]Juſtjust about one
acre of ground, which he
Cleared [laſt | last]laſtlast may[1785-05], and this
Fall he took of 20 [Buſhels | bushels]Buſhelsbushels of
good Corn 56 [Buſhels | bushels]Buſhelsbushels of Potatoe[above] ss
about 200 Heads of [Cabage | cabbage]Cabagecabbage, and
about 3 [Buſhels | bushels]Buſhelsbushels of Beans, and
about 2 [Buſhels | bushels]Buſhelsbushels of [Paſnips | parsnips]Paſnipsparsnips [& | and]&and
[Beats | beets]Beatsbeets together. [beſides | besides]beſidesbesides Cu
cumbers and Watermelons; of
the Same ground, and it was [above] notnot
[Plowd | plowed]Plowdplowed nor dug up with a
Hoe, only leaves and Small
[Buſhels | bushels]Buſhelsbushels were burnt on it
and great many Lodgs [ly | lie]lylie on it
now — and I was told [laſt | last]laſtlast
week among the Stockbridge
, that in their Clearing
Some Spots of land, where it has
been improved, in Years [paſt | past]paſtpast, they
[Plowd | plowed]Plowdplowed up, and dug up good many
Potatoes; where they had been Plan
ted [pa[above] rrhaps | perhaps]pa[above] rrhapsperhaps 10 or 12 Years ago.
one man got 3 Skipples, and
he p[illegible]lanted them, and he has
[raiſed | raised]raiſedraised a fine [paſsel | passel]paſselpassel of them.
and Brother David Fowler[pers0155.ocp] told
me and his wife[pers0742.ocp] and others Con
firmed it that he [above] hadhad one [Cabage | cabbage]Cabagecabbage
Stomp Stood three Summers and
it headed every Year, the [laſt | last]laſtlast
it Stood, it three Heads —

[Sab, | Sabbath]Sab,Sabbath [Nov.r | November]Nov.rNovember 13[1785-11-13]:

[Preachd | preached]Preachdpreached at David
s and many of the Stock
Came to meeting, and
there was good attention, and
[illegible]I believe Some felt the Power
of the word, in the Evening
we had Some Singing, —

Monday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 14[1785-11-14]

was [geting | getting]getinggetting
ready to return [homward | homeward]homwardhomeward, —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 15[1785-11-15]:

got up very
early in the morning, and we
were fitting to go off, and little
after [Sun riſe | sunrise]Sun riſesunrise we [Sat | set]Satset off, DBrother
and his wife[pers0742.ocp] Daughter
and James Waucus[pers1137.ocp] went together
Elijah Wym[illegible]py[pers0721.ocp], two Daughters
and others Some Stockbridgers[org0121.ocp]
there were Eight [Horſes | horses]Horſeshorses of [illegible][a
mongſt | a
us, and many foot men
and we got [thro | through]throthrough the woods [Juſt | just]Juſtjust
as the Sun was going down
I put up at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Fols | Folt]FolsFolt[pers1106.ocp]'s —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 16[1785-11-16]:

we [Sot | set]Sotset
[of | off]ofoff very early in the morning
and I got to [Esqur | Esq.]EsqurEsq. Wa[illegible]rets
in the Evening, and Lodged
there, and [illegible]three Stockbridgers[org0121.ocp]
were there [alſo | also]alſoalso

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday 17[1785-11-17]:

I [Sot | set]Sotset off very
early and about 11: I got
to [Capt | Capt.]CaptCapt. Roof[pers0924.ocp]'s and there I
[Stopet | stopped]Stopetstopped, and [finiſh'd | finished]finiſh'dfinished writings
for our Folks, [Juſt | just]Juſtjust Night
David[pers0155.ocp] Came in — and here
we Lodged —

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 18[1785-11-18]:

I went
to [Bomens | Bowman's]BomensBowman's Creek[place0476.ocp], and Got
there about 1: put up at
[Esqr | Esq.]EsqrEsq. C[Kimbets | Kimball's]KimbetsKimball's[pers1110.ocp] and they
were very Glad to See me
and I was as glad, and Lodge[above] dd
there, had a meeting here
this Evening, and there was
a [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable of People, and
they attended well, —

Saturday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 19[1785-11-19]:

I left
the Family, [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. White[pers0704.ocp] went
with me about four miles
and So we parted, and I
to [Esqr | Esq.]EsqrEsq. Manbee[pers1113.ocp]'s about 3
o: c: and here I put up, [& | and]&and
was received with [kindneſs | kindness]kindneſskindness
here I overtook my Son [Anto
ny | Anthony]
Anthony Paul[pers1087.ocp]

[Sabb. | Sabbath]Sabb.Sabbath [Nov r | November]Nov rNovember 2[1785-11-20]:

[Preachd | preached]Preachdpreached here
to [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable Number Peo
ple, and they attended with
with all [Seriousneſs | seriousness]Seriousneſsseriousness they
were [moſt | most]moſtmost all Dutch; Spoke
in morning From Acts 9
Lord What Wilt thou — in
the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon from Luke
So is he that Sayeth [&c | etc.]&cetc.
Elijah [Wympeh | Wympy]WympehWympy[pers0721.ocp] and his
Son, and 3 Stockbridge
girls were here [alſo | also]alſoalso
I Lodged here again,

Monday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 21[1785-11-21]:

in the morning it was
about 8: I [Sot | set]Sotset off, and got
So far to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. P[illegible]eter Van
, about a mile
from [Mohauk | Mohawk]MohaukMohawk [above] RiverRiver[place0469.ocp] in the the
Woods North Side —
This Day I Saw the [Revd | Rev.]RevdRev.
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Romine | Romeyn]RomineRomeyn[pers1066.ocp]
a Dutch [Miniſter | minister]Miniſterminister
in [Cacanawaka | Caughnawaga]CacanawakaCaughnawaga[place0467.ocp] by [Mohauk | Mohawk]MohaukMohawk
, I met with him at a
public [Houſe | house]Houſehouse, and he [apear'd | appeared]apear'dappeared
quite Friendly at once, he
[deſired | desired]deſireddesired me [above] meme, that if I [Shoud | should]Shoudshould
Come along this way again
at any Time, to Call upon
him, and have a [Diſcourſe | discourse]Diſcourſediscourse
with his People, and I told I
[wou'd | would]wou'dwould

 [Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 22[1785-11-12]: got up

very early, and it was
very Cold morning, and did
not [Sit | set]Sitset out So early as I intend
ed, took Breakfast before
I [Sot | set]Sotset out, about 8: I went on
my way, [thro | through]throthrough the Woods and it
was very Riding it was not [froſe | froze]froſefroze
[had | hard]hadhard enough to bear a [Horſe | horse]Horſehorse
in Muddy holes; I got to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]'s
in [Gallaway | Galway]GallawayGalway[place0432.ocp] a little after 12
and found them all well, and
put up here, and took Dinner
with them, Concluded to have a
meeting this Evening. about
Daylight in I went [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Dean[pers0163.ocp]'s
to meeting and there was a [Con
ſiderabl | con
of People, and I Spoke
from [Joſhua | Joshua]JoſhuaJoshua, 24: 19: and the
People attended with [Serious
neſs | serious
,— after meeting went back
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]'s and Lodged there —

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 23[1785-11-23]:

Some after
Breakfast [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff to go to a Place
Called Smith Field[place0544.ocp] about 6 miles
[of | off]ofoff, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Meſsenger | Messenger]MeſsengerMessenger[pers1118.ocp] went with me
and it was [thro | through]throthrough a [Deſert | desert]Deſertdesert other
way,— got there [Juſt | just]Juſtjust before 12
went into [M.r | Mr.]M.rMr. Smith[pers0499.ocp]'s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse,
where the meeting is to be, a
bout 2: we began the meeting
and there was [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable
Number of People Collected toge
ther, [illegible] for they had but [Shrot | short]Shrotshort Notice
and it is a New Settlement,
and the People attended with all
gravity and Solemnity, I believe
Some felt the Power of the word,
Soon after Meeting, one Mr
, a [Univerſaliſt | Universalist]UniverſaliſtUniversalist[org0152.ocp] Preacher
[deſired | desired]deſireddesired to have Some [Co[illegible]nverſation | conversation]Co[illegible]nverſationconversation
with me, and we had [Conver
ſateon | conver
a little while together
without much Debate, for we
[diſagreed | disagreed]diſagreeddisagreed altogether,— and the
People [diſperſt | dispersed]diſperſtdispersed and I [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed at
the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse all Night, and [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Meſanger | Messenger]MeſangerMessenger[pers1118.ocp]
went home; and [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
S[above] mmith[pers0499.ocp]
and his wife[pers1770.ocp] and I had
very agreeable [Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation
and their Son in Law his Nam[above] ee
was Alexander[pers1086.ocp], Scotchman by
Nation, was very much
[biggoted | bigoted]biggotedbigoted to their [Verſton | version]Verſtonversion of
Psalms we had Some debate a
bout them, and upon Some o
th[illegible]er Points — [Sot | sat]Sotsat up late, and
was [Extreamly | extremely]Extreamlyextremely well Treated
by the Heads of the Family and
all the Young People; Slept
very Comfortably,—

[above] [Thids | Thursday]ThidsThursday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 24[1785-11-24][Thids | Thursday]ThidsThursday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 24[1785-11-24]

got up
quite early, [Stay'd | stayed]Stay'dstayed [till | 'til]till'til after
[Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast, and then [Sot | set]Sotset [of | off]ofoff
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Hughwee Alexander[pers1086.ocp] went
with me, and we to [Gallaway | Galway]GallawayGalway[place0432.ocp]
about 10, [Call'd | called]Call'dcalled at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Meſenger | Messenger]MeſengerMessenger[pers1118.ocp][above] ss
and Dined with them, and had
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation — Soon
after Dinner went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]s [& | and]&and
from there to meeting about
a mile, where was a Sick
woman, we Soon got there
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp] went with me and
another man, had Some [Con
verſation | con
with the Sick woman
and found her [reſignd | resigned]reſigndresigned to the
will of god, [& | and]&and was Comfortable
in her mind; and then we
began the [Worſhip | worship]Worſhipworship of god, there
was but few People and they
attended with great [Seriousneſs | seriousness]Seriousneſsseriousness
and Some affection — I Spoke
from [Matt | Matthew]MattMatthew 6: 10: after meeting
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Cullock[pers1098.ocp] invited me to go
home with him to Stay all Nigh[above] tt
and was Treated very kindly [& | and]&and
Tenderly, —

[Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 25[1785-11-25]:

got up early
and [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed [till | 'til]till'til after [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast
and then went back, [Calld | called]Calldcalled
at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Meſengers | Messenger's]MeſengersMessenger's[pers1118.ocp] and Dinner
with him, and afterwards
went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]s,— and in
the evening went to meeting
again in [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Dean[pers0163.ocp]s [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
and there was [Conſiderable | considerable]Conſiderableconsiderable
Number of People and there
was great Solemnity among
the People, I Spoke from
James [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): 4]4: 17: after meeting
went back to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]'s
and Lodged there, had
a number Friends to [viſet | visit]viſetvisit
me this Evening, Some Scotch
People and we had quite
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable interview —

