Skip to main content
 Previous Next
  • Zoom In (+)
  • Zoom Out (-)
  • Rotate CW (r)
  • Rotate CCW (R)
  • Overview (h)

Quick Views

View Options



Color Key

block letters
gap/damage: +++++
unclear: #####
alternate readings
hidden markup
[note: ....]
added text
deleted text
[date 'when' attribute]
[person, place or org. id]
John Sauk, letter, to unknown, 1775 July 10

ms-number: 775410

[note (type: abstract): John Sauk, a former Moor's student, writes in an Indian language, likely Mohawk.][note (type: handwriting): Handwriting is small and mostly clear and legible; however, some letters and words are difficult to decipher.][note (type: paper): Single sheet is in good condition, with light staining, creasing and wear.][note (type: ink): Brown-black.][note (type: noteworthy): Given that John Sauk was from the Mohawk town of Kahnawake[place0043.ocp], this letter is likely in an 18th-century form of Mohawk. Because of this, and because the letter is not completely legible, no transcription has been attempted. Under the trailer on one verso, an editor, likely 19th-century, has added the note "Indian." This note has not been transcribed.]
[note (type: editorial): No transcription.]
From [J.n | John]J.nJohn [Sauck | Sauk]SauckSauk[pers0463.ocp].
July 10, 1775[1775-07-10]

Settled by Mohawk immigrants from eastern New York state, Kahnawake is a village located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence river in Quebec, Canada, across from Montreal. One of several reserves of the Mohawk tribe in Canada, Kahnawake remained part of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and was also considered one of the Seven Nations of Canada. In 1664, French Jesuits from New France established a mission in Caughnagawa, one of four "castles" or populous fortified villages along the Mohawk River, and began teaching the inhabitants French and converting them to Catholicism. In 1667, a band of Mohawks under French influence left their traditional land and settled south of Montreal, establishing a village they named Caughnawaga after their home in New York. This village, also the site of a Jesuit mission, became known as Kahnawake. The name Caughnawaga derives from a Mohawk word meaning place of the rapids; Kahnawake, like its namesake, is close to the Lachine Rapids of the St. Lawrence River. Among the migrants was Kateri Tekakwitha, a young Mohawk convert who in 1993 was canonized as a saint of the Catholic Church. New France garrisoned the village as a defense of Montreal, which fell to the British in 1759. Several envoys from Kahnawake attended the important Congress at Fort Stanwix in 1768, which produced a treaty between the British and the Six Nations that substantially increased British territory much further west and set the stage for the next round of hostilities along the Ohio River. After the Six Nations removed all their students from Wheelock's Indian school in 1769, Wheelock began recruiting students from Canada, including Mohawk and mixed race boys (the sons of white captives adopted into the tribe) from Kahnawake. Joseph Brant, an influential Mohawk chief (and graduate of Wheelock's School), had urged the Haudenosaunee to support the British in the Revolutionary War; after the British defeat Brant fled the newly formed U.S. and settled in Kahnawake, where the British were discouraging Native students from attending Wheelock's school.

Sauk, John
Document Summary

People identified in this document:

id Text in document Role in header Authorized Name
pers0463.ocp J. n John Sauck Sauk writer Sauk, John

This document does not contain any tagged places.

This document does not contain any tagged organizations.

Dates identified in this document:

Standard Form Text
1775-07-10 July 10, 1775

Regularized text:

Type Original Regularized
variation Sauck Sauk

Expanded abbreviations:

Abbreviation Expansion
J.n John

This document's header does not contain any mixed case attribute values.

Summary of errors found in this document:

Number of dates with invalid 'when' attributes: 0
Number of nested "hi" tags: (consider merging the @rend attributes, or using other tags) 0
Number of tags with invalid 'rend' attributes: 0 (out of 1)
Number of people/places/organizations with unknown keys: 0 (out of 1)
Number of "add" tags with unknown 'place' attributes: 0 (out of 0)
Mixed case attribute values in header (potential error): 0 (out of 81)
HomeJohn Sauk, letter, to unknown, 1775 July 10
 Text Only
 Text & Inline Image
 Text & Image Viewer
 Image Viewer Only