Saturday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 26[1785-11-26]

did not prea[above] chch
[his | this]histhis Day, [juſt | just]juſtjust at Night went to
Warran[pers1136.ocp]'s a little [diſtance | distance]diſtancedistance and
was [wellcomd | welcomed]wellcomdwelcomed, and treated very
kindly, he is a [Baptiſt | Baptist]BaptiſtBaptist[org0124.ocp] man by
Denomination, [Sot | sat]Sotsat up Some Time
for had Some Company, [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Mc
Larran | Mc
a Scotchman was with
us and very [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Converſa
tion | conversa
, and good [be[illegible]d Time | bedtime]be[illegible]d Timebedtime I went
to [illegible][Red | bed]Redbed [queetly | quietly]queetlyquietly once more —

[Sab. | Sabbath]Sab.Sabbath [Novr | November]NovrNovember 27[1785-11-27]:

about half after
ten we went to meeting, a few
Rods in a Barn, and there was
a great Number of People, for
a new Settlement, and I Spoke
from I. Samuel. 15: 14 in the after
noon from [Joh | John]JohJohn 11: 28: and there
was great and Sober attention
through the [Aſembly | assembly]Aſemblyassembly, and I belie[above] veve
Some felt the [preſence | presence]preſencepresence of god —
after meeting went home with
[mr | Mr.]mrMr. Warran[pers1136.ocp] and took Dinner
with them, — and in the [even–g | evening]even–gevening
went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. William Kalley[pers1288.ocp]
a Scotchman, and had a meet
ing there and there was a goo[above] dd
number of People, and I [preac[above] hdhd | preached]preac[above] hdhdpreached
to them from [Joh. | John]Joh.John 11: 26: and
I believe we had Some [aſseſtan[above] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): c]c[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): c]c | assistance]aſseſtan[above] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): c]c[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): c]cassistance
both in Preaching and in
hearing — [Lodgd | lodged]Lodgdlodged at the Same
[Houſe | house]Houſehouse — and was kindly [en‐
tertaind | en‐
, —

Monday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 28[1785-11-28]

was at
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Kalley[pers1288.ocp]s [till | 'til]till'til after [Break
faſt | break
, then went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]s and
was there [till | 'til]till'til about 2 in the
after, and then [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp] his [& | and]&and
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Meſsenger | Messenger]MeſsengerMessenger[pers1118.ocp] and his and wen[above] tt
to a [weding | wedding]wedingwedding, and there was
a number of People, but grea[above] tt
many, and I married the [Cup
ple | coup
, thereir Names were [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
Jonathan Bunyan Cotes[pers1097.ocp] and
Polley Doulin[pers1104.ocp],— and the People
behaved exceeding well, — [Juſt | just]Juſtjustwe
good Cake and [Cheeſe | cheese]Cheeſecheese to eat [& | and]&and
[Totty | toddy]Tottytoddy to Drink,— [juſt | just]juſtjust before
[Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset we that Came together
went back again, I [Calld | called]Calldcalled in
at [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Meſsenger | Messenger]MeſsengerMessenger[pers1118.ocp]s, and was there
[till | 'til]till'til the Young [Wedendners | weddeners]Wedendnersweddeners Came
home, and then[illegible] I went to [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp]s
and Lodged, once more, and his
Brother Lodged there [alſo | also]alſoalso, —

[Tueſday | Tuesday]TueſdayTuesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 29[1785-11-29]:

Took my
leave of [mr | Mr.]mrMr. Otis[pers0400.ocp] and his Family
about 9: O'C: and I directed my
[Courſe | course]Courſecourse towards [Scenactady | Schenactady]ScenactadySchenactady[place0202.ocp], [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Meſsenger | Messenger]MeſsengerMessenger[pers1118.ocp]
went with me, and
we parted before we got to the
Place, and I went on to the
Town, got there [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime
before Night; [Calld | called]Calldcalled at [mr | Mr.]mrMr.
's, and Sat [a while | awhile]a whileawhile and
then went to See [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Poſt | Post]PoſtPost[pers0922.ocp] my old
Friend, and found them all well
and was there a while, and his
Son Came in, and he invited ^ to
go home with him, and there I
Lodged, and kindly Treated, [& | and]&and
[illegible]Slept very Comfortable,—

[Wedneſday | Wednesday]WedneſdayWednesday [Novr | November]NovrNovember 30[1785-11-30]:

got up early
took [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast with [Mrs | Mrs.]MrsMrs. [Poſt | Post]PoſtPost[pers1119.ocp], [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Poſt | Post]PoſtPost[pers0922.ocp]
was gone out,— after eating
I went to See Several Friends
[payd | paid]paydpaid my [viſited | visited]viſitedvisited the [Revd | Rev.]RevdRev. [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
[Romine | Romeyn]RomineRomeyn[pers1066.ocp]
, the Dutch [Miniſter | minister]Miniſterminister of
the Place, and he [appeard | appeared]appeardappeared very
Friendly, but I [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed not Long
about 10 O: C: I went over the
Ferry again to go to the 5000
; [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. [Meſsenger | Messenger]MeſsengerMessenger[pers1118.ocp] went with
me again, we [travild | traveled]travildtraveled together
about 7. miles, and there we
parted in [Friendſhip | friendship]Friendſhipfriendship — I went
on, [Calld | called]Calldcalled at one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Sharewood[pers1462.ocp]s
to warm my feet, and I had [Sot | sat]Sotsat
but few minutes, before the wo‐
man, [aſked | asked]aſkedasked me whether I [wou[above] dd | would]wou[above] ddwould
Stay [till | 'til]till'til She Can [illegible]make Some Tea
[illegible]I told her I [woud | would]woudwould, and She C got
it ready Quick, and I eat very
Hearty, and [juſt | just]juſtjust as I had done
the man of the [Houſe | house]Houſehouse Came in
and [appeard | appeared]appeardappeared very agreeable
and as I was going away, he
[deſired | desired]deſireddesired me to Come See him a
gain before I left the Place, [& | and]&and
I told him I [woud | would]woudwould, then went
on to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]s Soon got there
and found them all well, and was
kindly [receivd | received]receivdreceived by the Family, and
I put up there,—

[Thirdsday | Thursday]ThirdsdayThursday [Decemr | December]DecemrDecember 1: 1785[1785-12-01]:

Was at
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]'s [till | 'til]till'til near Noon, and I
went to Mr Woods[pers0872.ocp] a little [diſtance | distance]diſtancedistance
and Dined there, and [illegible][juſt | just]juſtjust
before [Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset, I went to one [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
, and Lodged there, I found [above] himhim
and his wife[pers1808.ocp] very [underſtanding | understanding]underſtandingunderstanding
in the Scriptures and I believe
they were [Experiencd | experienced]Experiencdexperienced [Chriſtians | Christians]ChriſtiansChristians
they are [Ireiſh | Irish]IreiſhIrish Folks, we had
very [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable [Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation [& | and]&and
[Sot | sat]Sotsat up [Some what | somewhat]Some whatsomewhat late, I Saw
the man was not well [pleaſd | pleased]pleaſdpleased
with [Docr | Dr.]DocrDr. Watts[pers0683.ocp]s P[illegible]salms and
we had a long talk upon them, we
did not agree about them, but
we did [above] notnot Contend about them, after
[Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation, we Sung a Psalm
and Read a C[above] hhapter, and [Prayd | prayed]Praydprayed
together and then went to^ Peaceable
and I had a Comfortable Sleep —

 [Fryday | Friday]FrydayFriday [Decer | December]DecerDecember 2[1785-12-02]:

Got ^ early and
took [Breakfaſt | breakfast]Breakfaſtbreakfast with them after
eating we Sung and Read, and
then I had Some [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise in the
Family with my Christian Cards
and it was very Solemn and
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable; — about 10 I took
my good leave of the Family, and
[returnd | returned]returndreturned to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]s, — and in
the [after noon | afternoon]after noonafternoon about 1: OC: I wen[above] tt
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Clarke[pers0129.ocp]s and there was a goodly
number of People and I [preac[above] hdhd | preached]preac[above] hdhdpreached
to them from, Acts 2: 37: and
there was great Solemnity and
Some affection I believe they felt
[Some thing | something]Some thingsomething of the Power of the word
after meeting a Number of the
People [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed, and in the Evening
I had [Exerciſe | exercise]Exerciſeexercise a long while with
Family, with my [Chriſtian | Christian]ChriſtianChristian Cards
and it was very [agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable
and [Some Time | sometime]Some Timesometime in the Evening
we went to Bed quietly, —

Saturday [Decr | December]DecrDecember 3[1785-12-03]:

about 10 went
to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]s and [Sot | sat]Sotsat [a while | awhile]a whileawhile and
I went to [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Sharewoods[pers1462.ocp] [a bout | about]a boutabout
half mile [of | off]ofoff, and him wvery
kind to me, and [Converſable | conversable]Converſableconversable [& | and]&and
he is [above] anan [underſtand | understand]underſtandunderstand Man took
Dinner with him, and was there
[till | 'til]till'til Tea was got, and took with
them, and [Juſt | just]Juſtjust night [returnd | returned]returndreturned to
[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp]s again, and Lodged
there, —

[Sabb: | Sabbath]Sabb:Sabbath [Decr | December]DecrDecember 4[1785-12-04]:

[Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Holms[pers1014.ocp] wen[above] tt
to meeting with an ox [Slead | sled]Sleadsled, and
his whole Family went and
I went with them, the meeting
was again in [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Clark[pers0129.ocp]s [H | house]Hhouse[gap: worn_edge]
and there was a [Vaſt | vast]Vaſtvast Number
of People [tho' | though]tho'though it was Stormy
Day, I Spoke from [Isaah | Isaiah]IsaahIsaiah 5: 3
and was uncommon attention
and Flow of Tears, from old and
Young, and I am [perſwaded | persuaded]perſwadedpersuaded the
Power of the was felt by many
Souls, I [preachd | preached]preachdpreached only once —
after meeting, I took Dinner
with [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Cleark[pers0129.ocp], and after eat
ing we [Sot | sat]Sotsat and Some Religious
[Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation — about [Sun Sit | sunset]Sun Sitsunset
we went to good old [Mr | Mr.]MrMr. Nothrop[pers1018.ocp]s
and [the | there]thethere we had a [above] ComfortableComfortable meeting, and
it was very Comfortable meet
ing, and was great many [Peo | people]Peopeople
I Spoke from Matt 5: 13. [Mr | Mr.]MrMr.
gave me the Text
and after the meeting was over
a Number [Stayd | stayed]Staydstayed, and we had
[agreable | agreeable]agreableagreeable Religious [Converſation | conversation]Converſationconversation
I [Loddgd | lodged]Loddgdlodged at the Same [Houſe | house]Houſehouse
[note (type: editorial): Blank page.][note (type: editorial): Blank page.]
Oneida Nation
The Oneidas are one of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Six Nations. During the 18th century, they were largely considered the most Christianized Haudenosaunee tribe. The Oneidas had a rich tradition of indigenous ministers, including Good Peter, Deacon Thomas, and Isaac Dakayenensere, and played host to several Moor’s missionaries, including Samson Occom, David Fowler, Samuel Ashpo, Joseph Johnson, Joseph Woolley, Titus Smith, and Samuel Kirkland (who went on to found Hamilton Oneida Academy, now Hamilton College). They were also the interpreter James Dean’s adoptive tribe. Notable Oneida towns included Onaquaga, Kanawalohale, and Old Oneida. Onaquaga was the central fire of the Six Nations. By the 18th century, it also had a sizeable contingent of Onondagas and Tuscaroras. Good Peter and Isaac Dakayenensere taught there, as did Joseph Woolley. Kanawalohale and Old Oneida were more predominantly Oneida. The Oneidas were involved in several crucial moments in the history of Moor's Indian Charity School. Onaquaga was the site of the 1765 confrontation between Wheelock and the New England Company, in which the New England Company disrupted Titus Smith's mission, first by sending their own missionary, and second by repossessing Elisha Gunn, the interpreter they had agreed to "loan" to Titus Smith. Left without an interpreter, Titus Smith was forced to abandon his mission (Wheelock repaid the favor a few years later by hiring James Dean away from the New England Company). A few years later, in 1769, Deacon Thomas led the Oneidas in withdrawing all their children from Moor's. The Oneidas' departure struck a devastating blow against Wheelock's Indian education plans, and provided more momentum for his shift to educating predominantly Anglo-Americans. The Oneidas sided with the colonists during the Revolution, but they were still affected by the general devastation in Six Nations territory, especially the Sullivan Expedition (1779). After the Revolution, the Oneidas granted tracts of their land to two Christian Indian organizations: the Brothertown tribe, a composite tribe of Moor’s alumni from New England, and the Stockbridge Indians. It was not long before the groups came into conflict with one another. Encroachment from the new State of New York put increasing pressure on Oneida land, and the Oneidas tried to renegotiate their treaties with the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians to compensate. The Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians fought back, but by the 1820s all three groups had lost, and many of them relocated to Wisconsin.
Stockbridge Tribe
The Stockbridge Indians were the inhabitants of the town of Stockbridge, Massachusetts, a Christian Indian town modeled on John Eliot’s 17th-century “praying towns” (Indian towns where the inhabitants lived an Anglicized life style). Established in 1734, Stockbridge was composed of Mahicans, Housatonics, Wappingers, and Esopus (at the end of the 18th century, the Stockbridge Indians also adopted many New Jersey Delaware). The Stockbridge Indians had close ties to the Brothertown Nation, a composite tribe of Algonquian Indians from around the Long Island Sound which was organized by alumni of Moor’s Indian Charity School. The town played host to a series of famous missionaries and ministers, including John Sergeant Sr., Gideon Hawley, Jonathan Edwards, and John Sergeant Jr. (Sergeant Sr. established a boarding school at Stockbridge that provided the model for Eleazar Wheelock’s Moor’s Indian Charity School.) Eventually, the problems that the Stockbridge Indians encountered with white families who owned land in their town (most notably the Williams family) convinced them of the dangers of white land expansion and influenced their later land policies. In 1785, the Stockbridge Indians relocated to a tract of land in Oneida territory adjacent to the Brothertown settlement. (During the Revolution, Stockbridge played host to displaced Brothertown and Oneida Indians who had fled central New York. These ties were extremely influential in the decision to relocate.) They called their town New Stockbridge. By the turn of the 19th century, land pressures again overwhelmed the Brothertown and Stockbridge Indians and, along with many Oneida, they sought land in the west where they could attempt to escape white expansion.
Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College is small liberal arts institution in Hanover, New Hampshire. It has about four thousand undergraduate students taking courses in Arts and Sciences, and another two thousand in graduate schools in the Sciences, Comparative Literature, and Liberal Studies, as well as the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, and the Tuck School of Business. It is a member of the Ivy League, and the ninth oldest institution of higher learning in the U.S. The charter establishing the College was signed in 1769 by John Wentworth, Royal Governor of New Hamsphire, who wanted an academy of higher learning in the colony. Its founder, Eleazar Wheelock, was a Congregational minister from Connecticut who, after his success in educating Samson Occom as a school teacher and Indian missionary in the 1740's, started Moor's Indian Charity School in 1754 to continue what he regarded as a divine mission to educate Native boys and girls to become missionaries. As the school grew, Wheelock began looking for a new location closer to Indian Country where he could expand. But in the 1760's he became disillusioned by the relative failure of his progam and began turning his attention to the education of Anglo-American men as missionaries. After a protracted search, he secured the royal charter in New Hampshire and in 1769 moved his family and base of operations to Hanover, where he established the College. It is named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth, who contributed to the funds raised by Occom and Whitaker on their fund-raising tour of Great Britain in 1766-68 and became a member of the London Trust that administered those funds. The College's charter announced its purpose as "the education and instruction of youth of the Indian tribes in this land [in] all parts of learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing and christianizing children of pagans…, and also of English youth and any others." But Wheelock's priorities were, in reality, the reverse. While he gave public notice in 1770 that "My Indian charity school … is now become a body corporate and politic, under the name of DARTMOUTH COLLEGE," he created this parallel structure to allow him to use the funds that were collected specifically for the education of Indians. Only around 75 Native students enrolled at the College before 1972, when it rededicated itself to educating Indians and established the Native American Studies Program. This is also the year Dartmouth went co-ed. Occom was angry and embittered at Wheelock’s abandonment of his “great design,” for which he had sacrificed so much. Their relations cooled after Occom’s return from England, and he never visited his mentor again, or, for that matter, Dartmouth College.
Universalist Church
The Universalist Church was a Christian religious denomination that developed in America from Pietist and Anabaptist movements, inculding Quakers, Moravians, Methodists, Lutherans and others. Its defining theology is universal salvation, and thus it runs counter to the central Calvinist belief in predestination, in which some souls are predestined for damnation. As a Presbyterian, Occom held to the Calvinist view and vigorously disagreed doctrinally with adherents of Universalism. The first Universalist Church in America was founded by John Murray in Gloucester, MA in 1779, and in 1790 the Universalists adopted a a doctrinal statement and plan for church government. In 1961 the Universalists consolidated with the Unitarian Association to form the Unitarian Universalist Church.
Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists
The Baptists were a dissenter sect that became especially popular in New England after the First Great Awakening. They diverged from Protestant belief mainly in insisting that only believers should be baptized, and that it should be done by immersion in water and not by sprinkling or pouring water, but they represented the most radical of the radical New Lights and were known for lay preaching and personal spirituality. Wheelock and most of his former students were more moderate New Lights and opposed this sort of radical Christianity. Occom, however, had many connections with Baptist ministers in central New York. On his preaching tour in 1774, he records visiting several Baptist ministers, largely white, and speaking to large crowds, sometimes in the woods. He also records meeting with a "Seven Day Baptist" minister. The Seventh Day or Sabbatarian Baptists differ from Baptist beliefs mainly in observing the Sabbath on Saturday, in accordance with the ten commandments. Baptist belief held a strong attraction for Native peoples because it protected their autonomy and embraced preaching and leadership by lay people. Divides over theology became problematic at Brothertown, where Occom’s moderate sect clashed with the more Baptist sect over whether or not to lease their land to Americans. After Occom’s death, Samuel Ashpo, a Baptist Mohegan minister known for his separatism, began spending more time at Brothertown and built up a substantial Baptist congregation there.

Albany is a city located in eastern New York. When Netherlander Henry Hudson arrived in what would become Albany in 1609, the Mohican Indians lived in several villages in the area. The Mohicans gave Hudson’s crew furs, and the Dutch East India Company sent representatives to trade with the Native peoples. The Dutch established the village of Beverwyck within the territory of the New Netherlands. Beverwyck hosted a diverse population of Germans, French, Swedes, English, Irish, Scots, Dutch, and Africans. After the fall of New Netherlands to Britain in 1664, Beverwyck was renamed Albany in honor of the colony’s proprietor James, Duke of York and Albany. In 1686, Albany was granted a charter that incorporated the city and provided it the sole right to negotiate trade with Native Americans. During the French and Indian War, Albany was designated as the British military headquarters in the Americas. During the Revolutionary War, most Albany residents supported the revolution because of their opposition to British trade restrictions.

Loudens Ferry
Hudson River

The Hudson River, frequently referred to as the North River in Occom Circle documents, runs 315 miles from Newcomb in upstate New York to the Long Island Sound. The Algonquin-speaking tribes that originally inhabited both sides of the river called it Mahicantuck, or river that flows both ways. In 1609, Henry Hudson, an English explorer employed by the Dutch East India Company, sailed up the river while looking for a passage to India and instead found thousands of Algonquians living in the river's valley. Hudson sailed as far north as Albany before turning back. Dutch traders settled the river’s banks and established trade in the colony that would become New Netherland. The Dutch called it Noort Rivier, or North River, by contrast to South River, the Delaware River. Only when the English began to assert their claim over the North River in the 1600s did it become commonly referred to as the Hudson River, to emphasize its "discovery" by an Englishman. The Dutch eventually ceded the river to the English in 1674 under the Treaty of Westminster, but the name North River persisted into the early 20th century. In their writings, Occom and his contemporaries refer to the Hudson as North River. Occom travelled along the North River from Mohegan to Albany during his preaching tours in the mid-1780s. Eventually, Occom sailed up North River for good, settling in New Stockbridge in 1789. Today, the name North River still refers to the section of the Hudson between New Jersey and New York City.


Ballston is a town in central New York state, north of Albany. The area was occupied by Mohawk Indians, who resented the appropriation of their sacred grounds by European settlers. The first settlers, the MacDonald brothers, built a homestead on the west bank of Ballston Lake in 1763. Reverend Eliphalet Ball arrived in 1770 with his three sons and members of his congregation from Bedford, NY, bought the land from the MacDonalds, named it Ball's Town, and established a Presbyterian church there in 1771. Soon, settlers arrived from other parts of New England, New Jersey, Scotland and north of Ireland. In 1774, a stockaded fort was built in Ballston, which was attacked by the British and their Indian allies from Canada in 1780 and 1781. It became a town of Albany county in 1785 and was part of the religious circuit in upstate New York in which Occom travelled.

5000 Aires
New London

New London is a city located in southeastern Connecticut along an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean called Long Island Sound. The area that would become New London was inhabited by the Pequots who called it Nameaug when the Europeans arrived in North America. Pequot villages bordered Long Island Sound and the Tribe had authority over the neighboring Tribes of the Mohegans and Niantics (all Algonquian-speaking tribes). The Dutch first explored this land in 1614 and established trade with the Native peoples, but the English soon gained possession of the land east of the Hudson in the 1630s. English animosity toward their Indian neighbors led to the Pequot War (1634-38), part of which took place in the present city of New London. The Pequots lost the war and their population deteriorated due to the violence and disease. The General Court of Massachusetts granted John Winthrop possession of Pequot territory in 1644 after which it was to be opened for settlement. By 1646, which is considered the official year of its founding, New London had permanent colonial inhabitants and municipal laws, and jurisdiction was granted to the colony of Connecticut in 1647. In 1658, the inhabitants renamed the town New London after London, England. New London was the colony of Connecticut’s first trading port and was a hub of trade with the West Indies and other colonies. Though initially part of the town of New London when it was first settled by the colonists, Groton, Montville, and Waterford were each separated from New London in 1705, 1786, and 1801 respectively. Present-day Salem was also part of New London when it was settled, but in 1819, it became a separate incorporated town composed of parts of Lyme, Colchester, and Montville. Occom kept a school in New London in the winter in 1748. New London was the home of Captain Nathaniel Shaw, one of the wealthiest merchants in the area, who gave money to Occom in the 1750s for the missionary cause and also sold materials to Occom for the building of his home. However, their positive relationship ended when Shaw refused to provide supplies for Mary Occom while Occom was in England. New London served as the port from which Occom and other missionaries traveled to reach Long Island. During the American Revolution, New London’s location and its status as a seaport made it both vulnerable to invasion and integral to colonial naval operations as well as the exchange of prisoners.New London was incorporated as a city in 1784.

Mohawk River

Caughnawaga was one of four palisaded villages or "castles" of the Mohawk tribe located along the Mohawk River in eastern New York state near the present-day town of Fonda. The name derives from a Mohawk word kahnawa:ke, meaning place of the rapids, referring to the rapids of the Mohawk River. When Europeans first arrived in the 16th century, there were nearly 8,000 people living in these four villages, which were made up of bark longhouses, organized matrilineally. In 1664, the English captured Albany and tried to bring the Mohawks under their influence. French Jesuits established a mission in the village, which operated from 1668 to 1679, teaching the Mohawks French and converting them to Catholicism. Under French influence, a band migrated in 1667 from the New York region to La Prairie, a Jesuit mission on the St. Lawrence river in Quebec, finally settling just south of Montreal at a site they called Caughnawaga after their original village in New York; it is now known as Kahnawake. (Among the migrants was Kateri Tekakwitha, a young Mohawk convert who in 1993 was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church.) The traditional longhouse village of Caughnawaga was abandoned in 1693. Joseph Brant, an influential Mohawk chief and brother-in-law of Sir William Johnson, British superintendent for Indian Affairs, urged the Six Nations to support the British during the Revolutionary War. Because of this alliance, the Mohawks were forced out of the Mohawk Valley and fled to Ontario and Montreal. In the 1780s, English settlers established a new town north of the Mohawk River named Caughnawaga, after the Mohawk village, which Occom visited several times on his preaching tours of the area in 1785 and 1789. The original site of Caughnawaga was discovered in 1950, and is now the only completely excavated Haudenosaunee village in the country, showing the outlines of 12 longhouses and the defensive stockade.


Stockbridge is a town in Madison County in central New York state, named for the Stockbridge Indians of Western Massachusetts. During the Revolutionary war, the Stockbridge Indians had befriended the Oneidas, whose villages were burned down by Indians allied to the British. When the Stockbridge tribe lost ownership of their Christian Indian town, the Oneidas invited them to settle on a six-mile square township, known as "The New Stockbridge Indian Territory." Although the details are unclear, a letter from the Stockbridge chief, Hendrick Aupaumut, to Governor George Clinton of New York suggests that the Oneidas gave the Stockbridge Indians a written deed in 1784, possibly at the Treaty of Fort Stanwix that year. The state of New York confirmed the Tribe's ownership of the town on several later occasions, but would ultimately rescind its promise, forcing the Stockbridge Indians to remove further west to Indiana and Wisconsin, where they ultimately settled in the early 19th century. By 1785, the majority of the Stockbridge tribe from Massachusetts had moved to the town of New Stockbridge, originally called "Tuscarora" or "Old Oneida" by the white settlers. In 1787, the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge hired John Sergeant, son of the original missionary in Massachusetts, as minister for the tribe; Sergeant travelled between his home in Stockbrige, MA, to New Stockbridge every year for nearly forty years in that capacity. In 1788, Occom, who had been invited as minister for the Brothertown settlement nearby, opposed Sergeant's mission but Occom's death in 1792 settled the conflict. In 1795, three New York Quakers visited New Stockbridge and began an exchange that helped the village to flourish. The first Europeans settlers arrived in 1791, and the present day town was created in 1836 from parts of four adjoining towns.


Niskayuna is a town in east central New York State on the Mohawk River, just east of the city Schenectady. The name Niskayuna means "extensive corn flats," and is said to come from the Connestigione Indians who occupied a large area on both sides of the river when Dutch settlers arrived around 1642. The Dutch negotiated land deals with several Connestigione chiefs, and began to build homes and farms in the area in the 1660's. In 1746, George Clinton, Governor of New York colony, built one of a line of blockhouses ranging from Fort Massachusetts to Fort Hunter in Niskayuna, and in 1799, the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike (now Route 5) was built through the town. In 1822, the Erie Canal crossed the Mohawk River into Niskayuna, and in 1843 the Troy and Schenectady Railroad was built along the Mohawk River with a station in Niskayuna. The reformed Church of Niskayuna, organized around 1750, is the church at which Occom mentions preaching in his journal of 1787. Around the time that Occom and other Moor's graduates founded Brothertown on Oneida land in upstate New York, Occom commuted back and forth from Mohegan to Brothertown, often stopping to preach to large, enthusiastic crowds in churches and settlements in the area. He mentions preaching at Niskayuna and staying with acquaintances in 1786, 1787 and 1790, often in winter and braving difficult traveling conditions. He likely traveled on the trail that in 1799 became the Albany-Schenectady Turnpike.

Vedder's, a Dutch Tavern

Brothertown was a multi-tribal Indian settlement in the center of what is now New York state. In the 1760s, Indians in New England and New York were devastated by war, disease, and European settlement, and many who had converted to Christianity believed that pressures and influences from surrounding European settlers impeded them from living Christian lives. The Brothertown Indians began as a group of Christian Indians including members of the Mohegan, Pequot, Narragansett, Montauk, Tunxis, Wangunk, and Niantic tribes. In the 1770s, led by Occom and Joseph Johnson, this group of Indians moved to land granted to them by the Oneida in New York. They named the land Brothertown to both reflect their intention to live with fellow tribes as brothers and also to pay tribute to Brotherton, a Delaware Indian reservation in New Jersey that served as an inspiration for the Christian Indian settlement. When the Revolutionary War began, the Indians of Brothertown sided with the Patriots, and as a result, British sympathizers burnt the Brothertown settlement in 1777. After this, many Brothertown settlers moved east while others remained and fought alongside the colonists.In the 1780s, many more New England Indians, including Occom and his family, moved to Brothertown and the nearby settlement of New Stockbridge, forming a town government, church and schools. In the early 1800s, the state of New York began to purchase tracts of Oneida land, and the Indians were forced to leave New York and settle in Greenbay, Wisconsin.

Bowman's Creek

Bowman's Creek is a small village about four miles long within the town of Canajoharie in central New York's Montgomery County. Canajoharie (also known as Indian Castle or Upper Castle for the Mohawk fortifications surrounding the town) was a major Mohawk village that became a central location for the missionary activity of Wheelock and others. By the time Occom visited the area in the late 1780s, disease and war had decimated the Mohawk population and only around 250 Indians remained in the area. The village is named for Jacob Bowman, an English colonist who purchased land at the head of the creek in 1760. Occom notes the village as a location distinct from Canajoharie, which he also mentions visiting, and it was a frequent stop on his preaching tours of the 1780s. While in Bowman's Creek, Occom preached to the town's residents, likely at the Presbyterian church. In one entry, he notes baptizing a resident.


Schenectady is a city located in eastern New York State. The area that would become Schenectady was originally controlled by the Mohawk Indians, the easternmost and most powerful of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy. The land making up Schenectady was one stop on the much larger Mohawk Trail, which extended from Schenectady to what would become Albany, New York. The name of Schenectady was a derivation of the Mohawk word, Schau-naugh-ta-da, which meant the place beyond the open pines. The first Europeans to arrive at Schenectady were the Dutch who established a settlement there in 1661. Schenectady would come under British control as Dutch power in the Americas waned and the British established the colony of New York. In 1690 during King William’s War, Schenectady became the target of French and Indian soldiers who attacked the town and killed 60 of its residents, an event that became known as the Schenectady Massacre. There was a smallpox outbreak in Schenectady in 1767, as noted in this collection’s documents. In 1780, Oneidas found refuge from Loyalist and Mohawk attacks in Schenectady, and the town served as a stop on the way to Brothertown, the pan-Indian settlement founded by Occom and other graduates of Wheelock’s school. Schenectady was designated a borough in 1765 and eventually incorporated as a city 1798.

Smith Field

Oneida is a city in Madison County located at the geographical center of New York state. Before European settlement of the area, the Oneida Tribe, one of the Six Nations of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy, inhabited a large territory adjacent to nearby Oneida Lake. Around 1533, they built their first village on the south shore of the lake, at or near the mouth of Oneida Creek. At the end of the 17th century, this area began suffering raids by parties from the French colony of Quebec, in a battle to control the fur trade. In 1696, Oneida village was burned by the French. As a result, the Oneidas moved their chief village east of the original site, called Old Oneida, to a new site called Kanawalohale, also known as Oneida Castle, which was fortified by tall palisades and a moat. This is the site of the present-day village of Oneida Castle, a small hamlet west of the city of Oneida in the northwest corner of the town of Vernon. When used in Occom Circle documents, the place name "Oneida" usually refers to the territory inhabited by the Tribe east of Oneida Lake, but can also refer specifically to Oneida Castle. Although the Oneidas sided with the patriots during the Revolutionary War, much of their territory was sold or appropriated by the state of New York. In 1790, the first European settlers moved into the area of Old Oneida village, and the district began to expand. In the 1830s, the state built a feeder from Oneida Creek through the present city site to provide water for the new canal system, which enabled canal boats to ship freight into the town. Eventually, the railroad came through the town and helped with its expansion. This led to the incorporation of the Village of Oneida in 1848 and the establishment of the Town of Oneida in 1896. The town was chartered as the City of Oneida in 1901, and with two more railroad lines transecting the area, it became a thriving manufacturing center for the first half of the 20th century.

Occom, Samson

Samson Occom was a Mohegan leader and ordained Presbyterian minister. Occom began his public career in 1742, when he was chosen as a tribal counselor to Ben Uncas II. The following year, he sought out Eleazar Wheelock, a young Anglo-American minister in Lebanon, CT, in hopes of obtaining some education and becoming a teacher at Mohegan. Wheelock agreed to take on Occom as a student, and though Occom had anticipated staying for a few weeks or months, he remained with Wheelock for four years. Occom’s academic success inspired Wheelock to open Moor’s Indian Charity School in 1754, a project which gave him the financial and political capital to establish Dartmouth College in 1769. After his time with Wheelock, Occom embarked on a 12-year mission to the Montauk of Long Island (1749-1761). He married a Montauk woman, Mary Fowler, and served as both teacher and missionary to the Montauk and nearby Shinnecock, although he was grievously underpaid for his services. Occom conducted two brief missions to the Oneida in 1761 and 1762 before embarking on one of the defining journeys of his career: a fundraising tour of Great Britain that lasted from 1765 to 1768. During this journey, undertaken on behalf of Moor’s Indian Charity School, Occom raised £12,000 (an enormous and unanticpated amount that translates roughly to more than two-million dollars), and won wide acclaim for his preaching and comportment. Upon his return to Mohegan in 1768, Occom discovered that Wheelock had failed to adequately care for his family while he was gone. Additionally, despite the vast sums of money that he had raised, Occom found himself unemployed. Wheelock tried to find Occom a missionary position, but Occom was in poor health and disinclined to leave his family again after seeing the treatment with which they had met while he was in Britain. Occom and Wheelock’s relationship continued to sour as it became apparent to Occom that the money he had labored to raise would be going towards infrastructure at Dartmouth College, Wheelock’s new project, rather than the education of Native Americans. After the dissolution of his relationship with Wheelock, Occom became increasingly focused on the needs of the Mohegan community and increasingly vocal in criticizing Anglo-Americans’ un-Christian treatment of Native Americans. In September of 1772, he delivered his famous “Sermon on the Execution of Moses Paul,” which took Anglo-American spiritual hypocrisy as one of its major themes, and which went into four printings before the end of the year. In 1773, Occom became further disillusioned when the Mason Land Case was decided in favor of the Colony of Connecticut. The details of the Mason Case are complicated, but to summarize: the Colony of Connecticut had gained control of Mohegan land early in the 18th century under very suspect circumstances, and successfully fended off the Mohegan’s 70-year-long legal challenge. The conclusion of the case came as a blow to the Mohegans, and further convinced Occom of Anglo-American corruption. Along with David Fowler (Montauk Tribe), Occom's brother-in-law, and Joseph Johnson (Mohegan), Occom's son-in-law, Occom helped found Brothertown, an Indian tribe formed from the Christian Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Montauks, Tunxis, and Niantics. They eventually settled in Oneida country in upstate New York. Occom moved there with his family in 1789, spending the remaining years of his life serving as a minster to the Brothertown, Stockbridge, and Mohegan Indians. Harried by corrupt land agents, the Brothertown and Stockbridge groups relocated to the eastern shore of Lake Winnebago, though Occom died in 1792 before he could remove himself and his family there. Occom's writings and legacy have made him one of the best known and most eminent Native Americans of the 18th century and beyond.

Wympy, Elijah Jr.

Elijah Wympy Jr. was a Farmington-Tunxis Indian involved in the Brothertown movement. He was born in 1765 in Farmington, Connecticut to Elijah and Eunice Wympy. Wympy Sr. was a key figure in the establishment of Brothertown, and Wympy Jr. supported his father. Like the Mohegans, Pequots, Narragansetts, Niantics and Montauketts, the Tunxis Indians shared a history of encroachment by Europeans and increasing governmental authority that produced the shared identity fueling the creation of Brothertown. Occom notes Wympy Jr.'s presence in Brothertown several times in his journals for 1786-87. Wympy Sr. was a controversial figure who initially supported leasing lands to white settlers in Brothertown, but when he changed his position on this policy, he and his son signed a petition identifying white settlers as trespassers. Wympy Jr. married the widowed Elizabeth Peters, who had a daughter from her first marriage. Together, he and Elizabeth had a son and a daughter. In 1796, Wympy Jr. served as the schoolmaster for the school in Brothertown, but he was discharged after three months and replaced by Hannah Fowler, David Fowler's daughter. Wympy Jr. died in Brothertown in 1812.

McKinny, John
Paul, Christiana (née Occom)

Christiana Occom was born in 1757 in Mohegan, CT as the ninth child of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Christiana spent her childhood in Mohegan, where she married the Reverend Anthony Paul in 1777. The couple eventually settled in Brotherton in 1784. There, they raised at least six children, four of which Samson Occom baptized. Occom's journals tell of many joyful visits he paid to his daughter and son-in-law while on his travels. Christiana and Anthony finally left Brotherton in 1797 to settle in Lake George, NY.

Hollenback, Jenney
Smith, John
Smith, John
Kalley, William
Dina sister
Margery old mother
Tattleton, Isaac
Waucus, James
Carperter, John
Vanburen, Matt
Thomson, Jonathan
son, Mr. Thomson's
Dean, James

James Dean, an adopted member of the Oneida tribe, was an interpreter and American government agent. When he was nine years old, his parents sent him to live with the Oneidas at Onaquaga; they may have thought that interpreting would be a secure career, or they may have acted out of a missionary impulse. Dean lived at Onaquaga for four or five years and was formally adopted by the Oneidas. He may have lived at Good Peter's house. Dean learned an array of Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and Indian languages. In 1762, Rev. Forbes retrieved Dean on a mission to Onaquaga under the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. After that Society folded, the New England Company educated Dean and employed him as a missionary. Naturally, Wheelock coveted the services of this Anglo-American boy who was fluent in multiple Indian languages. Dean was also interested in working for Wheelock because he wanted a college education, which the New England Company was not going to provide. Thus, Dean became yet another point of contention between Wheelock and the New England Company: the New England Company's Boston Board accused Wheelock of trying to poach their best interpreter, while Wheelock maintained that it was Dean who was pursuing him. Dean finally joined Dartmouth College in November of 1769; as Chase points out, by this time Wheelock's relations with the Boston Board were irreparable and he had nothing to lose by accepting Dean as a student. Dean graduated from Dartmouth in 1773 and served Wheelock for the next two years. He worked primarily with Abenakis in Canada and the Oneidas, and was often paired with Kirkland. In August of 1775, Wheelock gave Dean his blessing to leave the missionary service and work as an interpreter and Indian agent for the Continental Army. Dean interpreted at several important conferences and, along with Kirkland, was instrumental in convincing the Oneidas to side with the colonies during the Revolution. After the war, Dean continued to work as a liaison between Indian tribes and American governments, especially between the Oneidas and the New York Government. Although one might expect Dean to have protected his adoptive tribe's interests, he did not. Dean was heavily involved in land speculation, and did not see a cooperative future between Indians and Anglo-Americans. He helped New York State acquire massive amounts of Oneida land, and amassed substantial territory for himself in the process. While Dean did not help the Oneidas hold on to their land, he did make some efforts to defend Oneida sovereignty from New York intervention. Dean farmed his land and turned it into the settlement of Westmoreland. He was a prominent citizen in Central New York: he served as a judge and assemblyman and played an important role in establishing the region's trade lines. Occom refers to visiting Dean several times in his later diaries.

Paul, Anthony

Anthony Paul was born in Charlestown, Rhode Island, to Mary and James Paul. His family was a part of the Narragansett peoples who lived in Charlestown. There is not much information detailing Paul's early years, but he is believed to have attended Wheelock's school in Connecticut. It is through this connection that Paul is likely to have met Christiana Occom, daughter of Samson Occom and Mary Fowler. Paul married Christiana in 1777 and, after spending some time in Mohegan, the two settled in Brotherton in 1784. Paul worked as a preacher and helped raise at least six children with Christiana. Occom was fond of his son-in-law, and his journals tell of many happy times visiting the couple, including fishing trips and the day in 1787 when Samson baptized Paul and four of his children. As further indication of Occom's fondness for his son-in-law, he is believed to have left the books and papers that he kept in his New York home with Paul. In 1797, Paul and Christiana left Brotherton to live in Lake George, NY, where they spent the rest of their years.

Folts, Conrad Jacob

Conrad Folts was the son of Jacob Melchert Folts (1710-1808) and Anna Catherine Petrie Folts (1714-1799), who settled in the area around Herkimer, near the Mohawk River in central New York. The Folts were probably part of the large German settlement concentrated around German Flatts. Conrad was a Captain, though the records do not indicate where or whom he served. In the 1780s, when Occom, David Fowler and others from Mohegan and Stockbridge began moving Christian Indians up to the Oneida lands they had been given to settle, Occom met and befriended Folts and his family, who lived close to the settlements of Brothertown and New Stockbridge. On October 21, 1785, Occom recorded the first time he lodged with "one Mr. Folts," a phrase he used to denote this as an initial meeting. By September 11, 1786, however, Occom noted, "put up at my good friends Mr Conrod Fols." He lodged and "tarried" with the family several times during 1787 after visits to and from Brothertown. Folts is buried in the Oakview Cemetery in Frankfort, Herkimer County, NY.

Wympy, Elijah

Elijah Wympy was a prominent Farmington Indian who was instrumental in establishing Brothertown, yet he subsequently led a group that disregarded the primary vision of the community. In his early years he was a student at the school in Farmington, CT, and in 1757 he served in the Seven Years’ War. During negotiations around 1773 between the Oneida and New England Indians concerning a tract of land, Wympy acted as a delegate for Farmington and asked other tribes to send envoys too. The Oneidas granted the territory the following year, and in 1775 Wympy was among the first to move to what became Brothertown. He was chosen as a trustee of the town in 1785, but around this time the Oneidas attempted to reclaim the land. Accordingly, Wympy participated in the effort to maintain the territory. Fortunately, when the state of New York gained Oneida territory in 1788, it acknowledged the Christian Indians’ right to the tract as it had originally been granted; the state passed an act in 1789 that recognized the Indians’ property and instituted a 10-year limit on leases for lots. Wympy and his followers, comprised mainly of outsiders, thus leased numerous parcels, including invaluable ones, to white settlers. Occom strongly opposed this and petitioned the Assembly, which passed an act in 1791 restricting the power to lease lands to the council. While Occom and Wympy had previously been friends -- Wympy had even partaken in the movement to establish Occom as the local minister -- their disagreement on the issue of leasing Brothertown lands to whites opened a strong divide between them. Wympy apparently regretted his actions, for in 1794 he was among the signers of an address to the governor seeking to remove the whites. He remained in Brothertown until his death around 1802.

Fowler, David

David Fowler was Jacob Fowler's older brother, Samson Occom's brother-in-law, and an important leader of the Brothertown Tribe. He came to Moor's in 1759, at age 24, and studied there until 1765. While at school, he accompanied Occom on a mission to the Six Nations in 1761. He was licensed as a school master in the 1765 mass graduation, and immediately went to the Six Nations to keep school, first at Oneida and then at Kanawalohale. Fowler saw himself as very close to Wheelock, but their relationship fragmented over the course of Fowler's mission, primarily because Wheelock wrote back to Kirkland, with whom Fowler clashed, but not to Fowler, and because Wheelock refused to reimburse Fowler for some expenses on his mission (767667.4 provides the details most clearly). Fowler went on to teach school at Montauk, and played a major role in negotiations with the Oneidas for the lands that became Brothertown. He was among the first wave of immigrants to that town, and held several important posts there until his death in 1807.

Fowler, Jacob

Jacob Fowler was a Montauk Indian whose life was dramatically shaped by Samson Occom, his brother-in-law. Occom taught Jacob when he was a child, and in 1762, Jacob followed his older brother David Fowler to Moor's. After three years he was approved as an usher in the 1765 examination, and in 1766 he went to assist Samuel Johnson at Canajoharie. He taught among the Six Nations until at least mid-1767. In early 1770, Occom procured him a job teaching at Mushantuxet through the Boston Board of the Society in Scotland for Propagating Christian Knowledge. Jacob taught and preached among the Pequots at Mushantuxet and Stonington until 1774, when Wheelock hired him to teach at Moor's, which had relocated to Hanover, NH as a complement to Dartmouth College. During this time, Jacob also assisted Joseph Johnson with efforts to rally the New England Christian tribes for a move to Oneida territory (the Brothertown Movement). By 1776, there were no Indians enrolled in Moor's and Jacob moved on to serve Governor John Trumbull of CT as a messenger to the Six Nations during the Revolution. After the Revolution, he continued organizing the Brothertown Movement and was among those who initially emigrated in 1784. He was elected clerk at Brothertown, and died sometime in the spring of 1787.

Van Wormer, Peter
Simon, Abraham

Abraham Simon was a Narragansett Moor’s student who played a prominent role in Brothertown’s early civic life. Abraham was born in 1750 into the prominent Simon family, a Charlestown Narragansett family that sent five children to Moor’s (James, Emmanuel, Sarah, Abraham, and Daniel). The minister at Groton, Jacob Johnson, recommended Abraham Simon to Wheelock during the Fort Stanwix Congress in 1768 (how Jacob Johnson knew Abraham and why he had brought him to Stanwix is unclear. His ministry was only 30 miles away from Charlestown, so that may have been the connection). Abraham studied at Moor’s from 1768 until 1772, and, with his brother Daniel, was one of the few Indian students to relocate with Wheelock from Connecticut to New Hampshire. In 1772, Abraham made a brief journey on Wheelock’s behalf to the Tuscaroras, who proved uninterested in missionaries or schoolmasters. The next written record of Abraham Simon dates to 1774, when he wrote to Wheelock to inform him that he was going to keep school among the Pequots, which he did for approximately six months. In 1775, he enlisted in the army and served as a medic at Roxbury for at least part of the Revolution. Abraham immigrated to Brothertown in 1783 and was elected to the town’s first council. His house was a center of communal life, and appears many times in Occom’s diary as the location of religious meetings. Abraham died in Brothertown sometime before 1795, when his land was recorded under his widow’s name. Some confusion exists regarding Abraham’s death and burial. In 1925, some Dartmouth students became aware of an Indian named Abraham Symons who had lived in East Haddam, Connecticut, from 1790 until 1812. They assumed that this Abraham Symons was the Narragansett Abraham Simon, and erected a tombstone for him in East Haddam. Had they consulted William DeLoss Love’s account of Brothertown, perhaps they would not have done so. The town of East Haddam remains convinced that Abraham Simon is Abraham Symons, despite the fact that their account of Abraham’s life and connection to East Haddam relies on conflating his life with his brother Daniel Simon’s.

Pauquunnuppeet, Peter

Sir Peter Pauquunnuppeet (there are several variant spellings), a son of an Indian deacon by the same name, was a Stockbridge Mohican Indian and student of Eleazar Wheelock, who studied at Moor’s Indian Charity School from 1771 until 1775, and graduated from Dartmouth College in 1780. Together with Daniel Simon, class of 1777, and Lewis Vincent, class of 1781, he was one of the three Indian students to graduate before the turn of the century, and they became the last native graduates until 1835. The “Sir” that precedes Pohquonnoppeet’s forename originated from his status as a senior in school, and remained a part of his name for the rest of his life. After graduating, Pauquunnuppeet returned to Stockbridge, where he taught school and was involved in tribal affairs. Joseph Quanaukaunt (Quinney) became sachem in 1777, and along with Hendrick Aupaumut and John Konkapot, Pauquunnuppeet was a member of the his council. Pauquunnuppeet was also influential in the Brothertown movement and the founding of New Stockbridge six miles from Brothertown, New York. In 1785, when Americans in New York were driving the Oneidas to cede land that bordered Pennsylvania, Pauquunnuppeet represented the Stockbridge Indians in what became the Treaty of Herkimer. Pauquunnuppeet had an influential friendship with Samson Occom. Occom recorded many occasions in his diary during his missionary tours of 1785-1787 when Peter hosted him, and noted a few instances when they traveled together. Often during Occom’s visits to New Stockbridge Captain Hendrick and Pauquunnuppeet would translate his sermons for those who could not understand English. The Stockbridge Indians favored Occom over the white missionary John Sergeant, Jr., and on August 29, 1787 Pauquunnuppeet was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their devotion and inviting Occom to become their minister. However, the tribe had no means by which to pay Occom, and so, in the winter of 1787 Pauquunnuppeet, Occom, and David Fowler embarked on a fundraising journey through New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. They were not, however, able to raise as much money as they had sought to collect. Pauquunnuppeet’s strong presence within the tribe may have led to his death, although the precise date and circumstances of his decease is unknown. Sectionalism within New Stockbridge was growing due to the friction between those who supported Occom and those who preferred Sergeant, Jr. as their minister. The politics of Brothertown as an independent entity contributed to the tension. Finally, when Hendrick Aupaumet rose to the position of chief, Pauquunnuppeet became the leader of a rival faction. It has been suggested that Pauquunnuppeet’s increasing authority provoked his enemies to poison him.

Fowler, Hannah (née Garrett)

Hannah Fowler (née Garrett) was a Pequot woman who married David Fowler. The Garrett family boasted sachems and interpreters and was influential among the Stonington Pequots. Hannah grew up among the Charlestown Narragansetts, as her parents had affiliated with that tribe (a not-uncommon occurrence, given the close ties between the groups, especially in the realm of Christian spirituality). At Charlestown, Hannah received her basic education and was recruited for Moor’s Indian Charity School. She studied at the school from 1763 until she married David Fowler in 1766. Hannah and David’s marriage is especially noteworthy because it is the only instance where a female Moor’s student married a Native American missionary from Moor’s and joined him on missions — which had been Wheelock’s intent in admitting Native American women in the first place. Hannah assisted David on his mission to Kanawalohale from the time of their marriage in 1766 until his departure for Montauk in 1767. In 1783, the pair moved to Brothertown, where their house was the town center. Both Fowlers proved influential in town affairs, and their children and grandchildren also played a central role in the town’s administration.

Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)

Esther Poquiantup was a Mushantuxet Pequot, the daughter of Samson Poquiantup (Pequot, 1725-1787) and Esther (Mohegan, 1725-1822) and sister of Prude Poquiantup Harry (1752-1828). The Poquiantups (also spelled Pouquenup, Pauhqunnup, Uppuiquiyantup) were a prominent family of Christian Indians with one branch living in Groton and the other at Niantic, CT. In 1766, Samson and Esther were living at Groton. Samson was a church deacon who occasionally hosted Occom's religious meetings. We don't know when Esther married Jacob Fowler, a Montaukett Indian, younger brother of David, and Samson Occom's brother-in-law, but we do know that by 1774, Esther and Jacob were living in Hanover, NH, in a Dartmouth College building down the hall from Elizabeth Walcutt and her daughter Lucy. Jacob, who attended Wheelock's School, had become a preceptor there. Esther and Jacob were part of the first group to emigrate from New England to Brothertown in Oneida country. By 1787, Occom refers to Esther as a widow, and lodges frequently at her house.

Quinney, Widow
Waupieh, Roger

Roger Waupieh was one of the founders of the Brothertown community. In early life, he lived in Stonington and served in the Revolutionary War. The maiden name of Occom's mother, Sarah, was Wauby, suggesting that Occom and Roger Waupieh may have been related. Some sources suggest "Woyboy" as an alternate spelling of Waupieh; Roger Waupieh may have been related to the Woyboy who was an early student at Moor's.

Wauby, Mary
Tuhy, John
Acorrocomb, Andrew
Putchauker, Thomas
Aupaumut, Hendrick

Hendrick Aupaumut, most likely a descendant of the Mohawk chief Hendrick, was a Mahican Indian who was born in Stockbridge, Massachusetts in 1757. He was educated by the Moravians and became very involved in tribal affairs and relations with the United States. Along with other Stockbridge Indians, Aupaumut fought as part of Captain William Goodrich’s company in the Revolutionary War, rising to captain in 1778. In 1777, when Joseph Quanaukaunt became sachem, Aupaumut became a member of his council along with Peter Pohqunnoppeet and John Konkapot. He also became close friends with Samson Occom and would often host the preacher or translate his sermons when the latter visited New Stockbridge, to where the Stockbridges moved in the mid 1780s. In 1787 he was one of nine Indians to write to Occom declaring their faith and asking Occom to become their minster. He was also one of the Indians to sign the proclamation that Occom, Pohqunnooppeet, and David Fowler carried during their tour to raise funds to support Occom as their pastor. By the 1790s, Aupaumut was acting as an agent for the United States. He helped the government combat Tecumseh and his brother Elskwatawa, and he fought under General Harrison in the War of 1812. Both conflicts interrupted the various land deals between tribes, as well as treaties and other negotiations, in which he was involved. Although he encouraged Indians to convert to Christianity and learn English, Aupaumut opposed leasing land to whites. Occom and Aupaumut agreed that the Stockbridges must move west to escape the influence of outside cultures, and to preserve their Christianity. In the 1820s, Aupaumut led land deals with Wisconsin tribes, and he finally moved west in 1829 along with the remainder of the Stockbridge tribe.

Kimball, Jesse

Jesse Kimball was a member of the extensive Kimball family, whose ancestors immigrated from England at the end of the 17th century and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. His father was John Kimball (b. December 12, 1731) of Preston, CT, and his mother was Ruhama Sanders of Lyme, CT; they married on September 21, 1752 and had three sons and 13 daughters. Jesse was the second son. John served in the Revolutionary war and Jesse, though quite young, took the place of his brother Samuel, who contracted measles on the eve of his enlistment. Jesse served three years under Captain Adam Chapley and was stationed in New London, CT. After his service, Jesse moved to the frontier settlement of Bowman's Creek, in the present-day town of Canajoharie in Oneida country, and joined the militia. There he entertained Occom several times on Occom's preaching tours of 1785-87; the two often fished in the creek, to Occom's delight. The date when Kimball's Bowman's Creek house burned down is uncertain, but real estate records have him buying and selling land in Bowman's Creek as late as 1790, and he is listed in the first US Census for New York in 1790 as being the head of a household. His first marriage ended in divorce and in 1793 he married Elizabeth Roelofson (d. 1843). By that time, he had moved to Kentucky, where he was a farmer and miller and started his family. Some records report that he also made whiskey, and when he would not sell it to the local Indians, he was driven from his home and settled in Posey County, Indiana, where he died in 1857.

Romeyn, Thomas

Unidentified Smith.

Cotes, Jonathan Bunyan
Doulin, Polley
Post, John
Alexander, Hughwee
Watts, John
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers1117.ocp M r Mr. John M c Kinny McKinny mentioned McKinny, John
pers1108.ocp Hollenback mentioned Hollenbeck
pers1095.ocp my Daugh daughter Christiana mentioned Paul, Christiana (née Occom)
pers1287.ocp J enney mentioned Hollenback, Jenney
pers1108.ocp m r Mr. Hollenbeck mentioned Hollenbeck
pers0589.ocp M r Mr. Whitney mentioned Whitney
pers1125.ocp M r Mr. John Smith mentioned Smith, John
pers0832.ocp M r Mr. Campell mentioned Camble
pers1109.ocp M r Mr. Kalley mentioned Kalley
pers1411.ocp his wife mentioned Kalley
pers1096.ocp old M r Mr. Concling mentioned Concling
pers1115.ocp M r Mr. M c Carty McCarty mentioned McCarty
pers1095.ocp my Daughter mentioned Paul, Christiana (née Occom)
pers1115.ocp M r Mr. M c carty McCarty mentioned McCarty
pers1103.ocp Siſter Sister Dina mentioned Dina sister
pers1114.ocp old mother Margery mentioned Margery old mother
pers1130.ocp Isaac Tattleton mentioned Tattleton, Isaac
pers1095.ocp my Daughter mentioned Paul, Christiana (née Occom)
pers0832.ocp M r Mr. Campel mentioned Camble
pers1137.ocp James waucus mentioned Waucus, James
pers1121.ocp M r Mr. Powers mentioned Powers
pers1121.ocp Elder Powers mentioned Powers
pers1121.ocp M r Powers mentioned Powers
pers1094.ocp M r Mr. John Smith Carperter mentioned Carperter, John
pers1088.ocp m r Mr. Bacon mentioned Bacon
pers1115.ocp M r Mr. McCarty mentioned McCarty
pers1134.ocp M r Mr. Matt Vanburan mentioned Vanburen, Matt
pers1130.ocp Tattle ton mentioned Tattleton, Isaac
pers1090.ocp M r Mr. Begle mentioned Begle
pers1095.ocp my D daughter mentioned Paul, Christiana (née Occom)
pers1131.ocp M r Mr. Jonathan Thomſon Thomson mentioned Thomson, Jonathan
pers1128.ocp M r Mr. Tomſons Tomsons Son mentioned son, Mr. Thomson's
pers1131.ocp M r Mr. Tomſon Tomson mentioned Thomson, Jonathan
pers0832.ocp m r Mr. Campell mentioned Camble
pers1289.ocp M r Mr. Baker mentioned Baker
pers1105.ocp Cap t Capt. Dunning mentioned Dunning
pers1107.ocp M r Mr. Gregory mentioned Gregory
pers1009.ocp M r Mr. Dake mentioned Deake
pers1023.ocp M r Mr. weed mentioned Weed
pers1092.ocp M r Mr. Cable mentioned Caple
pers1091.ocp M r Mr. Bright mentioned Bright
pers1014.ocp M r Mr. Holms mentioned Holms
pers0400.ocp M r Mr. Otis mentioned Otis
pers0400.ocp M r Mr. otis mentioned Otis
pers0163.ocp m r Mr. Dean mentioned Dean, James
pers1111.ocp M r Mr. Mabee mentioned Mabee
pers1133.ocp Widow Tyger mentioned Tyger
pers1087.ocp our Anthony mentioned Paul, Anthony
pers1137.ocp Jame s Waucus mentioned Waucus, James
pers1122.ocp M r Mr. Prince mentioned Prince
pers1087.ocp Antony Anthony mentioned Paul, Anthony
pers1137.ocp Jamy Jamey mentioned Waucus, James
pers1106.ocp M r Mr. Folt mentioned Folts, Conrad Jacob
pers0721.ocp Elijah Wymp i Wympy mentioned Wympy, Elijah
pers0155.ocp David mentioned Fowler, David
pers0018.ocp Jacob Fowler mentioned Fowler, Jacob
pers1137.ocp James mentioned Waucus, James
pers1106.ocp M r Mr. Fol Folt mentioned Folts, Conrad Jacob
pers1106.ocp M r Mr. Conora d Conrad Fol Folt mentioned Folts, Conrad Jacob
pers0155.ocp David Fowler mentioned Fowler, David
pers0487.ocp Abra m Abraham Simon mentioned Simon, Abraham
pers0487.ocp Abraham: Simon mentioned Simon, Abraham
pers0018.ocp Jacob Fowler mentioned Fowler, Jacob
pers0431.ocp Sir Peter Pauquunnup peets Pauquunnuppeet's mentioned Pauquunnuppeet, Peter
pers0742.ocp Siſter sister Hannah mentioned Fowler, Hannah (née Garrett)
pers1158.ocp Siſter sister Esther mentioned Fowler, Esther (née Poquiantup)
pers1229.ocp Widow Quinny mentioned Quinney, Widow
pers1139.ocp Brother Roger mentioned Waupieh, Roger
pers1489.ocp his wife mentioned Wauby, Mary
pers1139.ocp Roger mentioned Waupieh, Roger
pers0018.ocp J: Fowler mentioned Fowler, Jacob
pers1139.ocp Roger waupieh mentioned Waupieh, Roger
pers0721.ocp Elijah Wympy mentioned Wympy, Elijah
pers1132.ocp John Tuhy mentioned Tuhy, John
pers0487.ocp Abraham Simon mentioned Simon, Abraham
pers1085.ocp Andrew Acorrocomb mentioned Acorrocomb, Andrew
pers1123.ocp Thoma s Putchauker mentioned Putchauker, Thomas
pers0431.ocp Sir Peter Pauqunnuppeets Pauquunnuppeet's mentioned Pauquunnuppeet, Peter
pers0257.ocp Cap t Capt. Hindreck Hendrick mentioned Aupaumut, Hendrick
pers0155.ocp Brother David mentioned Fowler, David
pers1106.ocp M r Mr. Fols Folt mentioned Folts, Conrad Jacob
pers0924.ocp Cap t Capt. Roof mentioned Roof
pers1110.ocp Esq r Esq. C Kimbets Kimball's mentioned Kimball, Jesse
pers0704.ocp Doc r Dr. White mentioned White
pers1113.ocp Esq r Esq. Manbee mentioned Maybee
pers1087.ocp Anto ny Anthony Paul mentioned Paul, Anthony
pers0721.ocp Elijah Wympeh Wympy mentioned Wympy, Elijah
pers1135.ocp M r Mr. P eter Van Wormer mentioned Van Wormer, Peter
pers1066.ocp Rev d Rev. M r Mr. Romine Romeyn mentioned Romeyn, Thomas
pers0163.ocp M r Mr. Dean mentioned Dean, James
pers1118.ocp M r Mr. Meſsenger Messenger mentioned Messenger
pers0499.ocp M. r Mr. Smith mentioned Smith
pers1008.ocp M r Coffin mentioned Coffin
pers1118.ocp M r Mr. Meſanger Messenger mentioned Messenger
pers0499.ocp M r Mr. S m ith mentioned Smith
pers1086.ocp Alexander mentioned Alexander, Hughwee
pers1086.ocp M r Mr. Hughwee Alexander mentioned Alexander, Hughwee
pers1118.ocp M r Mr. Meſenger Messenger mentioned Messenger
pers1098.ocp M r Mr. Cullock mentioned Cullock
pers1118.ocp M r Mr. Meſengers Messenger's mentioned Messenger
pers1136.ocp Warran mentioned Warran
pers1116.ocp M r Mr. M c Larran Mc Larran mentioned McLarran
pers1136.ocp m r Mr. Warran mentioned Warran
pers1288.ocp M r Mr. William Kalley mentioned Kalley, William
pers1097.ocp Jonathan Bunyan Cotes mentioned Cotes, Jonathan Bunyan
pers1104.ocp Polley Doulin mentioned Doulin, Polley
pers0400.ocp m r Mr. Otis mentioned Otis
pers1124.ocp m r Mr. Shooter mentioned Shooter
pers0922.ocp M r Mr. Poſt Post mentioned Post, John
pers1119.ocp M rs Mrs. Poſt Post mentioned Post
pers1462.ocp M r Mr. Sharewood mentioned Sharewood
pers0872.ocp M r Woods mentioned Wood
pers0454.ocp M r Mr. Rogers mentioned Rogers
pers0683.ocp Doc r Dr. Watts mentioned Watts, John
pers0129.ocp M r Mr. Clarke mentioned Clark
pers1462.ocp M r Mr. Sharewoods mentioned Sharewood
pers0129.ocp M r Mr. Clark mentioned Clark
pers0129.ocp M r Mr. Cl e ark mentioned Clark
pers1018.ocp M r Mr. Nothrop mentioned Northrop

Places identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
place0001.ocp A b lbany Albany
place0001.ocp Albany Albany
place0468.ocp Loudens d Ferry Loudens Ferry
place0172.ocp the River Hudson River
place0470.ocp Saratoga Saratoga
place0471.ocp Still Waters Stillwater Stillwater
place0172.ocp the River Hudson River
place0172.ocp River Hudson River
place0471.ocp Still waters Stillwater Stillwater
place0172.ocp North River Hudson River
place0363.ocp Ball Town Ballston Ballston
place0429.ocp 5000. Aires 5000 Aires
place0432.ocp Galaway Galway Galway
place0164.ocp New London New London
place0469.ocp Mohauk Mohawk River Mohawk River
place0467.ocp Caukunnawaka Caughnawaga Caughnawaga
place0472.ocp Vuders Vedder's a Dutch Tavern Vedder's, a Dutch Tavern
place0023.ocp New Settlement Brothertown
place0165.ocp their Town Stockbridge
place0179.ocp old onoyda Oneida Oneida
place0023.ocp the Town Brothertown
place0023.ocp Brotherton Brothertown Brothertown
place0023.ocp Eeyawquittoowaucon nuck Brothertown
place0023.ocp this Town Brothertown
place0476.ocp Bomens Bowman's Creek Bowman's Creek
place0469.ocp Mohauk Mohawk River Mohawk River
place0467.ocp Cacanawaka Caughnawaga Caughnawaga
place0432.ocp Gallaway Galway Galway
place0544.ocp Smith Field Smith Field
place0202.ocp Scenactady Schenactady Schenectady
place0429.ocp 5000 Acres 5000 Aires

Organizations identified in this document:

id Text in document Authorized Name
org0075.ocp onoydasOneidas Oneida Nation
org0121.ocp Stockbridgers Stockbridge Tribe
org0121.ocp Stocbrid gersStockbridgers Stockbridge Tribe
org0121.ocp Stockbridge Indians Stockbridge Tribe
org0037.ocp DartmuthDartmouth DCollege Dartmouth College
org0121.ocp Stockbridge Indians Stockbridge Tribe
org0121.ocp Stock bridgers Stockbridge Tribe
org0152.ocp UniverſaliſtUniversalist Universalist Church
org0124.ocp BaptiſtBaptist Baptists/Seventh Day Baptists

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1785-10-04 Oct. 4, to Dec. 4.
1785 1785
1785-10-04 OctrOctober 4
1785-10-05 WedneſdayWednesday OctrOctober 5
1785-10-06 ThirdsdayThursday OctorOctober 6:
1785-10-17 FrydayFriday octrOctober 17:
1785-10-09 Saturday OctrOctober 9:
1785-10-09 Sabbath OctrOctober 9
1785-10-10 Monday OctrOctober 10
1785-10-11 TueſdayTuesday OctrOctober 11:
1785-10-12 WedneſdayWednesday OctrOctober 12:
1785-10-13 ThirdsdayThursday OctrOctober 13
1785-10-14 FrydayFriday OctrOctober 14:
1785-10-15 Saturday OctrOctober 15
1785-10-18 Sabbath OctrOctober 16:
1785-10-17 Monday OctrOctober 17:
1785-10-18 TueſdayTuesday OctrOctober 18
1785-10-19 WedneſdayWednesday OctrOctober 19
1785-10-20 ThirdsdayThursday Oct.rOctober 20
1785-10-21 FrydayFriday OctrOctober 21
1785-10-22 Saturday octrOctober 22
1785-10-23 Sabbath OctrOctober 23:
1785-10-24 Monday OctrOctober 24
1785-10-25 TueſdayTuesday OctrOctober 25
1785-10-26 WedneſdayWednesday OctrOctober 26:
1785-10-27 ThirdsdayThursday OctorOctober 27
1785-10-28 FrydayFriday OctorOctober 28
1785-10-29 FrydayFriday OctrOctober 29
1785-10-29 Saturday OctrOctober 29
1785-10-30 Sabbath OctrOctober 30
1785-11-03 ThirdsdayThursday NovrNovember 3: 1785
1785-11-14 FrydayFriday NovrNovember 4
1785-11-06 Sab:Sabbath NovrNovember6
1785-11-07 Monday NovrNovember 67
1785-11-08 TueſdayTuesday — NovrNovember 8
1785-11-09 WedneſdayWednesday NovrNovember 9
1785-05 may
1785-11-13 Sab,Sabbath Nov.rNovember 13
1785-11-14 Monday NovrNovember 14
1785-11-15 TueſdayTuesday NovrNovember 15
1785-11-16 WedneſdayWednesday NovrNovember 16
1785-11-17 ThirdsdayThursday 17
1785-11-18 FrydayFriday NovrNovember 18
1785-11-19 Saturday NovrNovember 19
1785-11-20 Sabb.Sabbath Nov rNovember 2
1785-11-21 Monday NovrNovember 21
1785-11-12 TueſdayTuesday NovrNovember 22
1785-11-23 WedneſdayWednesday NovrNovember 23
1785-11-24 ThidsThursday NovrNovember 24
1785-11-25 FrydayFriday NovrNovember 25
1785-11-26 Saturday NovrNovember 26
1785-11-27 Sab.Sabbath NovrNovember 27
1785-11-28 Monday NovrNovember 28
1785-11-29 TueſdayTuesday NovrNovember 29
1785-11-30 WedneſdayWednesday NovrNovember 30
1785-12-01 ThirdsdayThursday DecemrDecember 1: 1785
1785-12-02 FrydayFriday DecerDecember 2
1785-12-03 Saturday DecrDecember 3
1785-12-04 Sabb:Sabbath DecrDecember 4

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
modernization Tueſday Tuesday
modernization faſt fast
variation turnd turned
modernization Mr Mr.
modernization McKinny McKinny
variation Tervern tavern
variation Raind rained
variation extream extreme
variation Catcht caught
modernization juſt just
modernization moſt most
variation Inqured inquired
variation Coud could
variation deſird desired
variation Baptiſe baptize
variation Sabath Sabbath
variation Examend examined
variation knowledg knowledge
modernization Baptiſm baptism
variation Cus
variation Faſhon fashion
modernization promiſe promise
variation in deed indeed
modernization Conſented consented
variation Some Time sometime
variation Baptiſed baptized
modernization Bleſsed blessed
variation Lodgd Lodged
modernization Houſe house
variation intertaind entertained
modernization Wedneſday Wednesday
variation till 'til
modernization mr Mr.
variation Sot set
variation of off
variation coud could
variation Lodgd lodged
variation agreable agreeable
variation Thirdsday Thursday
modernization becausſe because
modernization Neſ Nes
variation Fryday Friday
variation S[above] ttopt s[above] ttopped
variation Sev[above] elely several
variation frinds friends
variation Still Waters Stillwater
variation Stopt Stopped
variation offer[above] dd offered
variation acepted accepted
modernization Miniſter minister
variation Shatterd shattered
variation inquried inquired
modernization Duſk dusk
modernization Breakfaſt breakfast
modernization McCarty McCarty
variation Sot sat
modernization underſtood understood
modernization eaſt east
modernization Cloſe close
variation a foot afoot
modernization Horſe horse
modernization Mccarty McCarty
variation after noon afternoon
modernization Siſter Sister
variation no body nobody
variation bout but
variation hom home
variation Some Time
modernization reſt rest
modernization preſervation preservation
variation Still waters Stillwater
variation a bout about
variation tryed tried
modernization firſt first
modernization deſired desired
variation a long along
variation woud would
modernization laſt last
modernization aſked asked
modernization Suppoſe suppose
modernization Surpriſed surprised
variation Congre
variation bigeſt biggest
modernization diſcourſe discourse
variation Jona Jonah
modernization verſe verse
variation Cari
modernization tender
modernization Friendſhip friendship
variation Crouded crowded
variation the they
variation beliv believe
variation tho though
variation preachd preached
modernization Chriſtians Christians
variation Some what somewhat
variation Elivated elevated
variation belive believe
variation intermiſtion intermission
variation Solmnly solemnly
variation entertaind entertained
modernization Converſation conversation
modernization Conver
variation geting getting
modernization preſently presently
variation Calld called
variation Sun Sit sunset
modernization Conſiderable considerable
variation Stayd stayed
modernization reſted rested
modernization Thomſon Thomson
modernization Tomſons Tomsons
modernization Tomſon Tomson
modernization Horſes horses
variation diſmiſt dismissed
modernization Exer
variation diſperſt dispersed
variation Ball Town Ballston
modernization Capt Capt.
variation Travils travels
variation Danile Daniel
modernization &c etc.
modernization weſt west
variation preatchd preached
variation aquaintaince acquaintance
variation lodgd lodged
variation Deſird desired
modernization goſpel gospel
variation performd performed
variation ofice office
variation ta[above] llke talk
variation a while awhile
variation Convincd convinced
variation diſſiſted desisted
modernization Break
modernization worſhip worship
variation Aſembly assembly
modernization Exerciſe exercise
modernization exerciſe exercise
variation prayd prayed
variation Galaway Galway
variation miſ[above] tt missed
modernization loſt lost
variation diſagre
variation obligd obliged
modernization miſsing missing
modernization muſt must
variation beyound beyond
modernization Expreſsion expression
modernization miſs miss
variation finaly finally
modernization kind
variation Sot Sat
variation Peacabl[illegible]y peaceably
variation Mohauk Mohawk
variation Caukunnawaka Caughnawaga
variation Vuders Vedder's
variation Sot Set
modernization Southſide southside
modernization Noſe nose
variation kep kept
modernization Esqr Esq.
variation Day light daylight
variation puſhd pushed
modernization breakfaſt breakfast
modernization Juſt just
modernization Houſes houses
variation Antony Anthony
variation Jamy Jamey
variation octr October
variation Wymp[above] ii Wympy
variation thro through
modernization becauſe because
modernization miſty misty
variation taried tarried
variation Fol Folt
variation Octr October
variation Conora[illegible]d Conrad
variation extream
variation over taken overtaken
variation Hamlock hemlock
variation travild traveled
variation arrivd arrived
variation approach'd approached
variation Sining singing
modernization Pſalms psalms
modernization Gladneſs gladness
modernization Greateſt greatest
modernization leaſt least
modernization praiſed praised
modernization goodneſs goodness
variation onoydas Oneidas
variation ancle ankle
modernization Poſh posh
variation foul full
variation wheather weather
variation litte little
variation puting putting
modernization yeſterday yesterday
variation pleaſent pleasant
variation begeſt biggest
variation lookd looked
variation difer defer
modernization ſ s
modernization huſked husked
modernization Huſkers huskers
variation finiſhd finished
variation diſpa[above] rrſed dispersed
modernization diſtance distance
variation Mathew Matthew
modernization wedneſday Wednesday
variation Confind confined
variation wren[above] ttch wrenched
variation antient ancient
variation ordernace ordinance
variation marrage marriage
variation Selebra
modernization wildirneſs wilderness
variation Cupple couple
variation Weding wedding
modernization Proceſsion procession
modernization alſo also
modernization themſelves themselves
variation Stocbrid
variation Marrage marriage
variation Ho
modernization Lawfulneſs lawfulness
variation diſtin
modernization Chriſt Christ
modernization Diſciples disciples
variation mericle miracle
variation wroght wrought
variation orderd ordered
modernization Huſband husband
variation Mariage marriage
modernization Maſter master
variation Sereimonies
variation a Round around
variation Totty toddy
modernization Wilderneſs wilderness
modernization Carouſing carousing
variation Frollicin[above] gg frolicking
variation Novr November
modernization beſt best
variation Cloaths clothes
modernization Horſe back horseback
variation Pleaſent pleasant
variation after Noon afternoon
variation wed
variation Caried carried
variation onoyda Oneida
variation Pauquunnup[above] peetspeets Pauquunnuppeet's
variation Dartmuth Dartmouth
variation receivd received
modernization kindneſs kindness
modernization diſ
modernization Joſhua Joshua
modernization roſe rose
modernization diſ
modernization Siſter sister
variation Sun Riſe sunrise
variation Sotpt stopped
modernization Buſineſs business
variation in [above] toto into
variation Poli
variation Brotherton Brothertown
modernization choſen chosen
variation Clarke clerk
modernization Choſen chosen
modernization Truſtees trustees
variation Vewers viewers
variation Centre center
modernization Eaſt East
modernization Croſs cross
variation every one everyone
modernization amongſt amongst
modernization faſting fasting
modernization aſsiſt assist
modernization Deſign design
modernization Confeſs confess
modernization deſire desire
modernization Bleſsing blessing
modernization Proſper prosper
modernization bleſs bless
variation Prover Proverbs
modernization Faſt fast
variation afected affected
variation Barr bar
variation adviſd advised
variation Councel counsel
modernization enſusing ensuing
modernization diſperſe disperse
modernization ad[above] vviſing advising
modernization uſe use
variation out breakings outbreakings
modernization Drunkeneſs drunkeness
variation diſperſd dispersed
variation Pauqunnuppeets Pauquunnuppeet's
modernization Break‐
variation Hindreck Hendrick
modernization Buſhels bushels
variation Cabage cabbage
variation Paſnips parsnips
variation Beats beets
modernization beſides besides
variation Plowd plowed
variation ly lie
modernization paſt past
variation pa[above] rrhaps perhaps
modernization raiſed raised
modernization paſsel passel
variation Nov.r November
variation Preachd preached
variation homward homeward
variation Sun riſe sunrise
variation Sat set
modernization a
variation Fols Folt
modernization Esqur Esq.
variation Stopet stopped
variation Bomens Bowman's
variation Kimbets Kimball's
modernization Docr Dr.
variation Anto
modernization Seriousneſs seriousness
variation Wympeh Wympy
modernization Revd Rev.
variation Romine Romeyn
variation Cacanawaka Caughnawaga
variation Shoud should
modernization Diſcourſe discourse
variation Sit set
variation froſe froze
variation Gallaway Galway
variation Con
modernization Serious
modernization Meſsenger Messenger
modernization Deſert desert
modernization M.r Mr.
modernization Univerſaliſt Universalist
modernization Conver
modernization diſagreed disagreed
variation Meſanger Messenger
variation biggoted bigoted
variation Verſton version
variation Extreamly extremely
variation Meſenger Messenger
modernization Con
variation reſignd resigned
modernization Worſhip worship
variation Meſengers Messenger's
variation viſet visit
variation wellcomd welcomed
modernization Baptiſt Baptist
modernization Mc
modernization Converſa
variation be[illegible]d Time bedtime
variation Joh John
modernization preſence presence
variation aſseſtan[above] [illegible][guess (h-dawnd): c]c[illegible][guess (h-dawnd): c]c assistance
variation en‐
modernization Break
variation weding wedding
variation Cup
modernization Cheeſe cheese
variation Wedendners weddeners
modernization Courſe course
variation Scenactady Schenactady
modernization Poſt Post
modernization Mrs Mrs.
variation payd paid
modernization viſited visited
variation appeard appeared
modernization underſtanding understanding
variation Experiencd experienced
variation Ireiſh Irish
variation pleaſd pleased
variation Prayd prayed
variation returnd returned
variation Some thing something
modernization Chriſtian Christian
modernization Converſable conversable
modernization underſtand understand
variation Slead sled
modernization Vaſt vast
variation Isaah Isaiah
variation perſwaded persuaded
variation the there
variation Loddgd lodged

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
Octr October
Famy family
Daugh daughter
D– dinner
Octor October
octr October
recevd received
ab about
Dinr dinner
m– meeting
H– house
& and
meetg meeting
extrea extremely
Call'd called
Nr number
D daughter
Bre breakfast
H hour
Stay'd stayed
Matt Matthew
entertain'd entertained
apper'd appeared
appear'd appeared
qrs quarters
receiv'd received
preach'd preached
gen Genesis
Breakft breakfast
Oct.r October
reach'd reached
thro' through
Rain'd rained
Morng morning
rench'd wrenched
Abra[above] mm Abraham
gather[above] dd gathered
tho' though
hadpen'd happened
Novr November
pray[above] dd prayed
Sweeten'd sweetened
Peopl people
appear[above] dd appeared
finiſh'd finished
Sab: Sabbath
Morg morning
Saturd Saturday
Sab, Sabbath
Sabb. Sabbath
Nov r November
apear'd appeared
wou'd would
Thids Thursday
Sab. Sabbath
even–g evening
Joh. John
Totty toddy
wou[above] dd would
Decemr December
Decer December
Decr December
Sabb: Sabbath
H house
Peo people

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Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 191)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 243)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 87)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 363)
HomeSamson Occom, journal, 1785 October 4 to 1786 December 4
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